kumpulan 2 topic 5(1-22)

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    Topic 5

    CREATING A CULTURE

    FRIENDLY CLASSROOM

    ENVIRONMENT

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    Relationships among ethnic

    Creating acceptance among the diverse ethnic

    groups.

    Acceptance towards each others cultural and

    ethnic difference.

    Appreciate each others differences

    Respect each others strengths andweaknesses

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    Creating a United Malaysia

    The idea of creating a Bangsa Malaysia byfourth prime minister, Dr Mahathir.

    i. Emphasis on economic development

    ii. Create a united Malaysian which is ethnicallyintegrated and harmonious, a liberal andtolerant society

    iii. Respect each others creeds and customs Idea of slogan one malaysia

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    Roles of teachers

    Learn and understand about different cultures forignorance may lead to intolerance.

    Encourage a multicultural view and perspective inthe students minds by embedding elements ofdifferent cultures in the curriculum.

    Bring students together by having a variety ofcross-cultural activities which enable students toappreciate each others cultures.

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    Adopt and adapt varieties of instructional approaches

    to meet the needs of students from various cultural

    groups.

    Building relationship among students from diverse

    ethnic groups on the basis of understanding and

    appreciation. Avoid racist comments

    believe in the importance of creating a healthy

    multicultural environment which treats everyone as

    equals.

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    Concept, Purpose and Components

    in the Management of a Culture-

    Friendly Classroom Environment

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    Physical Components

    infrastructure and physical facilities

    to create a conducive teaching and learning

    environment in a classroom with students of

    diverse ethnic groups.

    physical arrangement can affect the behavior

    of both students and teachers

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    Concept and Purpose

    Fred Steele (1973, cited in Modul PGSR, 2010)

    mentioned that "the effects of physical

    settings in a classroom is a setting for social

    interaction, symbolic identification, growth,

    security, shelter and pleasure".

    students sit can help in the interaction

    between students from different lingustic andcultural backgrounds

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    Among some of the criteria that a

    teacher should give consideration are:

    The arrangement of tables and chairs suitable

    for students and can be modified

    according to the needs of the activity.

    Have good lighting and ventilation.

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    Paint the walls with cheerful colors and soft

    hues.

    Installing curtains with vibrant color, light and

    soft.

    Safety guaranteed such as fire plans and fire

    extinguishers.

    Reading/learning/Multimedia corners

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    Socioemotional Management

    According to Woolfolk (1990 cited in Modul

    PGSR, 2010), motivation or the internal drive

    of an individual arouses, directs and controls

    the individuals behaviour.

    The teacher should be sensitive to these

    needs and thus create a conducive

    environment to foster the development ofsocioemotional relationship among students.

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    Stage Basic Conflict Important Events OutcomeInfancy (birth to 18

    months) Trust vs. Mistrust FeedingChildren develop a sense of

    trust when caregivers

    provide reliabilty, care, and

    affection. A lack of this will

    lead to mistrust.Early Childhood (2 to 3

    years) Autonomy vs. Shame andDoubt Toilet TrainingChildren need to develop a

    sense of personal control

    over physical skills and a

    sense of independence.

    Success leads to feelings of

    autonomy, failure results in

    feelings of shame and doubt.Preschool (3 to 5 years) Initiative vs. Guilt Exploration Children need to begin

    asserting control and power

    over the environment.

    Success in this stage leads to

    a sense of purpose. Children

    who try to exert too much

    power experience

    disapproval, resulting in a

    sense of guilt.School Age (6 to 11

    years) Industry vs. Inferiority School Children need to cope withnew social and academicdemands. Success leads to a

    sense of competence, while

    failure results in feelings ofinferiority.

    http://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/trust-versus-mistrust.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/autonomy-versus-shame-and-doubt.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/autonomy-versus-shame-and-doubt.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/initiative-versus-guilt.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/industry-versus-inferiority.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/industry-versus-inferiority.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/initiative-versus-guilt.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/autonomy-versus-shame-and-doubt.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/autonomy-versus-shame-and-doubt.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/trust-versus-mistrust.htm
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    Adolescence (12 to 18

    years) Identity vs. RoleConfusion Social RelationshipsTeens need to develop a sense

    of self and personal identity.

