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    TOPIC 1: INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY

    1 Diagram 1 shows part of the steps in scientific method.Rajah1 menunjukkan sebahagian langkah-langkah dalam kaedah saintifik.

    Diagram 1Rajah1

    What is step X ?Apakah langkah X ?

    A Making hypothesisMembuat hipotesisB Collecting data

    Mengumpul data

    C Controlling variablesMengawal pemboleh ubah

    D Planning an experimentMerancang eksperimen

    2 Which of the following is the first step in scientific method ?

    A Collecting dataB Making inferenceC Making observationD Controlling variables

    3 The number of protons, electrons and neutrons for atoms P and Q are shown in

    the table below.

    Bilangan ptoton, bilangan elektron dan neutron bagi atom P dan Q ditunjukkan dalam

    jadual di bawah.

    Atom

    Atom

    Number of protons

    Nombor proton

    Number of electrons

    Bilangan electron

    Number of neutrons

    Bilangan neutron

    P 6 6 12

    Q 6 6 14

    Identifying problemMengenal pasti masalah

    X

    Identifying variablesMengenal pasti pemboleh ubah

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    Which statement is true ?

    Both atoms P and Q ..

    Pernyataan manakah yang benar?

    Kedua-dua atom P dan Q..

    A are isotopes

    adalah isotop

    B have the same relative mass

    mempunyai jisim relatif yang sama

    C have similar physical properties

    mempunyai sifat fizik yang sama

    D can react with each other to form a compound

    boleh bertindak balas antara satu sama lain untuk membentuk sebatian

    4 The diagram shows the cooling curve of a molten substance.Diagram menunjukkan lengkung penyejukan bagi suatu bahan leburan.

    Temperature /o

    C

    Suhu

    105 P

    Q R

    80

    30 S

    Time / min

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Masa / min

    Which statements are true?

    Pernyataan manakah yang benar?

    I It is a solid at 40 o C

    Bahan ini adalah pepejal pada 40o

    C

    II Its freezing point is 80oC

    Takat beku bahan ini ialah 80o

    C

    III At point R, it starts to change to the solid state

    Pada titik Q , bahan ini mula bertukar kepada keadaan pepejal

    IV At the sixth minute,the substance is a mixture of the liquid and solid states

    Pada minit keenam, bahan ini merupakan campuran cecair dan pepejal

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    A I and III

    I dan III

    B II and IV

    II dan IV

    C I, II and IV

    I, II dan IVD II, III and IV

    II, III dan IV

    5 The diagram shows the standard representation for chromium.

    Gambarajah menunjukkan perwakilan piawai bagi kromium.

    Which combination is true?

    Gabungan yang manakah benar?

    Proton number Nucleon number Number of

    electrons

    A 24 28 24

    B 24 52 24

    C 28 52 28

    D 52 24 52

    6. Which of the following isotopes is used in archaeology?

    Yang manakah antara isotop berikut digunakan dalam arkeologi?

    A Phosphorus-32

    Fosforus -32

    B Iodine-131

    Iodin-131

    C Carbon-14

    Karbon-14D Cobalt-60

    Kobalt-60

    52

    Cr24

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    7 Diagram 2 shows the electron arrangement of oxygen atom.

    Rajah 2 menunjukkan susunan elektron bagi atom oksigen.

    Diagram 2Rajah 2

    What is the number of valence electron of oxygen atom?Berapakah bilangan elektron valens bagi atom oksigen?

    A 2B 4C 6D 8

    8 Table 3 shows the information about two types of particle.Jadual 3 menunjukkan maklumat bagi dua jenis zarah .

    ParticleZarah

    Proton numberNombor proton

    Electron arrangementSusunan elektron

    ST

    817

    2.82.8.8

    Table 3Jadual 3

    Based on the information in the table , both particles S and T areBerdasarkan maklumat dalam jadual , zarah S dan zarah T adalah

    A noble gasgas adi

    B negative ionsion negatif

    C positive ionsion positif

    D metal atomsatom-atom logam.

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    9 Which is true about relative atomic mass of an element?Manakah benar tentang jisim atom relatif suatu unsur?

