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    YAYASAN PEMBINA UNIVERSITAS MURIA KUDUS

    UNIVERSITAS MURIA KUDUS

    FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN

    Kampus Gondangmanis Bae Kudus Po. Box 53 Telp/Fax. 0291-4438229

    RESEARCH PROPOSAL

    Name : Nor Ismah Azzu Haeroh

    NIM/Semester : 2008-32-311

    Skripsi Title :Using Collaborative Strategic Reading to ImproveReading Comprehension of Narrative Text of theEighth Grade Students of SMP 1 JATI KUDUS inAcademic Year 2011/2012

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Background of the Study

    Nowadays teaching English becomes important part with the existence of

    the globalization era. It is caused by all people in the world use English for

    communication both in the spoken and written. Based on the fact above, English

    becomes one foreign language, which has to be mastered by all people in the

    world. That is why English has to be taught in all levels of education in Indonesia.

    English is one of subject in Junior High School. Concerning the

    Curriculum Level of Unit of Education (KTSP), teaching English in SMP is

    expected to reach functional level because the students are prepared to solve the

    daily problem. It means that the students have to able to communicate by spoken

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    and written language. The language competence includes the ability to understand

    and to produce spoken or written text. It is realized in four language skills;

    listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

    As one of the language skills, reading skill is important for the students to

    be mastered besides listening, speaking, and writing because it is an essential

    factor that influences one activity in communication. Reading is a process of

    decoding message in which the students need their own experience ideas or the

    way the writer communicates with the readers by way of the written or printed

    word. (2010. www.if.la.org). The fundamental goal of reading activity is

    knowing enough science concepts and knowing the language (Kustaryo, 1988:1).

    These goals are expected to students in having a competence of comprehending

    and understanding the text because without the ability to read well for personal

    fulfillment, student will be lost the message of the reading passage. In reading the

    students are expected to have a competence of comprehending and understanding

    the text.

    In our curriculum especially English, the materials of learning are focused

    on the text type or genre. The students of Junior High School must competence to

    comprehend many short functional texts and monolog also essay in the form of

    procedure, description, recount, narrative, and report. The students also must

    know about purpose, generic structure, and language feature of each text.

    Narrative text is one of text type which is taught to the students of the

    eight grade class. Narrative is a text that has a social function to amuse, entertain

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    and to deal with actual and vicarious experience in different ways. Most of the

    students love such text since it contains many interesting stories such legends,

    fable, short stories, etc. Meanwhile, the generic structure is the plot or limitation

    steps of ideas in the text. In narrative, the generic structure is orientation,

    complication, resolution, and reorientation. Narrative have indicator to improve

    imagination of the students, so the students can be creative to think something.

    Based on interview with the one of English teacher of SMP 1 Jati Kudus,

    the eighth grade students of SMP 1 Jati Kudus still find many difficulties in

    reading. The students have difficulties to comprehend the text because they must

    competence to comprehend some type of texts or genres. The students also must

    know about the purpose, the generic structure, and the language feature of each

    text. Every text has their own characteristic which can be distinguish of each other

    and it often makes the students are confused to understand and decide the kind of

    the text.

    Another factor which make reading comprehension seems difficult, based

    on the writers observation is in reading lesson, when the students were asked to

    read and did reading task, they have no indication that they knew what they were

    doing. When the teacher asked question, some of students gave irrelevant answer.

    It means that while they reading, they do not know what actually they do. Many

    times they also do not like reading because they never have experienced and the

    students feel bored in reading class. Based on average score of students in reading

    text are 6, 5, even though the KKM should be have score 7, 5. It is still poor at

    reading comprehension skill and it becomes a problem that should be solved.

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    Based on the explanation above the writer is interested to conduct the

    research entitle Using Collaborative Strategic Reading to Improve Reading

    Comprehension of Narrative Text of the Eighth Grade Students of SMP 1 Jati

    Kudus in Academic Year 2011/2012.

    1.2 Statement of the Problem

    Based on the background of the study above, the writer determines the

    statements of the problem as follows:

    Is there any significant difference between the reading comprehension of

    narrative text of the eighth students of SMP 1 Jati Kudus in academic year

    2011/2012 before and after being taught by using Collaborative Strategic

    Reading?

    1.3 Objectives of the Study

    F rom the statements of the problem above, the objective of the study as

    follows:

    To find out whether or not there is significant difference between the reading

    comprehension of narrative text of the eighth students of SMP 1 Jati Kudus in

    academic year 2011/2012 before and after being taught by using

    Collaborative Strategic Reading.

    1.4 Significance of the Study

    The writer hopes that the result of this research will have some benefits for

    the teacher, for the students and for the readers as follows:

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    1. F or the teacher

    It gives knowledge in education, especially in teaching reading.

    2. F or the students

    It gives explanation about strategies to improve reading comprehension.

