web 2.0 dalam penyampaian perkhidmatan maklumat
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Web 2.0 dalam Penyampaian Perkhidmatan MaklumatZulkefli Bin Mohd YusopFakulti Pengurusan Maklumat UiTM
Introduction : Web 2.0Inventor of the Web, Sir Tim Berners-Lee was asked whether Web 2.0 was different to what might be called Web 1.0
"Totally not. Web 1.0 was all about connecting people. It was an interactive space, and I think Web 2.0 is of course a piece of jargon, nobody even knows what it means. If Web 2.0 for you is blogs and wikis, then that is people to people. But that was what the Web was supposed to be all along. And in fact, you know, this 'Web 2.0', it means using the standards which have been produced by all these people working on Web 1.0.
(Laningham (ed.), developerWorks Interviews, 22nd August, 2006.)
Introduction : Web 2.0Numerous definitionsThe term Web 2.0 was coined in 2004 by Dale Dougherty (a vice-president of OReilly Media Inc.)Tim OReilly (the founder of the company)What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software
Introduction : Web 2.0Describes seven principles: The Web as platform, Harnessing collective intelligence, Data is the next 'Intel inside', End of the software release cycle, Lightweight programming models, Software above the level of single device, and Rich user experiences.
What is Web 2.0?Web 2.0 encompasses a variety of different meanings that include an increased emphasis on user generated content, data and content sharing and collaborative effortIt is also together with the use of various kinds of social software, new ways of interacting with web-based applications, and the use of the web as a platform for generating, re-purposing and consuming content.
Web 2.0 CharacteristicsParticipationStandardsDecentralizationOpennessModularityUser ControlIdentity
ParticipationEvery aspect of Web 2.0 is driven by participation. The transition to Web 2.0 was enabled by the emergence of platforms such as blogging, social networks, and free image and video uploadingThese allowed extremely easy content creation and sharing by anyone.
StandardsStandards provide an essential platform for Web 2.0Common interfaces for accessing content and applications are the glue that allow integration across the many elements of the emergent web
DecentralizationWeb 2.0 is decentralized in its architecture, participation, and usage Power and flexibility emerges from distributing applications and content over many computers and systems, rather than maintaining them on centralized systems
OpennessThe world of Web 2.0 has only become possible through a spirit of openness whereby developers and companies provide open, transparent access to their applications and content
ModularityWeb 2.0 emerges from manyMany components or modules that are designed to link and integrate with others, together building a whole
User ControlA primary direction of Web 2.0 is for users to control the content they createdata captured about their web activities, and their identity
IdentityIdentity is a critical element of both Web 2.0 and the future direction of the internetWe can choose to represent our identities across interactions, virtual worlds, and social networks.We can also own and verify our real identities in transactions
Services/ ApplicationsWeb 2.0BlogsWikisContent TaggingMultimedia SharingContent Syndication (RSS) Audio Blogging and PodcastingLatest Web 2.0 services & applications
A simple webpage consisting of brief paragraph of opinion, information, personal diary entries, links (posts), arranged chronologically with the most recent first, in the style of an online journal.
(Doctorow et al., 2002)
BlogsThe term "weblog" was coined by Jorn Barger on 17 December 1997.The short form, "blog," was coined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word WEBLOG into the phrase WE BLOG in the sidebar of his blog Peterme.com in April or May of 1999.This was quickly adopted as both a noun and verb ("to blog," meaning "to edit one's weblog or to post to one's weblog")
WikisA webpage or set of webpages that can be easily edited by anyone who is allowed access
(Ebersbach et al., 2006)
WikisCollaborative tool that facilitates the production of a group workIt has editing, deleting, history, and rollback function featuresSelf moderation
Content TaggingEnables users to create subject headings for the objectAllow users to add and change not only content (data), but content describing content (metadata)Users could tag the librarys collection and participate in the cataloging process
Multimedia SharingFacilitate the storage and sharing of multimedia contentParticipate in the sharing and exchange of multimedia by producing their own images, audio, videos, photos, etc.
Content SyndicationRSS Feeds - provide users a way to syndicate and republish content on the webLibraries are creating RSS Feeds for users to subscribe to, including updates on new items in a collection, new services, and new content in subscription databases
Audio Blogging and PodcastingEfforts to add audio streams to early blogsPodcasts are audio recordings, usually in MP3 format, of talks, interviews and lectures, which can be played either on a desktop computer or on a wide range of handheld MP3 devices.Apple introduced the commercially successful iPod MP3 player and its associated iTunes software, the process started to become known as podcasting
Audio Blogging and PodcastingA more recent development is the introduction of video podcasts (sometimes shortened to vidcast or vodcast): the online delivery of video-on-demand clips that can be played on a PC, or again on a suitable handheld player(the more recent versions of the Apple iPod for example, provide for video playing)
Web 2.0 TechnologiesAggregationAJAXAPIEmbeddingFolksonomyMashupsRemixingRSSRuby on RailsTag CloudTaggingVirtual ArchitectureWidgetXML
AggregationBringing multiple content sources together into one interface or application
API(Application Programming Interface) A defined interface to a computer application or database that allows access by other applications.
EmbeddingIntegrating content or an application into a web page, while the original format is maintained.
FolksonomyRich categorization of information that is collectively created by users, through tagging and other actions. (taxonomy)
MashupsCombination of different types of content or data, usually from different sources, to create something new
RemixingExtracting and combining samples of content to create a new output. The term was originally used in music but is now also applied to video and other content.
RSS(Really Simple Syndication) A group of formats to publish (syndicate) content on the internet so that users or applications automatically receive any updates.
Ruby on RailsAn open source web application framework that is frequently used in Web 2.0 website development
Tag cloudA visual depiction of tags that have been used to describe a piece of content, with higher frequency tags emphasized to assist content comprehension and navigation.Typical tag clouds have between 30 and 150 tags. The weights are represented using font sizes or other visual clues.
TaggingAttaching descriptions to information or content.
Virtual architectureThe creation of avatars (alternative representations of people), buildings, objects, and other artifacts inside virtual spaces.
WidgetSmall, portable web application that can be embedded into any web page.
XML(eXtensible Markup Language) An open standard for describing data, which enables easy exchange of information between applications and organizations
Web 2.0 and Intellectual Property RightsOwnershipRe-useControl
OwnershipWho "owns" the content when it is collaboratively created? The authors? The university? The creators of the system?
Re-UseUniversities make considerable use of published materials in learning and teaching. These materials may be in paper or electronic form. They include text books, academic papers, learning objects and pre-prints.When these are used in a Web 2.0 environment they may become visible to people outside the university, which may breach current licensing arrangements, so that they may need to be reconsidered.
ControlThe nature and degree of control that universities may wish to exert over content in a Web 2.0 environment is, as discussed, problematic because there are competing pressures to ensure that material is not illegal (eg defamatory or contravening IPR), and to support academic freedom
Web 2.0 & PreservationOne of the key functions of universities has been the preservation of information. Historically this has been done using published works and theses retained in a library.
Web 2.0 & PreservationWhat is the authoritative version of an artifact? This is especial