    A12-carbonofatomanofmasstheX

    elementanofatomoneofmassaverageThe

    12

    1

    12-karbonatomsatujisimX

    unsuratomsatupurataJisim

    12

    1

    B12-carbonofatomanofmassThe

    elementanofatomoneofmassaverageThe

    12-karbonatomsatuJisim

    unsuratomsatupurataJisim

    C12-carbonofatomanofmasstheX12

    elementanofatomoneofmassaverageThe

    12-karbonatomsatujisimX12

    unsuratomsatupurataJisim

    D12

    1X

    elementanofatomoneofmassaverageThe

    12-carbon

    12

    1X

    unsuratomsatupuratajisim

    12-karbon

    10 Which of the following substances exists as atoms?Antara bahan berikut, yang manakah wujud sebagai atom?

    A

    B

    C

    D

    Carbon

    Oxygen

    Water

    Chlorine

    11 Diagram 2 shows the set-up of apparatus used to investigate diffusion in a solid.

    Rajah 2 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk menyiasat resapan dalam pepejal.

    After a few days, the colourless solid gel turned blue.

    What can we deduce from the above investigation?Selepas beberapa hari, pepejal gel tanpa warna bertukar ke biru.

    Diagram 2

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    Apakah yang dapat disimpulkan daripada penyiasatan di atas?

    A

    B

    C

    D

    Copper(II) sulphate dissolves in the gel

    Kuprum(II) sulfat larut dalam gel

    Copper(II) sulphate is less dense than the gel

    Kuprum(II) sulfat kurang tumpat daripada gelCopper(II) sulphate reacts with the gel to produce blue colour

    Kuprum(II) sulfat bertindak balas dengan gel menghasilkan warna biru

    Copper(II) sulphate particles diffuse through spaces between the gel

    particles

    Zarah-zarah kuprum(II) sulfat meresap melalui ruang di antara zarah-zarah

    gel

    Trial kedah 2009

    12 Which of the following represents the electron arrangement of a noble gas?Antara berikut, yang manakah mewakili susunan elektron gas adi?

    A

    B

    C

    D

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    13 The symbol of sodium atom is Na23

    11

    The nucleus of this atom contains

    Simbol atom natrium adalah Na2311

    Nukleus atom ini mengandungi

    A

    B

    C

    D

    10protons and 12 neutrons

    11 neutrons and 12 protons

    10 rotons and 12 electrons

    9 neutrons and 11 electrons

    16 What is the process in which a liquid changes to a solid?

    Apakah proses di mana suatu cecair bertukar kepada pepejal?

    A Condensation

    KondensasiB Sublimation

    Pemejalwapan

    C Evaporation

    Pemeluapan

    D Freezing

    Pembekuan

    18 Flourine has a proton number of 9 and nucleon number of 19.

    What is the electron arrangement of the fluorine atom?

    Flourin mempunyai nombor proton 9 dan nombor nukleon 19.

    Apakah susunan elektron bagi atom flourin?

    A 2.8.8.1

    B 2.8.1

    C 2.8

    D 2.7

    20 Table 1 shows the melting points and boiling points for substances R, S, T and U.Jadual 1 menunjukkan takat lebur dan takat didih bahan R, S, T dan U.

    SubstanceBahan

    Melting point(C)Takat lebur(C)

    Boiling point(C)Takat didih(C)

    R 114 443

    S - 11 24

    T 20 98

    U - 65 - 8

    Table 1Jadual 1

    Which substance exists as solid at 30 C ?Bahan manakah merupakan pepejal pada suhu 30 C ?

    A RB S

    C TD U

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    15 Diagram 9 shows the change in the arrangement of particles when a substanceundergoes process T.Rajah 9 menunjukkan perubahan susunan zarah-zarah suatu bahan apabila menjalani prosesT.

    Diagram 9Rajah 9

    What is process T?Apakah proses T?

    A MeltingPeleburan

    B BoilingPendidihan

    C SublimationPemejalwapan

    D CondensationKondensasi

    17 The figure shows the model of an atom.

    Gambarajah menunjukkan sebuah model atom.

    Which scientist proposed this atomic model?

    Siapakah saintis yang mencadangkan model ini?

    A Neils Bohr

    B J.J ThomsonC James Chadwick

    D Earnest Rutherford

    Process T

    Proses T

    Nucleus that contains protons and neutrons

    Nukleus yang mengandungi proton dan neutron

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    19 Diagram 4 shows symbol of atom W .Rajah 4 menunjukkan simbol bagi atom W.

    Diagram 4Rajah 4

    Which of the following represents the electron arrangements for the atom?Antara berikut, yang manakah mewakili susunan elektron bagi atom tesebut?

    A B

    C D

    21 Diagram 10 shows the symbol for a lithium atom.Rajah 10 menunjukkan simbol bagi atom litium.

    Diagram 10Rajah 10

    Which of the following is true?Antara berikut, yang manakah benar?