    3. F or the reader

    The reader will get information, experiences, and knowledge, which is useful

    for developments of education in Indonesia.

    1.5 Scope of the Research

    In this research the scope of the study is focused to find out whether or not

    there is significant difference between the reading comprehension of narrative text

    of the students of SMP 1 Jati Kudus in academic year 2011/2012 before and after

    being taught by using Collaborative Strategic Reading. The writer chooses the

    eighth grade students of SMP 1 Jati Kudus in academic year 2011/2012 as the

    subject of the research.

    1.6 Definition of the Term

    Based on the title, there are four terms need to be defined; collaborative

    strategic reading, reading comprehension, narrative text, and the eighth grade

    students of SMP 1 Jati Kudus in academic year 2011/2012.

    1. Collaborative Strategic Reading is a method of teaching reading

    comprehension which combines cooperative learning and reading

    comprehension strategy and also working together cooperatively.

    Collaborative Strategic Reading can be implemented in two phases, they are

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    teaching the strategies and cooperative learning group activity or student

    pairing. Strategies of CSR are Preview , Click and Clunk , Get the Gist and

    Warp up which are done before, during and after reading.

    2. Reading comprehension is the ability to understand the meaning in simple

    interpersonal and transactional written discourse, formally or informally.

    3. Narrative text is one of text type with the purpose to amuse, entertain and to

    deal with actual and vicarious experience in different ways.

    4. The eighth grade students of SMP 1 Jati Kudus in academic year 2011/2012

    are the students who are studying in SMP 1 Jati kudus especially in the tenth

    grade.

    REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

    2.1 Definition of Reading

    Reading is an activity to read something written. According to Rumelhart

    (cited in Mukhroji: 2009) reading is a process of understanding written language.

    Reading is a process of decoding message in which the students need their own

    experience ideas or the way the writer communicates with the readers by way of

    the written or printed word (2010. www.if.la.org).

    2.1.1 Purpose of Reading

    Generally, reading has the following purpose (Grabe&Stoller, 2002: 13)

    1. Reading to search for simple information and reading to skim

    Reading to search information is a common purpose of reading. It is used

    so often in reading tasks that is probably best seen as a type of reading ability.

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    In reading to search, we typically scan the text for particular bits of

    information or specific what we are searching for. This skill means that we do

    not have to read every word and line. F or example, we usually search through

    telephone directory to find key information, either and address or a telephone

    number.

    2. Reading to learn from text

    Reading to learn is usually carried out a reading rate somewhat slower

    that general reading comprehension. It is primarily due to re-reading and

    reflection strategy to help remember information. F urthermore, it makes

    stronger demands than general comprehension to connect text information

    with background knowledge e.g. connecting a character, events or concept, or

    connecting possible cause to know events (Garabe and Stoller, 2002:11-15).

    Reading to learn typically occurs in academic and professional context in

    which somebody has to learn a considerable amount of information from a

    text. Reading to learn from texts requires abilities to:

    a. Remember mind ideas as well as number of details that elaborate the

    mind and supporting ideas in the text,

    b. Recognize and build rhetorical frames that organize the information in

    the text.

    3.

    Reading to integrate information, write, and criticize text

    Reading to integrate information requires decision about the relative

    importance of complementary, mutually supporting or conflicting information

    and key likely restructuring of a rhetorical frame to accommodate information

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    from multiple sources. These skills inevitable require critical evaluation of the

    information being read so that the reader can decide what information to

    integrate and how integrate it for readers goals. In this respect, both reading

    to write and reading citizen text may be task variants of reading to integrate

    information. Both require abilities to compose, select, and criticize

    information from a text. Both purposes represent common academic task that

    call upon the reading abilities needed to integrate information.

    4. Reading for general comprehension

    General reading comprehension is actually more complex than

    commonly assumed. Reading for general comprehension, when accomplished

    by a skilled fluent reader, requires vary rapid and automatic processing of

    words, strong skills in forming general meaning represent of main ideas, and

    efficient coordination of many processes under very limited time constraints.

    In second language context, however, the difficulties that the students have to

    become fluent readers of longer texts under time constrains reveal the

    complexities of reading for general comprehension (Grabe and Stoller, 2002:

    11-15). Because of it demands for processing efficiency, reading for general

    understanding may, at times, event be more difficult to master than reading to

    learn, ability that is often assumed to be more difficult extension of general

    comprehension abilities.

    Comprehension, on the other hand, is frequently mentioned in cognitive

    and educational psychology. Recently, reading classes have focused on the

    information being communicated by texts that is what reading and its

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    purposes. By reading comprehension, the students look at the text and try to

    understand its meaning, this ability to quickly identify the authors

    organization i.e. subject, main ideas and supports is essential to grasping the

    overall picture the students are trying to get across. Its primarily a matter of

    developing appropriate, efficient comprehension (Brown, 2001:306).

