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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    CHAPTER 2: MATTER

    1. To determine melting point 

    Water bat ! to en"#re #ni$orm eatin%  &'ot %ra( ! ) ! a*i" +Start at ,0 o C-.

    2. The kinetic theory of matter +"o'id "o'id !'i/#id 'i/#id 'i/#id%a" %a"-  Matter i" made #( o$ tin) and di"rete (arti'e" +atom" ion" or mo'e#'e"- tere i" "(ae beteen te"e

     (arti'e".

    a- arran%ement o$ (arti'e"(a3 'o"e') to%eter order') arran%ement $ar a(art $rom ea oter 

     b- Mo4ement o$ (arti'e"4ibrate" rotate "'o') ra(id') 4i%oro#"') random').

    - 3ineti ener%) ontentd- an%e in ener%) ontent

    e- $ore o$ attration"tron% ea3 ea3er 

    Example:

    5ra( "o" the heating curve o$ e'ement 6.

    Decri!e te %ra( in term" o$ tate of matter particle arrangement and change in energy.

    "ample an#er:

    "tage "tate of matter Particle arrangement Change in energy

    to ! t1 7i/#id Te (arti'e" are 'o"e to ea oter.

    Te (arti'e" arran%ement i" not order').

    Te 3ineti ener%) inrea"e"

    t1  t2  7i/#id !

    %a"eo#"

    Some o$ (arti'e" are 'o"e to ea oter

    and "ome $ar a(art.Te (arti'e" arran%ement i" not order').

    Te 3ineti ener%) i" on"tant

    t2 ! t8 5a"eo#" Te (arti'e" are $ar aa) $rom ea oter.Te (arti'e" arran%ement i" not order').

    Te 3ineti ener%) inrea"e"

    8. Diffuion ! te mo4ement o$ particle +atom9ion"9mo'e#'e- o$ "#b"tane in beteen te (arti'e" o$

    anoter "#b"tane 9 $rom i%') onentrated area to 'e"" onentrated area. 5a" : 'i/#id : "o'id

     ;. $otope ! are atom o$ te "ame e'ement +"ame n#mber o$ (roton- it di$$erent n#mber o$

    ne#tron"9n#'eon n#mber.

    1

    Tem(erat#reoC

    Time "

      to  t1  t2  t8 

    %oiling point

    CoolingHeating

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    E*am('e< Com(are atom &2' and atom &()

      * *

    Atom ' )

    &roton n#mber = =

     >o. o$ e'etron = =

    ?a'ene e'etron ; ;

     >#mber o$ ne#tron 9 n#'eon n#mber =9 12 @ 91;Cemia' (ro(ertie" "imi'ar  

    &)"ia' (ro(ertie" di$$erent

     >o. o$ o#(ied "e'' "imi'ar 

    CHAPTER +: CHEM$CA, -.RM/,A

    10 Empirical formula< emia' $orm#'a tat "o" te "im('e"t o'e n#mber ratio o$ atom" o$ ea

      e'ement in a om(o#nd CH22. Molecular formula< a emia' $orm#'a tat "o" te at#a' n#mber o$ atom" o$ ea e'ement tat i"

      (re"ent in a mo'e#'e o$ te om(o#nd C2H(

    a- nreati4e meta' ! reation o*ide meta' it)dro%en %a" +C#O &bO SnO -

    !1 Diagram

    Reati4e meta' + M% Zn ! b#rn in e*e"" o*)%en 9air - ! more reati4e tan H2

    c1 Proceure

    Wei% and reord te ma"" o$ omb#"tion t#be

    it (ore'ain di"

    Add a "(at#'a o$ o((er +II- o*ide on te (ore'aindi". Wei% te t#be a%ain.

    A''o )dro%en %a" $'o into te t#be $or , ! 10min#te".

    B#rn te e*e"" )dro%en.

    Heat o((er +II- o*ide trongly0

    T#rn o$$ te $'ame en !lack oli turn !ro#nom('ete').

    Contin#e te $'o o$ )dro%en #nti' te "et o$

    a((arat#" oo' don to room tem(erat#re. Wei% te omb#"tion t#be it it" ontent.

    Repeat te (roe"" eatin% oo'in% andei%in% #nti' a on"tant ma"" i" obtained andreord.

    3eigh and reord a r#ib'e it it" 'id

    Clean M% ribbon it "and (a(er ten oi' te

    M% ribbon and ('ae into te r#ib'e. 3eigh and

    reord. Heat trongly4 Wen M% ribbon "tart to b#rn o4er te r#ib'eit 'id.

    ,ift 5 raie te 'id at interval.

    Wen te b#rnin% i" om('ete remo4e te 'id and

    eat "tron%').A''o te r#ib'e to cool o#n.