    Success leads to an ability to

    stay true to yourself, while

    failure leads to role confusion

    and a weak sense of self.

    Yound Adulthood (19 to

    40 years) Intimacy vs. Isolation RelationshipsYoung adults need to form

    intimate, loving relationships

    with other people. Success leads

    to strong relationships, while

    failure results in loneliness and

    isolation.Middle Adulthood (40

    to 65 years) Generativity vs.Stagnation Work and ParenthoodAdults need to create or nurture

    things that will outlast them,

    often by having children or

    creating a positive change that

    benefits other people. Success

    leads to feelings of usefulness

    and accomplishment, while

    failure results in shallow

    involvement in the world.Maturity(65 to death) Ego Integrity vs. Despair Reflection on Life Older adults need to look back

    on life and feel a sense of

    fulfillment. Success at this stage

    leads to feelings of wisdom,

    while failure results in regret,

    bitterness, and despair.

    http://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/identity-versus-confusion.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/identity-versus-confusion.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/intimacy-versus-isolation.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/generativity-versus-stagnation.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/generativity-versus-stagnation.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/integrity-versus-despair.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/integrity-versus-despair.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/generativity-versus-stagnation.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/generativity-versus-stagnation.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/generativity-versus-stagnation.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/generativity-versus-stagnation.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/intimacy-versus-isolation.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/identity-versus-confusion.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/identity-versus-confusion.htm
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    Teaching and Learning

    Management

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    Concept of Teaching

    how teachers deliver lessons or knowledge to

    students

    process of preparation, implementation and

    assessment

    systematic plan whereby teachers assist

    students in the learning activities

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    Concept of Learning

    process of building a mental structure and a

    change of behavior with different capabilities

    cognitive point of view - can occur without

    prompt change in behavior

    Mental structural changes occur when there is

    a change in beliefs, expectations and goals

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    Characteristics of Effective Teachers

    facilitator who plays the role as planners,

    managers and implementers

    good command of their subject matter and

    possess effective teaching skills

    excellent instructional strategies supported by

    methods of goal setting, instructional

    planning, and classroom management

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    know how to motivate, communicate, and

    work effectively with students who have

    different levels of skills and come from

    culturally diverse backgrounds

    understand how to use appropriate levels of

    technology in the classroom.

    set appropriate teaching goals

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    Concept of Management of Teaching

    and Learning

    Management involves the processes of

    planning, implementing, evaluating and taking

    iniative to improve the process

    Related to the following aspects:

    - Plan effective teaching and learning for

    students from different cultural backgroun.

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    - Implement teaching and teaching as planned

    and making necessary modifications

    - Evaluate the effectiveness of teaching and

    learning process

    - Take follow-up action based on the evaluation

    and making necessary changes

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    Managing of Teaching and Learning in

    the Multicultural Classroom

    Manager' in the teaching learning process -

    manage the classroom to create a conducive

    teaching and learning environment

    Characteristics of an effective teacher to

    create a conducive and effective teaching and

    learning environment:

    - Stay alert and aware of surrounding situation

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    - Systematic in planning and evaluating

    - Patient in handling students from all

    backgrounds

    - Good time management

    - Be prepared to change and flexible

    - Effective communication- Vision oriented

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    Stages of Management of

    Teaching and Learning

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    Before

    (a) The Use of Teaching Aids

    (b) Selection of Teaching Resources

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    During

    Aspects: achieving the learning outcomes

    the use of appropriate assessment

    procedures inculcation of appropriate cultural values

    creating a physically and psychosocially

    conducive

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    teaching and learning environment for

    students from diverse cultural background

    practising a good disciplinary procedure

    based on students from diverse cultural

    background

    conducting remedial and enrichment classes

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    After

    process of assessment, measurement andevaluation to determine the effectiveness ofteaching

    Evaluation - When we evaluate, we are sayingthat the process will yield informationregarding the worthiness, appropriateness,goodness, validity, legality, etc., of somethingfor which a reliable measurement orassessment has been made

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