    2.1.2 Models of Reading

    Reading models have been developed to describe the ways readers use

    language information to construct meaning. This ways readers use language

    information to construct the meaning. This issue has led to the development of

    three models of reading: Bottom Up, Top Down, and Interactive (Vacca, et al.,

    1987:10).

    a. Bottom-Up Models of reading assumes that the process of translating print

    into meaning begins with the print. The process is initiated by decoding

    graphic symbols into sounds. Therefore, the reader first identifies feature

    of letters; links these feature together to recognize letter; combine letters to

    recognize spelling patterns to recognize words; and then proceeds to

    sentence, paragraph, and text level processing.

    b. Top-Down Models of Reading assumes that the process of translating print

    into meaning begins with the readers prior knowledge. The process is

    initiated by making predictions or educated guesses about the meaning of

    dome units of print. Readers decode graphic symbols into sounds to check

    out hypotheses about meaning.

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    c. Interactive Models of reading is a model of reading to assume that the

    process of translating print to meaning involve both prior knowledge and

    print. The process is initiated by making prediction about the meaning

    and/or decoding graphic symbols. The reader formulates hypotheses based

    upon the interaction of information from semantic, syntactic, and graph

    phonemic sources of information.

    2.2 Reading Comprehension

    The fundamental goal of reading activity is knowing enough science

    concepts and knowing the language (Kustaryo, 1988:1). These goals are expected

    in having a competence of comprehending and understanding.

    There are some opinions about reading comprehension. According to

    Smith and Harrison (1980:205), reading comprehension is evaluating and

    understanding the information between the reader and writer. The other opinion

    about reading comprehension, Davis (1946), says,

    Reading comprehension includes at least 5 ability of mental independentthat appear in., they are (1) knowing the word, (2) ability to give reason of thetext, (3) ability to follow rule of the text, (4) ability to identify literary componentswhich are used in the text, (5) answering the explicit question which are written inconclusion and implication.

    Zorn (1980:70) states that the simple definition about reading

    comprehension. He says that reading comprehension is one of the elements of

    reading, which is invisible. It is regarded as the invisible elements because it

    cannot be attributed to certain activities, which can be seen, studied and

    understood.

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    Reading with comprehension means understanding what has been read. It

    is an active thinking process that depends not only on comprehension skills but

    also on the students experiences and prior knowledge. Reading comprehension

    itself is a process of making sense of written ideas through meaningful

    interpretation and interaction with the language (Heilman, 1981:242).

    Grabe and Stoller (2002: 11) state that people read for general

    comprehension (whether for information or for pleasure). Here we might read a

    novel, a short story, a newspaper article, or a report of some type to understand

    the information of the text, to be entertained and or a report of some type to

    understand the information of the text, to be entertained and or to use the

    information for a particular purpose.

    Based on the statement above, the writer concludes that reading

    comprehension is a process which contains of list comprehension questions in

    order to measure and evaluate how far the students have comprehending the text.

    Comprehension question can be divided into oral and written test. The writer

    chooses to use written test in order to make the answer easier to analyze.

    2.2.1 Level of Comprehension

    By knowing the level of comprehension, it is expected to be able to find

    the weakness of the readers, and it will help both the teacher and learners to

    minimize them. There are four levels of comprehensions (Butt et al, 1984:177).

    1. Literal reading

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    Reading for literal comprehension, which involves acquiring information that

    is directly stated in a section, is important and a prerequisite for higher-level

    understanding. At this level, readers are able to comprehend what the author

    has said.

    2. Interpreting reading

    Interpreting reading involving reading between the lines or making inferences

    is the process of deriving ideas, which are implied, rather than directly stated.

    At this level, the reader is able to understand what the author meant.

    3. Critical reading

    Critical reading is evaluating written material, comparing the ideas discovered

    in the material, and drawing conclusion about the accuracy and

    appropriateness. Critical reading depends upon literal comprehension and

    interpretative comprehension.

    4. Creative reading

    Creative reading involves going beyond the material presented by authors. It

    requires readers to think as they read, just as critical reading does and it

    requires them to use their imagination.

    2.3 Collaborative Strategic Reading

    Bridging the gap between students learning styles and teachers teaching

    styles will be a powerful means to guide students toward successful learning.

    Then, teaching students learning strategies should not to be neglected.

    Reading is about understanding written text. Readers typically make use of

    their background knowledge, grammatical knowledge, vocabulary, experience

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    with the text and other strategies to help them understand the written texts.

    Besides, when comprehension breaks down, especially in a foreign or second

    language, the students need to improve their comprehension. This is a condition

    where the importance of reading strategies comes in so as to facilitate the reading

    process and give the students a clear sense of what they are reading.