    3eigh and reord te r#ib'e it ontent and

    'id.Repeat te (roe"" eatin% oo'in% and ei%in%

    #nti' a on"tant ma"" i" obtained and reord. .!ervation < Wite $#me 9 "o'id $ormed

    Reult :

    omb#"tion t#be it (ore'ain di" a %

    omb#"tion t#be it (ore'ain di" o((er +II-

    o*ide b %

    omb#"tion t#be it (ore'ain di" o((er %

    ma"" o$ o((er 6 c4 a1 g 7 Ma"" o$ o*)%en 6 !4 c 1 g

    ma"" o$ r#ib'e 'id a %

    ma"" o$ r#ib'e 'id M% ! %

    ma"" o$ r#ib'e 'id ma%ne"i#m o*ide c %

    ma"" o$ M% + ! 8 a 1 g

    4 ma"" o$ o*)%en + c 8 !1 g

    2

    =(

    @n

    =(

    =n

    '

    )

    H)dro%en

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    Calculation:E'ement 9 atom C# O

    Ma"" +%- * )

     >#mber o$ mo'e * 9 =; ) 9 1=

    Sim('e"t ratio o$ mo'e

    E'ement 9 atom M% O

    Ma"" +%- * )

     >#mber o$ mo'e * 9 2; ) 9 1=

    Sim('e"t ratio o$ mo'e

    Precaution :

    &0 The flo# of H2 mut !e continuou uringcooling 8 to prevent hot copper metal from

    oxii9e0

    20 Allo# hyrogen ga flo# into the tu!e for 8 

    &; minute to unure air totally remove. Themixture H2 an air may caue an exploion0

    8. To determine a'' air tota'') remo4ed o''et teair and ('ae 'i%ted "('inter te %a" b#rn

    ;. Zn 2HC'à  ZnC'2  H2 

    ,. An)dro#" a'i#m 'oride ! to dr) te H2 %a".

    =. C#O H2 à  C# H2O

    Precaution :

    1. Clean M% ribbon it "and (a(er to remo4e te'a)er o$ o*ide on it" "#r$ae.

    2. ,ift 5 raie te 'id at interval to allo# air in

    +0 Wen M% ribbon "tart to b#rn o4er te r#ib'e

    it 'id to a4oid te ite $#me (rod#ed $rom

     bein% e"a(e to te air.

    ;. Repeat te (roe"" eatin% oo'in% andei%in% to make ure all magneium icompletely reacte #ith oxygen0

    0 2Mg ? .2  2Mg.

    8. Ba"ed on te to $orm#'ae >a2O C#I

    6a1 State te oxiation num!er $or "odi#m and o((er.

    6!1 >ame bot te om(o#nd ba"ed on I&AC nomen'at#re ")"tem.

    6c1 E*('ain te di$$erene beteen te name" o$ te to om(o#nd" ba"ed on $/PAC nomenclature

    ytem0

    "ample an#er:

    @a2. Cu$O*idation n#mber $or

    "odi#m and o((er 

    1 1

    I&AC >omen'at#re Sodi#m o*ide Co((er +I- iodide

    Rea"on Doe" not a4e roman num!er 

     bea#"e "odi#m a" only one o*idation n#mber 

    Ha" roman n#mber bea#"e

    o((er a" more than one o*idation n#mber 

    CHAPTER (: PER$.D$C TA%,E

    1. E*('ain te $o''oin% "tatement" re$errin% to te e'etron arran%ement o$ te e'ement".

    +a- Te e'ement" o$ 5ro#( 1@ are unreative and e*i"t a" monoatomic (arti'e" +8 mar3"-

    The point are:

    +D#('et 9otet- e'etron arran%ement. >o tenden) to donate ae(t "are e'etron"

    Remain a" iniviual particle 

    8

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    +b- Te reati4it) o$ roup $ e'ement" increae don te %ro#( erea" te reati4it) o$ roup

    &B e'ement" ecreae don te %ro#(. +12 mar3"-

    The point are:

    Explanation roup $ roup &B

    1 Can%e in (roton n#mber Inrea"e" Inrea"e"

    2 Can%e in n#mber o$ e'etron" and e'etron $i''ed "e''" Inrea"e" Inrea"e"8 Can%e in atomi "ie9radi#"9diameter Inrea"e" Inrea"e"

    ; Stren%t o$ e'etro"tati attration beteen n#'e#" and

    4a'ene e'etron

    Derea"e" 9ea3er Derea"e" 9ea3er 

    , Tenden) to Re'ea"e" e'etron

    inrea"e"

    Attrat t9 ae(t

    e'etron derea"e"

    = To beome &o"iti4e ion >e%ati4e ion

    F Reati4it) Inrea"e" Derea"e"

    +2- E*('ain o te me'tin% (oint o$ roup & e'ement" change o#n the group +; mar3"-

    ecreae %rad#a'')

    Reaonatomi "ie inrea"e"

    metallic !oning beteen te atom" beome ea3er 

    7e"" ener%) i" re/#ired 9 needed to o4erome ti" meta''i bondin%.