    Proton numberNombor proton

    Nucleon numberNombor nukleon

    Number of electronsBilangan elektron

    A 3 4 3

    B 3 7 3

    C 4 7 4D 7 3 7

    Li73

    9

    19

    W

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    22 Which of the following is true when liquid acetamide is cooled to room temperatureand becomes solid?

    Antara berikut, yang manakah benar apabila cecair asetamida disejukkan pada suhu bilik danmenjadi pepejal?

    I The temperature remains constant at its freezing pointSuhu tidak berubah pada takat beku

    II Heat energy is released to the surroundingsTenaga haba dibebaskan ke persekitaran

    III Particles move further away from each otherZarah-zarah bergerak semakin jauh dari satu sama lain

    IV Kinetic energy of the particles increasesTenaga kinetik zarah-zarah bertambah

    A I and II onlyI dan II sahaja

    B I and III onlyI dan III sahaja

    C III and IV onlyIII dan IV sahaja

    D I, II and III onlyI, II dan III sahaja

    23 Diagram 3 shows the symbol of atom Q.

    DIAGRAM 3

    What is the valence electron of atom Q?

    A 2B 3C 4

    D 5

    24

    Q12

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    24 Diagram 4 shows the electron arrangement of atom Z.

    Rajah 4 menunjukkan susunan elektron bagi atom Z.

    Diagram 4

    Rajah 4

    How many protons are there in the nucleus of atom Z?

    Berapakah bilangan proton yang terdapat dalam nukleus atom Z?

    A 2

    B 3

    C 5D 7

    25 Diagram 13 shows symbol of two isotopes of bromine atom.Rajah 13 menunjukkan simbol dua isotop bagi atom bromin.

    Diagram 13Rajah 13

    Bromine-79 has 44 neutrons.Calculate the number of neutrons in Bromine-81.Bromin-79 mempunyai 44 neutron.Hitung bilangan neutron dalam Bromin-81.

    A 35B 37C 46D 90

    79

    X Br

    81

    X Br

    Z

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    26 Diagram 1 shows the atomic symbol of element X

    Rajah 1 menunjukkan simbol atom bagi unsur X

    X

    19

    9

    Diagram 1

    Rajah 1

    Which of the following represents 19?

    Antara berikut, apakah yang diwakili oleh angka 19?

    A Proton numbernombor proton

    B Nucleon number

    nombor nukleonC Number of neutrons

    bilangan neutron

    D Number of electronsbilangan elektron

    27 Atom X mengandungi 19 elektron dan mempunyai nombor nukleon 39. Antara berikut,yang manakah simbol bagi atom X?

    A X20

    19

    B X39

    19

    C X19

    20

    D X39

    20

    28 Jadual 1 menunjukkan nombor proton bagi unsur W, X, Y dan Z.

    Unsur Nombor protonW 3

    X 7

    Y 11

    Z 16

    JADUAL 1

    Antara pasangan unsur berikut, yang manakah mempunyai sifat kimia yang sama?

    A W dan XB X dan Z

    C W dan YD Y dan Z

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    29 Table 4 shows the number of electrons and neutrons for ions R2- , T- , Y+ and Z2+. Theseletters are not the actual symbols for the elements.

    Ion Number of electron Number of neutron

    R2- 10 8

    T- 10 10

    Y+ 10 12

    Z2+ 10 12

    TABLE 4

    Which of the following is correct?

    Ion Nucleon numberA R - 18B T- 21C Y+ 21D Z2+ 24

    30 Substance X exists in liquid state at room temperature. Which of the following is themost probable melting and boiling points for X?

    31 The graph shows the cooling curve of naphthalene.

    Graf menunjukkan lengkung penyejukan naftalena

    Temperature/C

    Suhu/C

    Time/s

    Masa/sWhy is curve Q obtained in the graph?

    Kenapa keluk Q terhasil pada graf?

    A Naphtalene is cooled in impurity state

    Naftalena disejukkan dalam keadaan tidak tulen

    B Naphtalene evaporate during cooling process

    Naftalena meruap semasa proses penyejukanC Naphtalene is not stirred during cooling process

    Naftalena tidak dikacau semasa proses penyejukan

    D Naphtalene freezes after achieving its freezing pointNaftalena membeku selepas mencapai takat beku

    Melting point/C Boiling point/CA -200 -15B -117 78C -17 20D 60 100

    P

    Q R

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    32 The diagram shows the change of the state of matter.

    Rajah menunjukkan perubahan keadaan jirim

    Process P

    Proses P

    Which of the following is process P?Antara berikut, yang manakah proses P?

    A Boiling

    Pendidihan

    B Melting

    Peleburan

    C FreezingPembekuan

    D Sublimation

    Pemejalwapan

    33 The diagram shows a model of an atom.Rajah menunjukkan satu model atom.

    Who introduced this model?