    Strategic reading for comprehension is defined as the ability of the reader

    to use a wide variety of reading strategy to accomplish a purpose for teaching.

    Collaborative Strategic Reading is one of strategies which could be implemented

    on teaching reading.

    Klingner and Vaugn (1998) found that Collaborative Strategic reading is a

    method of teaching reading comprehension strategies originally designed for

    teacher-led small groups of students in special education whose first language is

    not English. Klingner and Vaugn stated that CSR is a great help for students with

    learning disability because in this strategy, students easier to contribute to their

    groups and feel successful, and they get the help that they need in their reading.

    Klingner and Vaugn (1996) originally designed CSR by combining

    modified reciprocal teaching with cooperative learning. In reciprocal teaching,

    teacher and students take turns leading a dialogue concerning key features of the

    text through summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting . In cooperative

    learning, students work together cooperatively. CSR combine both of them and it

    has improved reading comprehension, increase vocabularies, enhanced

    cooperative skills, and enriched content area learning.

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    Students learn strategies as part CSRs plan for strategic reading and also

    work together in cooperative groups. These reading strategies are Preview, Click

    and Clunk, Get the Gist and Warp up and they are applied before, while, and after

    reading process.

    2.3.1 Implementation of CSR

    Collaborative Strategic reading can be implemented in two phases, they

    are teaching the strategies and cooperative learning group activity or student

    pairing. The implementation steps described below were developed though a

    series of research studies (Klingner and Vaugn, 1998, 1999; Vaugn et al., 2000;

    Vaugn, Klingner, and Bryant, 2001).

    Klingner and Vaugn (1998) explain the implementation steps of CSR as

    follow:

    1. Teaching the Strategies (Phase 1)

    Students learn four strategies as part of CSRs plan for strategic reading:

    Preview, Click and Clunk, Get the Gist, and Wrap up . Preview is used before

    reading the entire text for the lesson. The two strategies click and clunk and get

    the gist are used multiple times while reading the text and the last strategy is used

    after reading the entire text for the lesson.

    a. Preview

    Preview is a strategy to activate students prior knowledge, to

    facilitate their predictions about what they will read, and to generate

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    interest. Preview consists of two activities: brainstorming and making

    predictions.

    A teacher introduces previewing to students by asking them to

    think about the previews they have seen at the movies. The teacher

    prompts students to tell what they learn from previews by asking questions

    such as, do you learn who is going to be in the movie? or do you learn

    who is going to be in the movie will take place? Then the teacher asks

    them to skim information such as headings, pictures, and words that are

    bolded or underlined to determine (a) what they know about the topic and

    (b) what they think they will learn by reading the text.

    b. Click and Clunk

    Click and clunk is a strategy that teaches students to monitor their

    understanding during reading, and to use fix-up strategies when they

    realize their failure to understand text. The teacher describes a click as

    something that you really get. You know it just clicks. After students

    understand, the teacher explains a clunk: A clunk is like when you run

    into a brick well. You just really dont understand a word the author is

    using. Thats a clunk. Then, the teacher reads a short piece aloud and asks

    students to listen carefully for clunks. The teacher asks students to write

    down their clunks and then teaches fix-up strategies to figure out the

    clunks. The teacher can use clunk cards as reminders of fix-up

    strategies.

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    c. Get the Gist

    Get the gist is a strategy to help students identify main ideas during

    reading. One way to identify the main idea is to answer the following

    questions: (a) who or what is it about? and (b) what is most important

    about who or what? in addition, students are taught to limit their response

    to ten words or less, so that their gist conveys the most important idea, but

    not unnecessary details.

    Get the gist can be taught by focusing on one paragraph at a time.

    While students read the paragraph, the teacher asks them to identify the

    most important person, place, or thing. Then the teacher asks students to

    tell what is most important about the person, place, or thing. Then the

    teacher asks them to identify the most important about person, place, or

    thing. F inally, the teacher teaches students to put it all together in a

    sentence containing ten words or less.

    d. Wrap Up

    Wrap up is a strategy that teaches students to generate questions

    and to review important ideas in the text they have read. Wrap up consist

    of two activities: (a) generating questions, and (b) reviewing.

    A teacher initially teaches students to wrap up by telling students

    to pretend they are teachers and to think of questions they would ask on a

    test. The teacher suggests the following question starters: who, what,

    when, where, why, and how. The teacher also encourages students to

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    generate some questions that require an answer involving higher-level

    thinking skills, rather than literal recall. F inally, the teacher asks students

    to write down the most important ideas from the days reading assignment.

    2. Cooperative Learning Group or Student Pairing (Phase 2)

    The students are ready to apply CSR after they have learned the four

    strategies and have developed proficiency applying them in their peer-led

    cooperative learning groups.

