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  • HBEC 1203 Cognitive Development (Perkembangan kognitif)Hawa Rahmat013 3836578

  • Topic 1: An Introduction to Cognitive DevelopmentDefinisi:Bidang psychology yang mengkhusus kepada mental processes perception (persepsi), concept formation, problem solving, reasoning, decision making, language & memory

  • Perlu faham makna concept:

    Sebab concept/konsep adalah sebahagian daripada hidup kita. Kita berfikir, beriteraksi dan melakukan sesuatu perkara dengan memahami akan sesuatu konsep itu. Contoh: seseorang yang boleh menghias rumahnya dengan konsep english style kerana dia faham konsep itu. Orang yang melihat juga akan tahu ia adalah english style kerana orang itu juga tahu. Sekiranya tuan rumah tidak tahu apakah konsep itu sudah tentu dia tidak dapat menghias rumahnya. Begitu juga orang yang melihat, sudah tentu dia tidak memahaminya

  • Apa itu Concepts?

    The basic unit of thinking (Aktiviti berfikir paling asas)

    General categories of events or qualities that are linked by some common feature or features in spite of their differencesKategori umum tentang kualiti sesuatu benda/sifat/sesuatu perkara/event yang dihubungkan dengan beberapa ciri persamaan atau ciri-ciri biasa disebalik kelainan jenisnya

  • Example (1) Vehicle: (Apakah ciri2 yang sama kepada vehicle/kenderaan walaupun berlainan jenis?)

  • Example (2) Screw Driver(Apakah ciri2 yang sama kepada screw driver walaupun berlainan jenis dan warna?)

  • Concepts without intuitions are empty, and intuitions without concepts are blind Kant (1971/1968):

    We need both for proper judgmentA proper judgement involved cognition - Cognitive abilities associated with memory, reasoning, problem-solving and thinking - continue to emerge throughout childhood

  • Untuk memahami concept dalam perkembangan kognitive, kita perlu tahu1. Cognitive theme (tema kognitif)- Cog. dev. berkait dgn kematangan/keupayaan untuk berfikir dan faham. Jadi perlu faham tema2 spt didalam buku

    Flavell (1971) noted four key implications of the stage conceptFirst: Qualitative changes.Second: Concurrence assumption.Third: Abruptness assumption.Fourth: Coherent organization.

  • Untuk memahami concept dalam perkembangan kognitive, kita perlu tahu2. Stage concept banyak teori dalam cog dev menyetujui bahawa perkembangan kognitif berlaku secara berperingkat mengikut peringkat tersendiri ada 4 stages (flavell, 1971)3. Time and accuracy measures ukuran tingkah laku dalam cog dev adalah 1. Response time (RT) mengukur masa diantara rangsangan dan tindakbalas terhadap nya uji kepantasan dan mental2. Accuracy performance

  • Untuk memahami concept dalam perkembangan kognitive, kita perlu tahu4. Process model model skala kecil yang outline mental steps dan membuat jangkaan akan sesuatu perkara yg dikajiAssumption:Sequential stages of processing setiap stage berlaku sekali mengikut tahap yg tertentuIndependent and non-overlapping stages- setiap perlakuan/pemikiran ygberlaku perlu selesai sblm berganjak ke stage seterusnyaParallel processing- bebrapa mental proceses berkalu serentakConceptually-driven processing top-down (besar ke kecil)Data-driven processing bottom up (beberapa perkara kecil ke besar)Contextual effects persekitaran mempengaruhi pemikiran

  • History and issues of cognitive developmentEarly Psychology (baca buku)The weber-fechners law of human perceptionBroca-wernickle linguistic brain regionsHerman ludwings HelmholtzWilhem wundtWilliam jamesHerman von EbbinghausEdward titchenerEdward TolmanWomen psychologists

  • History and issues of cognitive developmentEmerging Cognition & Cognitive psychology- Gestalt PsychologyMax wertheimer (1912)The whole is greater than the sum of its part

  • History and issues of cognitive development-Information processing perspectiveFocused on four change mechanisms that seem to play large roles in cognitive development: automatisation, encoding, generalisation and strategy construction.

  • History and issues of cognitive development-Cognitive development viewpointsThe associationist perspective: infants come into the world with only minimal capabilities, primarily the ability to associate experiences with each other.The constructivist perspective: infants are born possessing not only these associative capabilities but also several important perceptual and motor capabilities.Piagetian: Piaget suggested that the basic mechanisms that produce all cognitive changes are assimilation and accommodation.Binet-Simon test is an intelligence test to distinguish between a childs chronological age (CA) and the childs mental age (MA).

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