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  • 8/19/2019 Kuliah Geologi Umum 8 9 10

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    RESOURCES

    (SUMBERDAYA ALAM)

    WATER, MINERAL AND

    ENERGY

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    Groundwater Hdro!o" Hdro"eo!o"

    Interre!at#on$%#&$ 'etween "eo!o"# ater#a!$ and water How do ater#a!$ #n*uene %dro!o"# !e+

     Trad#t#ona! ou$ on $u'$urae

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    Hdro!o" #n t%e Hdro!o"# S#ene

    -ro"ra

    4/6/516 Hydrology

    Hydrogeology

    Hydrometeorology

    Vadose Zone

    Hydrology

    Fluvial Geomorphology/ Open Channel Flow

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    Hdrau!# Condut#.#t

     S&at#a! d#$tr#'ut#on o / de0ne$ "roundwater *ow $$te$

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    Hdrau!# Condut#.#t

     S&at#a! d#$tr#'ut#on o / de0ne$ "roundwater *ow $$te$

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    1!ow T%rou"% -orou$ Med#a ro "ra#n to a2u#er$ 1!ow de&end$ on &ro&ert#e$ o water and &ro&ert#e$ o

    ater#a!

     A2u#er3 a ro4 un#t t%at w#!! #e!d water #n a u$a'!e 2uant#t to a we!! or $&r#n"5

    ($aturated "eo!o"#a! orat#on, onta#n#n" and tran$#tt#n" $#"n#0ant 2uant#t#e$ o water under nora! 0e!d 2uant#t#e$)6 ro43 unon$o!#dated $ed#ent$

     A2u#!ude3 orat#on onta#n#n" water  do not tran$#t $#"n#0ant 2uant#t#e$  A2u#u"e3 orat#on  doe$ not onta#n nor tran$#t  A2u#tard3 orat#on$ w#t% !ow &erea'#!#t7#n!ude$ 'ot% a2u#!ude and

    a2u#u"e  Con0n#n" 'ed3 ro4 un#t w#t% !ow %drau!# ondut#.#t to re$tr#t o.eent o

    GW e#t%er #nto or out o ad8aent a2u#er$

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    UNDERGROUND WATER

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    GROUNDWATER VELOCITY

    Time reqd by groundwater to moe !rom re"#arge to di$"#arge area$ Few days !"ones ad#a$ent to dis$harge% to millennia !$entral part o& some re$harge

    through deeper G'systems(

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    Flow to Wells (Ch. 5). 

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    -otent#oetr# a&$

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    )omesti$

    use

    A$A$

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    )omesti$

    use

    A$A$

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    irrigation)omesti$

    use

    A$A$

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    )omesti$

    use

    A$A$

    irrigation

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    )omesti$

    use

    A$A$

    irrigation

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    )omesti$

    use

    A$A$

    irrigation

    A$

    A$

    A$

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    Geologic Resources and Earth’s Systems

    • Geologic resources 9 .a!ua'!e ater#a!$ o "eo!o"# or#"#n t%at an 'e e:trated ro t%e Eart%  –  Man "eo!o"# re$oure$ or#"#nate #n t%e hydrosphere

    • -etro!eu and oa! oe ro or"an#$$ t%at !#.ed and d#ed #n water 

    • Ha!#te ($a!t) and ot%er e.a&or#te #nera!$ oe ro dr !a4e 'ed$

     –  Weat%er#n" #nterat#on$ 'etween geosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere &rodue eta! o:#de ores

     –  Huan$ (biosphere) #nterat d#ret! w#t% t%e "eo$&%ere, %dro$&%ere, and ato$&%ere w%en e:trat#n" and ut#!#;#n" "eo!o"# re$oure$

     –  Groundwater (hydrosphere) #$ a renewa'!e "eo!o"# re$oure

    • I #t an

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    Tyes o! Geologic Resources