    Procedures for using in groups are outline below:

    a. Set the Stage

    The teacher assigns students to groups. Each group should include

    about four students of varying ability. Then, the teacher assigns roles to

    students. Roles should rotate on a variety of roles. Possible rules include

    the following:

    1. Leader: Tells the group what to read next and what strategy to use

    next.

    2. Clunk Expert: Uses clunk cards to remind the group of the steps to

    follow when trying to figure out the meaning of their clunks.

    3. Gist Expert: Guides the group toward getting the gist and determines

    that the gist contains the most important ideas but no necessary details.

    4. A

    nnouncer: Calls on group members to read a passage or share an

    idea.

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    b. Materials

    The following materials maybe helpful as a teacher assist students to use

    CSR and cooperative learning techniques (Klingner, Vaugn, Dimino,

    Schumm, & Bryant, 2001).

    1. R eading materials

    When selecting reading materials for CSR, it is recommended to use

    reading materials at students instructional level, which generally

    refers to students being able to decode about 80% of the word

    correctly, have themes and clues or pictures for predicting.

    2 . Clunk cards

    Clunk cards contain fix-up strategies. F ix-up strategies included in the

    clunk cards are:

    (a) Reread the sentences with the clunk and look for key ideas to help

    you figure out the world- think about what makes sense

    (b) Reread the sentences before and after the clunk looking for clues

    (c) Look for a prefix or suffix in the word that might help

    (d) Break the word apart and look for smaller words that you know.

    3 . Cue cards

    Cue cards outline the procedures to be followed in a cooperative

    learning group. They remind students of each step of CSR for each

    role. Each role comes with a corresponding cue card that explains the

    steps to be followed to fulfill that role.

    4 . Learning log

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    CSR learning log enable students to keep track of learning as it

    happens and provide a springboard for follow-up activities. Logs

    serve two roles:

    (a) Written documentation of learning, assuring the individual

    accountability that facilitates cooperative learning

    (b) Study guides for students

    5 . T imer (optional)

    Timers that students set by them selves can help groups to remain on

    task.

    6 . S core card (optional)

    The scorekeeper in a group follows a cue card to find out when to

    award points, and records these points on a score card.

    c. Process

    The basic steps to apply CSR in a cooperative learning group are as

    follows:

    Step 1 : Whole class introduction

    The teacher introduces the topic, teaches key vocabulary, and

    provides introductions.

    Step 2 : Cooperative group activity during preview, click and cluck, get

    the gist, and wrap up .

    Each group member plays an assigned role and fills out a CSR

    learning log during the activity.

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    Step 3 : Whole class wrap up strategy

    A teacher discusses the days reading passage, reviews clunks,

    answers questions, or shares some review ideas.

    d. Role of the teacher

    During the cooperative group activity, the teachers role is to

    circulate among the groups, clarifying clunks, modeling strategy usage,

    modeling cooperative learning techniques, redirecting students to remain

    on-task, and providing assistance.

    2.4 Narrative Text

    Based on Gerot and Wignell (1995: 204), narrative is a kind of text has a

    social function to relate on amusing or unusual experience in entertainment way.

    Mongot (2009: 31) says that the social function of narrative text is to amuse or to

    entertain the reader or listener. In other words, narrative is text type tells a story.

    Generic structure is the plot or limitation steps of ideas in the text Gerot

    and Wignell (1995:204) stated that there are some analyzes of narrative text

    structure as follow:

    a. Orientation : set the scene and introduces the participants.

    b. Evaluation : a stepping back to evaluate the plight

    c. Complication : a crisis arises

    d. Resolution : the crisis is resolved for the better or for worse

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    e. Re-orientation : Optional

    The example of narrative text as follows:

    Snow White and Seven Dwarfs

    OrientationOnce upon a time, there lived a little girl named

    Snow White. She lived with her Aunt and uncle because her parents were died.

    Major Complication

    One day she heard her uncle and aunt talkingabout leaving snow white in the castle because they

    both wanted to go to America and they didnt haveenough money to take snow white.

    Resolution I

    Snow white did not want her uncle and aunt to dothis so she decided it would be best if she ran away.The next morning she ran away from home when her aunt and uncle were having breakfast. She ran awayinto the woods.

    Complication 2 She was tired and hungry.

    Resolution 2Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but

    no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep.

    Complication 3

    Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming homefrom work. They went inside. There they found snowwhite sleeping. Then snow white woke up. She sawthe dwarfs. Then dwarfs said , What is your name?snow white said, my name is snow white

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    ResolutionDoc said , if you with, you may live here with

    us snow white said, Oh could I? Thank you thensnow white told the dwarfs the whole story and snowwhite and seven dwarfs lived happily ever after.

    Narrative text has complete language features, retrieved from

    http://peperonity.com/go/sites/mview/narrative/14809960 , language features of

    narrative text:

    a. Usually begins with a description of time as follows.