    Siapakah yang memperkenalkan model ini?

    A

    B

    C

    D

    Neils Bohr

    John. Dalton

    J. J.Thomson

    Ernest Rutherford

    Shell

    Petala

    Electron

    Elektron

    Nucleus thatcontainprotons

    Nukleusmengandungi proton

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    PAPER 2SECTION A

    Trial perlis 2007

    1 Table 1 shows three substances and their respective formulae.

    Substance Chemical formula

    Zinc Zn

    Naphthalene C10H8

    Magnesium oxide MgO

    Use the information from Table 1 to answer the following questions.

    (a) Which substance contains atom?

    [1 mark]

    (b) Which substance has the lowest melting point?

    [1 mark]

    (c) Which substance can conduct electricity in solid state?

    [1 mark]

    TABLE 1

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    (d) Graph 1 shows the temperature against time when solid naphthalene is heated.

    (i) What is meant by melting point?

    ..

    ..

    [1 mark](ii) Based on Graph 1, state the melting point of naphthalene.

    ..

    [1 mark](e)The empirical formula of magnesium oxide can be determined in the laboratory.

    (i) Draw the set-up of apparatus for the experiment.

    [2 marks]

    Temperature/oC

    Time/s

    GRAPH 1

    To

    T1

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    (ii) Can the empirical formula of copper (II) oxide be determined by using the samereaction as in (e)(i)? Explain.

    ..

    .

    [2 marks]

    2. Diagram 1 shows the arrangement of particles of substance X at differenttemperatures.Rajah 1 menunjukkan susunan zarah bahan X pada suhu yang berbeza.

    (a) What is the physical state of substance X atApakah keadaan fizikal bahan X pada

    (i) 60 oC : .........................................................................

    (ii) 90 oC : .........................................................................[2 marks]

    (b) State the movement of particles of substance X at 60 oC.Nyatakan pergerakan zarah bahan X pada 60

    oC.

    ............

    [1 mark]

    (b) Graph 1 shows the graph of temperature against time when substance X isheated from 60 oC to 90 oC.

    Graf 1 menunjukkan graf suhu melawan masa bila bahanX dipanaskan dari 60oC kepada 90

    oC.

    .

    60 oC 90 oCDiagram 1

    Rajah 1

    Temperature/oCSuhu/

    oC

    Time/sMasa/sGraph 1

    Graf 1

    60

    78

    90

    t0 t1 t2 t3

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    (i) What is meant by melting point?

    Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan takat lebur?

    ..

    .. [1 mark]

    (ii) Based on Graph 1, state the melting point of substance X.Berdasarkan Graf 1, nyatakan takat lebur bahan X.

    .. [1 mark]

    (iii) Explain why the temperature remains constant from t1 to t2.Terangkan mengapa suhu tidak berubah darit1 hingga t2.

    ...................................................................................................................................

    ...................................................................................................................................[2 marks]

    (d) (i) Substance X cannot conduct electricity in any state.

    State the type of particles of substance X.Bahan X tidak mengkonduksikan elektrik dalam semua keadaan.Nyatakan jenis zarah bagi bahan X.

    ...................................................................................................................................[1 mark]

    (ii) Table 1 shows two substances.Jadual 1 menunjukkan dua bahan.

    Magnesium oxide

    Carbon dioxide

    Which substance has the same type of particles as substance X?Tick ( ) the correct answer.Bahan manakah mempunyai jenis zarah yang sama dengan bahan X?Tanda ( ) jawapan yang betul.

    [1 mark]

    Table 1Jadual 1

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    3. Diagram 1 shows the symbols which represent four elements W, Q, R and S.Rajah 1 menunjukkan simbol yang mewakili empat unsur W, Q, R dan S.

    Diagram 1Rajah 1

    (a) (i) What is the nucleon number for W?Apakah nombor nukleon bagi W?

    .....

    [1 mark]

    (ii) Write the electron arrangement of atom W.Tuliskan susunan elektron bagi atom W.

    ..... [1 mark]

    (iii) State the position of element R in Periodic Table of Elements. Explain youranswer.

    Nyatakan kedudukan unsur R dalam Jadual Berkala Berkala. Jelaskan jawapan anda.

    ..

    ..

    .. [3 marks]

    (b) (i) State the atoms that are isotopes.Nyatakan atom atom yang merupakan isotop.

    ......................[1 mark]

    (ii) State the reason for your answer in (b)(i).Nyatakan sebab bagi jawapan anda di (b)(i).