    +8- Chemical propertie of element in group &B

    I Reation it ater C'2  H2O à  HC' HOC'

    II Reation it "odi#m )dro*ide C'2  2>aOH à  >aC' >aOC' H2O

    III Reation it iron 8C'2  2Ge à  2GeC'8 +bron "o'id-

    E*am('e< Compare te reati4it) o$ reation" beteen 'orine and bromine it iron. Diagram $$$

    Reaction Reactant .!ervation

    A Iron 'orine %a" Te ot iron oo' i%nite" ra(id') it a bri%t $'ame.

    A bron "o'id i" $ormed.

    B Iron bromine %a" Te ot iron oo' %'o" moderate') it $a"t.

    A bron "o'id i" $ormed.

    "ample an#er:

    a- Cemia' e/#ation< 8C'2  2Ge à  2GeC'8

     b- Te reactivity o$ reation A i" i%er tan reation B.- Te atomic i9e o$ 'orine i" maller tan bromine.

    d- Te force of attraction of the nucleu to#ar the electron are tronger.

    e- It i" eaier $or 'orine atom to attract5receive e'etron.

    ;

      C'orine %a"

    "oium hyroxie olution

      "oa limeHot iron oo'

    HC' +on"- KMnO;+"-

    To

     (rod#e

    C'2$$$ $$

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    +;- Acro perio + atomi radi#" +atomi "ie- derea"e" 9 electronegativity inrea"e". Explain0

    a- &roton n#mber inrea"e" b) one #nit. b- Te n#mber o$ 4a'ene e'etron" in ea atom inrea"e".

    - &o"iti4e ar%e o$ te n#'e#" inrea"e" t#"

    d- >#'ei attration on 4a'ene e'etron inrea"e".

    e- Atomi radi#" +atomi "ie- derea"e"$- Tenden) to reei4e e'etron inrea"e" +to $orm ne%ati4e ion- t#" electronegativity increae.

    +,- Cemia' (ro(ertie" o$ the oxie of element aro"" &eriod 8 an%e" from !aic oxie to amphoteric

    oxie to aciic oxie0

    Ba"i o*ide ! "odi#m o*ide +>a2O-

    Am(oteri o*ide ! A'#mini#m o*ide +A'2O8-Aidi o*ide ! "#'(#r dio*ide SO2

    CHEPTER : CHEM$CA, %.@D

    +a- 5ro#( 1 e'ement" reat it 5ro#( 1F e'ement" to (rod#e om(o#nd" tat a4e high melting point0+; mar3"-

    The point are:

    $onic compoun (rod#ed

    Bea#"e in4o'4e tranfer of electron beteen meta' atom and non meta' atom.

    Meta' atom donate" 4a'ene e'etron to $orm (o"iti4e ion non meta' atom ae(t" e'etron tone%ati4e ion.

    Te oppoitely ar%ed ion are e'd to%eter b) trong electrotatic force0More heat energy i" needed to overcome te "tron% $ore o$ attration.

    -ormation of ionic compoun 6metal =roup &72 &+> an non metal = roup &(7 &7 &* &B>1

    "ample an#er:1. E'etron arran%ement o$ atom 6 @a 7 20& Cl 200B 1 55 valence electron2. To aie4e "tab'e 9 otet e'etron arran%ement8. Atom 6 @a- re'ea"e" one 9 valence e'etron to $orm "odi#m ion >a

    ;. Half e

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    2. To contruct the electrochemitry ba"ed on tenency to releae electron 9(otentia' di$$erene" voltaic

    cell5 Electrochemical cell0

    8. To on"tr#t te e'etroemi"tr) ba"ed on abi'it) 9 tenden) o$ meta'to iplace another metal $rom it "a't" "o'#tion.

    Diplacement reaction: a meta' i i" i%er in te e'etroemia'

    "erie" i" ab'e to di"('ae a meta' be'o it in a "erie" $rom it" "a't "o'#tion.

    Example:  Zn C#SO; à  ZnSO;  C# 99 Znà  Zn2 2e 9 C#2 2eà  C#

      Cell P   Cell F

    ;. Com(are and ontra"t e'' P and F. In'#de in )o#r an"er te ob"er4ation and a'$ e/#ation $or tereation o$ te e'etrode" in bot e''".