    Once upon a time, once, one day one afternoon, and others, does not state

    specific time.

    b. Specific participant

    Existing characters in the story is certain is, not of general nature. F or

    example: Cinderella, the king, the farmer, jack.

    c. Use of the adjective (adjective) to clarify the noun (noun)

    E.g.: use for the following expressions: a beautiful lady, an old man, a

    poor widow, etc.

    d. Use the past tense sentence patterns

    Sentences pattern used were simple past because it tells the events that

    happen in the past, but does not close the possibility of using other forms

    such as simple present tense is used in a direct line.

    e. Time conjunction

    Time conjunction is used to connect with one another groove to trace and

    easy to follow. Conjunction is often used is: when, then, suddenly, next.

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    f. Action verbs

    There are verbs that show an activity (activity can be seen), for example:

    run, sleep, walk, cut.

    g. Direct and indirect speech / sentence of direct and indirect

    To make the story feel more alive, this is used sentence patterns to be

    visible expression of the speaker (to show the real word of the speakers).

    2.5 Teaching English in SMP 1 Jati Kudus

    In SMP 1 Jati Kudus, English is a lesson that includes in teaching program

    which has to be followed by all the students. So, all the students of SMP 1 Jati

    Kudus get English lesson.

    Based on KTSP, every school has to applied the new curriculum with the

    aims to give competence or skill to the student in learning English.

    In SMP 1 Jati Kudus, the English teachers use the curriculum as a

    reference. The important of curriculum in SMP 1 Jati Kudus are the students get

    ability to understanding and make a text. So, the students are able to learn English

    well and easily.

    2.5.1 Purpose of Teaching English in SMP 1 Jati Kudus

    The purpose of teaching English for Junior High School level based on

    KTSP is develop communication competition in speaking, writing, listening, and

    reading to achieve efficiency information level, to possess awareness about

    essence and importance in English to increase nation competition in global society

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    and to develop pupils comprehension about the interrelatedness of language and

    culture.

    In SMP 1 Jati Kudus, the purpose of teaching English is the students are

    able to communicate both spoken and written which realize in 4 language skills;

    speaking, listening, reading, and writing, even for increasing students

    comprehension towards the real of globalization and information in this century.

    2.5.2 Material of Teaching English in SMP 1 Jati Kudus

    The materials for the eight grade student of the first semester are

    descriptive and recount. Meanwhile, in the second semester consist of 2 themes

    that have to be taught these are Narrative and Recount.

    In this research, the writer would like to research the reading

    comprehension of Narrative text of the eight grade students of SMP 1 Jati Kudus

    in Academic Year 2011/2012 taught by using Collaborative Strategic Reading.

    2.5.3 Method of Teaching English in SMP 1 Jati Kudus

    Teaching is showing or helping someone to learn how to do something

    giving instruction, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge,

    causing to know or to understand. Teacher needs a method to succeed the teaching

    learning process. So, the students can absorb the material given well, and finally,

    the purpose of teaching can be reached.

    According to Brown, (2001: 16) method is a generalized set of classroom

    specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives. Method tends to be

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    concerned primarily with teacher and students role and behaviors and secondarily

    with such features as linguistic and subject matter objectives, sequencing, and

    materials. And method can be explained in the technique. In other words, the way

    to implement method specifically it is called technique.

    In teaching English subject, the teacher of SMP 1 Jati Kudus uses Three

    Passes Technique. The teacher gives students explanation, do exercise and discuss

    the material. The technique is also applied in reading lesson but in the teaching

    learning process, the students are still low in average reading comprehension. So,

    the writer want to know how effective CSR to improve students reading

    comprehension.

    2.6 Previous Study

    In doing this research, the writer found some previous research that can be

    based of consideration for this research. There are some researchers that use CSR

    to do research,

    1. F itri Annisa (2010) retrieved from her skripsi entitles The Effectiveness of

    Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) on the Reading Comprehension

    Achievement of the F ourth Semester Students of PGSD IAILM Suryalaya-

    Jawa barat, said that according to the result of research findings, it can be

    concluded that collaborative strategic reading (CSR) given to the

    experimental group is proved to be effective in increasing students`

    reading comprehension achievement. It is known from the data gained

    through pretest and posttest was analyzed statistically by using

    independent t -test. T- test analysis in pretest reveal that t -value for df 54 is

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    3.180 is greater than t-table (2.0105) at the level of significance of 0.05 for

    a two tailed test ( t -value: 3.180 > t-table: 2.0105). This indicates that the

    subjects of experimental and control groups have significantly different

    before the experiment in their pretest scores of reading comprehension

    test.