    ... [1 mark]

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    Solid QPe e al Q

    Gas QGasQ

    Process XProsesX

    Process YProsesY

    (c)Which elements in Diagram 1 is a monoatomic gas?Explain your answer.Antara unsurunsur dalam Rajah 1, yang manakah gas monoatom?Terangkan jawapan anda.

    ....

    .....

    ..... [2 marks]

    4 Diagram 1.1 shows the inter-conversion of the two states of matter of substance Q.Rajah1.1 menunjukkan perubahan dua keadaan jirim bagi bahanQ.

    Diagram 1.1Rajah1.1

    (a) Name process X.Namakan prosesX.

    . [1 mark]

    (b) When substance Q changes from gas to solid, state the change in term of :Apabila bahanQ berubah daripada keadaan gas kepada pepejal, nyatakanperubahan dari segi:

    (i) The energy of the particlesTenaga kinetik zarah-zarah

    ... [1 mark]

    (ii) The forces of attraction between the particlesDaya tarikan antara zarah-zarah

    ... [1 mark]

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    (c) Draw the arrangement of particles of substance Q in solid state.Lukiskan susunan zarah-zarah bahanQ dalam keadaan pepejal.

    [1 mark]

    (d) Diagram 1.2 and Diagram 1.3 shows the apparatus set up of two experiments.

    Rajah1.2 dan Rajah1.3 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi duaeksperimen.

    Diagram 1.2

    Rajah1.2

    Diagram 1.3Rajah1.3

    (i) State the name of the process involved in both experiments.Nyatakan nama proses yang terlibat dalam kedua-dua eksperimen.

    . [1 mark]

    (ii) State the type of particles in copper(II) sulphate crystal.Nyatakan jenis zarah yang terdapat dalam hablur kuprum(II) sulfat.

    .

    after 1 hour

    selepas1jamcopper(II) sulphatecrystalhablur kuprum(II) sulfat

    blue colour of copper(II)sulphate crystal spreadsthroughout the waterwarna biru hablur

    waterair

    after3 days

    selepas3 haricopper(II) sulphatecrystalkristal kuprum(II) sulfat

    blue colour of copper(II)sulphate crystal spreadsthroughout the gelwarna biru hablurkuprum(II) sulfatmerebak ke seluruh

    gelagar-agar

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    [1 mark]

    (iii) Based on Diagram 1.2 and Diagram 1.3, explain the differences in theobservation by using kinetic theory of matter.

    Berdasarkan Rajah 1.2 dan Rajah1.3, terangkan perbezaan dalampemerhatian dengan menggunakan teori kinetik jirim.

    .

    .

    .

    . [3 marks]

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    SECTION B AND C

    1. Diagram 7, shows 3 state of matter that is P, Q and R.Rajah 7 menunjukkan 3 keadaan jirim, iaitu P, Q dan R.

    P Q R

    Diagram 7Rajah 7

    (a) Based on Diagram 7, what is state of matter for P, Q and R.?Berdasarkan rajah 7, apakah keadaan jirim bagi P, Q dan R?

    [3 marks][3 markah]

    (b) By using the kinetic theory of matter, explain how the following occurs.Dengan menggunakan teori kinetik jirim, huraikan bagaimana perubahan di

    bawah berlaku.

    i. P change to QP berubah ke Q

    ii. P change to RP berubah ke R

    iii. Q change to PQ berubah ke P

    In your explanation include the process occurs, the energy contents and themovement of the particles.Huraian anda mestilah meliputi proses yang telibat, kandungan tenaga danpergerakan jirim.

    [9 marks][9 markah]

    (c) When 31.0g copper carbonate, CuCO3 is heated, copper oxide, CuO andcarbon dioxide gas, CO2 was formed in room temperature.Apabila 31.0g kuprum karbonat, CuCO3dipanaskan kuprum oksida, CuO dangas karbon dioksida, CO2dihasilkan pada keadaan bilik.

    [ Relative atomic mass: O, 16; C, 12; Cu, 64; 1 mole of gas occupies avolume of 24.0dm3 in room condition ][ Jisim atom relative: O, 16; Cu, 64; 1 mol gas menempati isipadu 24.0dm3pada keadaan bilik]

    i. Write the chemical equation for the above reaction.

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    Tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas di atas.[2 marks]

    [2 markah]

    ii. Calculate the mass of copper oxide produced.Kira jisim kuprum oksida yang dihasilkan.

    [3 marks][3 markah]

    iii. Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide gas produced in cm3.Kira isipadu gas karbon dioksida yang dihasilkan dalam unit cm3.

    [ 3 marks][3 markah