mesin perkakas frais.ppt

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    MESIN PERKAKAS FRAIS (MILLING)

    Oleh : Ade Sumpena, ST., M.Kom

    Jurusan Teknik Mesin Politeknik Negeri Jakarta

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    Prinsip Proses pemesinan frais (milling) adalah proses penya-yatan benda kerja menggunakan alat potong, dengan

    mata potong jamak yang berputar .

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    Gerakan utama mesin Frais (Milling)

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    Bentuk-bentuk dasar yang dapat di buat padamesin Frais (Milling)

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    Jenis Mesin Frais

    1. Mesin Frais Horizontal

    Axis of spindle is inhorizontal plane and

    parallel to Its table. Generally cutters aremounted on long arbor.

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    2. Mesin Frais Vertikal

    Position of spindle isvertical or 90 to the

    work table.Its suitable for

    boring pocket milling profile milling& keyway cutting.

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    3. Mesin Frais Universal

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    Bagian-bagian utama mesin Frais

    Mesin Frais Horizontal Mesin Frais Vertikal

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    Typical milling operation

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    Metode pemakanan pada mesin Frais

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    Klasifikasi proses Frais

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    Types of milling cutters

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    Pisau jari (End mill cutter)

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    Cutter insert

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    Carbide insert

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    Pemegang alat potong (Tool Holder)

    Milling Acessories

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    Arbor

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    STUB ARBOR

    The arbors are holdwith the machine.

    The arbors are of threetypes A,B,C as shownin picture.

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    TYPES OF ARBORS

    Types A is used tomount the shell and

    mills and similarcutters.The cutter is tightenedon the arbor using thescrew.

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    TYPES OF ARBOR

    It is used to mountlarge face millingcutters.

    The cutter is held onarbor by fourscrew(b), it has aslot(c),which fits overspindle (d).

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    TYPES OF ARBOR

    It is a morse taperadaptor arbor used tohold drills, reamers,chucks etc.

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    Pemegang benda kerja

    a. Plain viseJaws parallel or 90 to axis of spindle

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    b. Swivel base vise

    Can swivel through 360 in horizontal plane

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    c. Universal vise

    Can swivel through 360 in horizontal planeand tilted from 0 to 90 in vertical plane

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    Rotary table

    Rotary table yang dapat di atur

    sudutnya

    Rotary table untuk mesin fraisvertikal

    Meja yang dapat diatur sudutnya

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    Rotary table dapat digunakan pada mesin frais horizontal da vertikal

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    Milling Set Up

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    Work Holding Method * The vice jaws and the workpiece must be free from burrs, chips, and cutting fluid.* Smaller workpiece should be supported by parallel bars to provide the supporting

    datum.* Round bar must be placed between the workpiece and the movable jaw to ensure

    that the workpiece is in perfect contact with the fix jaw.* The vice handle should be tightened by hand to avoid over clamping of the

    workpiece as well as the vice. Hide face hammer should be used to assure that theworkpiece is in perfect contact with the supporting base.* On completion of the milling of the first face, the workpiece should be unloaded,

    deburred, and cleaned before the next operation.* To machine the second and the third faces, the workpiece should be clamped with

    its preceding machined surface facing against the fix jaw of the vice.

    * Similar clamping method can be applied in the machining of the fourth face.* Yet it can also be clamped on the vice without the round bar.* Both ends of the workpiece can be machined with the periphery flutes of the

    cutter using up cut milling as shown in figure

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    Pemegangan benda kerja tanpa ragum

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    Milling Attachment

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    VERTICAL MILLING ATTACHMENT

    This attachmentmounted on column ofuniversal Milling

    machine.Which consistshousing spindle headand bevel drive gears

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    Its used for cutting atany angle in vertical

    plane to produce key

    ways , slots andcorners. Its providereciprocating drive forsingle point cuttingtool.

    SLOTTING ATTACHMENT

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    RACK MILLING ATTACHMENT

    Its mounted between theface of column and outersupport on a plain oruniversal milling machine.

    It consists a fixed housingand a spindle.A special rack indexingattachment used to movethe work longitudinallywith accurate spacing ofteeth.

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    UNIVERSAL SPIRAL ATTACHMENT

    Its used to mill spiralswith a plain millingmachine.

    Its useful for cuttinghelical threads , gears ,worms and racks.

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    Perhitungan proses pengerjaan pada mesin FraisA. Kecepatan Potong/Cutting Speed (V)

    Rumus :

    Hal hal yang mempengaruhi Cutting speed adalah :1. Material benda kerja,

    2. Material alat potong,3. Pendinginan ( cooling ).

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    Tabel Kecepatan Potong

    Materials

    HSS Carbide

    Fine Coarse Fine Coarse

    Tool Steel 75 100 25 45 185 230 110 140

    Low carbon Steel 70 90 25 40 170 215 90 120

    Medium Carbon Steel 60 85 20 40 140 185 75 110

    Cast Iron 40 45 25 30 110 140 60 75

    Brass 85 110 45 70 185 215 120 150

    Alumunium 70 100 30 45 140 215 60 90

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    Pemakanan/Asutan (Feeding)

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    Dividing Head (Kepala Pembagi)

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    Piring Pembagi Tetap

    Bagian-bagian dividing head

    Ada dua sistemPembagian :1, Pembagian

    Langsung2. Pembagian

    Tidak Langsung

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    Its used to obtaingreater number of

    divisions that cannot be obtained bydirect indexing.Its carried out using

    40:1 ratio of theworm and wormmechanism.

    SIMPLE INDEXING MECHANISM

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    Piring Pembagi

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    Bentuk-bentuk benda kerja hasil dari dividing headContoh untuk pembagian langsung :

    Contoh untuk pembagian tidak langsung :

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    Macam-macam roda gigi yang dapat dibuat padamesin Frais dengan bantuan kepala pembagi

    HELICAL GEAR

    Elements of teeth are

    twisted or helical.Used for connecting shaftat an angle in same or

    different planes.Smooth acting gearing .

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    When the shafts are at90 and two bevelgears are of same size,known as mitergears.

    MITRE GEARING

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    SPUR GEAR

    Teeth element parallel to rotating

    shafts are known asspur gear.Used to transmit

    power and motionthrough parallelshafts.

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    HERRINGBONE GEAR

    Its equivalent totwo helicalgears,one having a

    right hand andother a left handhelix.

    Its used in heavyduty machines likesteel roll mills.

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    BEVEL GEAR

    When two shafts are ins