    2. Atni Pratiwi (2010) in TE F LIN 2010 Journal UPI Bandung entitled The

    Application of Collaborative Reading Strategic (CSR) in Improving

    Reading Comprehension Using Expository Texts of The Second Year

    Students at SMAN 2 Bangkinang have a data that this classroom action

    research, the background of this case is the students understanding of the

    expository text is quite low, more than 50% students get mark between 45-

    50 or below the criteria of the successful action (KKM) namely 60.

    Because of this reason the researcher tries to use Collaborative to improve

    reading comprehension of the students. F rom this research it is known that

    the students average score in pre-test was 48, 33. The application of CSR

    in Cycle I was not success because the average score of post-test, 55,2 was

    still below the minimum criteria of successful action 60. Thus, the research

    was continued to Cycle II and it was success. As the result, the average

    score of observation found, 78, 45 % was bigger than the successful

    criteria, 70 % and the average score of post-test found, 71,05 was bigger

    than the minimum criteria of successful action 60 and the average score of

    pre test 48,33. F urther more, from observed of t-test it was found that t

    (3,13) was bigger than t-table (2.00) in the level of significance 5%. The

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    students reading comprehension ability was significantly improved after

    applying CSR.

    2.7 Theoretical Framework

    Reading is one of the branch English skills which should be mastered by

    students. Neil Anderson as cited by Nunan (2003:68) states that reading is a fluent

    process of readers combining information from text and their own background

    knowledge to build a meaning.

    Basically the goal of reading is comprehension. Comprehension is the

    process of using prior knowledge and thinking processes to construct meanings

    from written text. General reading comprehension is actually more complex than

    commonly assumed. Reading for general comprehension is, in its most obvious

    sense, the ability to understand information in a text and interpret it appropriately

    (Grabe and Stoller, 2002:17).

    Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) is a set of four strategies

    struggling readers can use to decode and comprehend as they read content area

    text. Researchers Janette K. Klingner, Sharon Vaughn, and Jeanne Schumm

    developed CSR for struggling upper elementary and middle school readers with

    learning disabilities by adapting reciprocal reading and cooperative learning

    strategies. CSR can be used by content area teachers in inclusion settings as well

    as by reading teachers.

    Narrative text is one of genre. The purpose of this text is to amuse,

    entertain and to deal with actual and vicarious experience in different ways. The

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    generic structure is orientation, complication, resolution, and reorientation. This

    text uses past tense.

    2.6 Hypothesis

    Appropriate to statement of problem, the writer formulates the hypothesis

    as follow:

    There is significant difference between the reading comprehension of the

    eighth students of SMP 1 JATI KUDUS in academic year 2011/2012 before and

    after being taught by using Collaborative Strategic Reading.

    METHOD OF THE RESEARCH

    3.1 Design of the Research

    Design of the research is plan for gathering and analyzing the research

    finding in order that the researcher does the research effective and efficiently.

    Arikunto (1993:41), research design is a design made by researcher as the

    guidance in carrying out the research.

    The design of this research is a quasi experimental research. This research

    uses one group of pre-test and post test, because it is done by one group only

    without other group. There are three steps in one-group pretest-posttest design of

    experimental (Ali: 1984:136):

    1. The writer held a pretest to find out the reading comprehension of

    narrative text of the students before taught by using CSR.. The pretest is

    formulated as T1.

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    2. The writer applied the experimental treatment to the subjects. The students

    will be taught by using CSR. The experiment is formulated as X.

    3. The writer conclude a posttest to measure the reading comprehension of

    narrative text of the students after taught by using CSR. The posttest is

    formulated as T2.

    It is formulated by Ali (1984: 136) as follows:

    T1 : pre-test

    T2 : post-test

    X : being taught by using genre based approach (treatment)

    In this design, there are two observations. The first is done before

    experiment (T1) which is called pre test and the second on is taken after

    experiment (T2) which is called post test, the distinction between pre test and post

    test is considered as the effect of treatment or experiment.

    The researcher conducts the experimental research for eight grade

    students of SMP 1 JATI KUDUS in academic year 2011/2012. The treatment is

    given in four times and two tests, the first test is pretest which is aimed to know

    the students reading comprehension before being taught by using CSR and the

    post-test is held to find the students reading comprehension after being taught by

    using CSR.

    T1 X T2

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    There are two variables; independent variable and dependent variable.

    An independent variable is the conditions influencing the appearance of an

    indication or called treatment variable. In this research the independent variable is

    called X variable is the using of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR). While the

    dependent variable is called Y variable is the implementation of an experiment

    and also called effect variable. In this research Y variable is the students reading

    comprehension.

    3.2 Population and Sample

    According to Ali (1984: 54) says that the population of the research is the

    subject unit of entire group to research. While sample is part of population which

    representative of population in a research. In other words, it means that population

    of the research refers to the large or total group which a sample derived and a

    small proportion of population namely sample which can represent the population.