    • Geo!o"# re$oure$ are "rou&ed #nto t%ree a8or ate"or#e$3

     – Energy resources 9 &etro!eu (o#! and natura! "a$),

    oa!, uran#u, "eot%era! re$oure$

     – Metals 9 #ron, o&&er, a!u#nu, !ead, ;#n, "o!d, $#!.er, &!at#nu

     – Non-metallic resources 9 $and

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    Resources and Reser"es

    • Resources 9 t%e tota! aount o a .a!ua'!e "eo!o"# ater#a! #n all deposits, d#$o.ered and

    und#$o.ered

    • Reserves 9 d#$o.ered

    de&o$#t$ o "eo!o"#re$oure$ t%at an 'e e:trated economically   and legally  under &re$ent

    ond#t#on$

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    COAL GEOLOGY

    l # d# t 4 t% t   t% t#

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    oal #$ a $ed#entar ro4 t%at or$ ro t%e o&at#on o &!ant ater#a! t%at %a$ not o&!ete! deaed

     –  1or$ ro $%a!!ow 'ur#a! and o&at#on o peat 

    • 1our .ar#et#e$ o oa!

     –  Lignite ('rown oa!) #$ $ot and ru'!

     –  Sub-bituminous and bituminous coal ($ot oa!)

    • '!a4 and du$t

    • 'urn w#t% a $o4 *ae • oon! $tr#&9#ned

     –   Anthracite (%ard oa!)

    • $%#n and du$t9ree

    • 'urn$ w#t% a $o4e!e$$ *ae

    • !ow9!e.e! etaor&%# ro4

    • Burn#n" o %#"%9$u!ur oa! an &rodue acid

    rain6 $tr#& #ne$ an $ar !and$a&e

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    #E$%&'%$G%$ '%T'%R%

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    *our$e+ ,ueensland -esour$es Coun$il

    ses o! Coal

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    -ETROLEUM (MINYA/ BUMI DAN GAS

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    • etroleum 9 o#! and natura! "a$ 9 our$ #n under"round pools

    • Ourrene o o#! &oo!$ re2u#re$3

     –  A source roc!  (r#% #n or"an# atter)  –  A reservoir roc!  #n w%#% #t an 'e $tored and tran$#tted

    (e5"5, $and$tone)

     –  An oil trap ($et o ond#t#on$ %o!d#n" ro4 #n re$er.o#r ro4 and &re.ent#n" #"rat#on)

     –  "eep enough burial (and $u=#ent t#e) to >oo4? t%e o#! and "a$ out o t%e or"an# atter

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    Structural Traps for Gas and Oil

    2300 m – 4600 m = Oil formation 4600+ m = Gas formation

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    Other Oil Traps in Geological Structures

    # t l R

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    #etroleum Reco"ery

    • #il $elds are re"#on$ under!a#n ' one or ore o#! &oo!$   –  Lar"e$t #n Centra! Suatra and

    Ea$t /a!#antan

    • O#! and natura! "a$ are reo.ed t%rou"% wells dr#!!ed down #nto an o#! tra& w#t%#n a re$er.o#r ro4

    • Ne"at#.e en.#ronenta! [email protected]t$ re$u!t#n" ro o#! reo.er and tran$&ort #n!ude oil spills, brine contamination o $urae water, and ground subsidence

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    Oil P k Oil P i ?

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    Oil Peak, Oil Panic ? (Study by Amos Nur - Stanford

    !"S"# $anada# %a&an# G'rmany# ran)'# *taly# !# ar' t,' bi'st

    )onsum'rs of oil r's'r.'s /orld/id'"

    Oil P k 1960'

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    Oil Peaks – 1960's

    *n t,' 10s oil mainly us'd

    for 'ros'n' lam&s – r'mainin /as burn'd or disard'd"

    $urr'nt oil &rodu)tion rat's &'a'd in 560s but !"S" )onsum&tion rat's in)r'as' dramati)ally abo.' t,is"

    on't panic!  -ry to )ons'r.' 'n'ry   -S'' alt'rnati.' 'n'ry sour)'s

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    Sistem idro*ar+ on SE %sia

    , %ustralasi a - u+ungan

    murReser"oir dan Cadangan

    owes (//0)

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    Sistem idro*ar+on Ce*ungan1Ce*ungan 2ndonesia

    ar