    In this research, the population is the eight grade students of SMP 1 JATI

    KUDUS in academic year 2011/2012. In the eighth grade consist of eight classes

    are VIII A (30 students), VIII B (29 students), VIII C (36 students), VIII D (36

    students), VIII E (34 students), VIII F (36 students), VIII G (35 students), VIII H

    (32 students). The number of population 268 students.

    Next, after determining the population, the writer obtained a sample in this

    research. The technique of sampling is used in this research is cluster random

    sampling technique. Ali (1984: 67) stated that in cluster sampling it means that the

    sample in cluster sampling is taken from a cluster not individual. Randomly, by

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    lottery the writer takes one class as sample is VIII H (32 students) which uses on

    group pre-test design because this research is aimed to find out the differences the

    mean between the post-test and pre-test after treatment has been done. F or

    deciding the class in this research, the writer did these steps below:

    1. Writing the name of classes in a piece in a piece of paper.

    2. Rolling the paper and putting it in a glass.

    3. Shaking it until one piece of paper falling down.

    4. Taking the rolling and then the writer gets VIII H (32 students) as the

    sample.

    3.3 Instrument of the Research

    This research uses multiple choice test as the test as the instrument to

    measure student in reading comprehension. In conducting posttest, the students

    have to answer 40 items. Each item scored one (1) point for the right answer and

    zero (0) for the wrong answer. However, before the test items are being tested to

    the students, the writer must measure the validity and the reliability of the test to

    get the accurate data.

    A good test should conclude the important component, they are:

    a. Validity

    According to Ali (1984:101), he says, the validity of the test is extent

    to which it measures what is supposed to measure. Validity if the test

    must refer to the appropriateness of the test items.

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    b. Reliability

    Reliability of the test shows the stability of the scores when the test is

    used. A test cannot be measured anything well unless it measures

    consistently. Reliability is a general quality of stability of score

    regardless of what the test measure. According to Arikunto (1993:83),

    reliability shows a meaning that an instrument is reliable if it can be

    enough to believe quite well.

    The reliability of the try out test was calculated by the formula as

    stated by Arikunto (1993:144-148) as follows:

    r xy =

    Notes: r xy = The correlation of the X variable and Y variable

    N = The number of respondents

    x = The sum of scores

    y = The sum of scores

    xy = The sum of the result of X and Y scores for each students

    x2

    = The sum of X scores of X square

    y2

    = The sum of Y scores of Y square

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    3.5 Data Collection

    The data of this research are the reading comprehension of narrative text of

    ot the eight grade students of SMP 1 Jati Kudus in academic year 2011/2012

    before and after taught by using CSR. In collecting data, the researcher uses the

    following steps :

    1. Asking permission to the Dean of the F aculty of Teacher Training and

    education of Muria Kudus University.

    2. Asking permission to Mr. Marjono, S.Pd as the head master of SMP 1

    Jati Kudus to do research.

    3. Making lesson plan and exercise to the students

    4. Consulting lesson plan and exercise items to the advisor

    5. Giving pre-test to explore the data of writing ability of students before

    being taught by using Collaborative Strategic Reading.

    6. Teaching narrative text by using Collaborative Strategic Reading to

    explore the response to the students.

    7. Doing post-test to find out the data result of writing ability after being

    taught by using Collaborative Strategic Reading.

    8. The writer collecting the test sheets that have been done by the student

    as the data to be analyzed them.

    3.5 Data Analysis

    In this research, the data needed is the reading comprehension of the

    eighth grade students of SMP 1 Jati Kudus in the academic year 2011/2012 before

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    and after being taught by using Collaborative Strategic Reading. To analyze the

    data, the rsearcher uses the T-test technique as follows:

    t0 =

    Note:

    t : the t-value from correlated means

    : Mean of differences

    D : The differences between paired scores

    : The sum of the squired differences scores

    N : The number of sample

    F ormula to compute the mean difference:

    Note

    : The mean of the differences scores

    D : the difference between the paired scores

    N : The number of sample

    To analyze the data, it is needed to count mean and standard deviation. In

    counting the mean and the standard deviation, the researcher uses the formula by

    Ali (1982:181-182) as follows:

    a. F ormula of calculating mean

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    =

    Notes: = mean

    f = frequency

    x = middle score of the internal class

    N = number of sample

    b. F ormula of calculating the standard deviation

    SD = Notes: S = Standard Deviation

    i = Internal width

    f = F requency

    x = coding

    N = Number of sample

    To determine there is a significant difference between the reading

    comprehension of narrative text of the VIII students of SMP 1 Jati Kudus in

    Academic Year 2011/2012, before and after being taught by using Collaborative

    Strategic Reading, or not.

    To examine, if there is a difference between the independent variable (X)

    and the dependent variable (Y), the hypothesis testing is done by the statistics

    hypothesis as follows:

    Ho: BCSR = ACSR

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