    Cell P Characteritic Cell FE'etria'àemia' Ener%) an%e Cemia'à e'etria'

    4e 9 anode< o((er +O6IDATIO>-

    4e 9 atode< o((er

    E'etrode 4e9atode< o((er  

    4e9 anode< 'ead +O6IDATIO>-

    C#2  H

    OH  SO;2

    Ion" (re"ent in

    te e'etro')te

    C#2  H

    OH  SO;2

    Anode

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    CHAPTER B: AC$D A@D %A"E

    An aci i" emia' "#b"tane i ionie" in ater to (rod#e )dro%en ion H?

    A ba"e i" a emia' "#b"tane i ionie" in ater to (rod#e )dro*ide ion" .H4

    A'3a'i i" a "o'#b'e ba"e.

    %aicity i" te n#mber o$ ioni"ab'e )dro%en atom" (er mo'e#'e o$ an aid.

    1. E*('ain ) te"e to "o'#tion" a4e di$$erent (H 4a'#e"• identi$) "tron% aid ea3 aid• de$inition "tron% aid• de$inition ea3 aid• onentration o$ H

    • re'ation"i( beteen (H 4a'#e and onentration o$ )dro%en ion" H? 

    "ample an#er:

    1. H)dro'ori aid i" a trong aci i'e metanoi aid i" a #eak aci.

    2. H)dro'ori aid om('ete') ionie" in #ater to $orm higher concentration o$ )dro%en ion".

    HC' H2O à  H8O  C'  99 HC'à  H  C'  H8O

      )dro*oni#m ion

    8. Metanoi aid ionie" (artia'') in #ater to $orm lo#er concentration )dro%en ion"

    CH8COOH à  CH8COO  H

    ;. Te higher te onentration o$ )dro%en ion" te lo#er te (H 4a'#e.

    2. Aim< To etermine the en point uring the neutrali9ation of potaium hyroxie

    an hyrochloric aci

    A((arat#"< 2, m8 (i(ette b#rette 2,0 m8 onia' $'a"3 retort "tand ite ti'e

    Materia'< (ota""i#m )dro*ide and )dro'ori aid 0.1 mo' dm8  (eno'(ata'ein.

    Proceure:

    1. Rin"e a b#rette it a "ma'' amo#nt )dro'ori aid 0.1 mo' dm8 .

    2. C'am( te b#rette on retort "tand.8. Gi'' te b#rette it )dro'ori aid 0.1 mo' dm8 .Ad#"t te meni"#" 'e4e' o$ aid to a readin% at 0.

    ;. Reord te initia' b#rette readin%.

    ,. &i(ette 2,.0 m8 o$ (ota""i#m )dro*ide 0.1 mo' dm 8 into onia' $'a"3.=. Add to dro( o$ (eno'(ata'ein.

    F. Add )dro'ori aid 0.1 mo' dm8 are$#''). Sir' te onia' $'a"3 d#rin% te (roe"".

    @. Wen te o'o#r o$ te mi*t#re t#rn (a'er add )dro'ori aid dro( b) dro(.. Sto( addin% te )dro'ori aid a" "oon a" te "o'#tion t#rn" o'o#r'e"".

    10. Reord te $ina' b#rette readin%.

    11. Re(eat "te(" 110 tie. Tab#'ate )o#r readin%.

    @

    Te (H 4a'#e o$ 1.0 mo' dm8  )dro'ori aid i" 1Te (H 4a'#e o$ 1.0 mo' dm8  metanoi aid i" ;

      MA?A  a

    MB?B  b

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    Reult :

    Titration 1 2 8

    Gina' b#rette readin% m8

    Initia' b#rette readin% m8

    ?o'#me o$ )dro'ori aid 0.1 mo' dm8  m8

    +0 Preparation "tanar olution 6 ;0& mol m4+ @a.H7 &;; cm+1

    1. a'#'ate te ma"" o$ "o'#te + mo'e 0.1 * 10091000 0.01 ma""9 ;0-2. ei% 0.;% o$ >aOH in ei%in% bott'e #"in% di%ita' ba'ane 9 e'etroni ba'ane8.  (o#r into a bea3er rin"e te bott'e it di"ti''ed ater.;. di""o'4e >aOH it a 'itt'e + 10 ! 20 m8 -di"ti''ed ater.,. tran"$er te mi*t#re into 4o'#metri $'a"3 100 m8 rin"e te bea3er it di"ti''ed ater.=.  (o#r te a"in%" into 4o'#metri $'a"3 100 m8

    F. add di"ti''ed ater "a3e e''@. add di"ti''ed ater dro( b) dro( to $ina'') brin% te 4o'#me o$ "o'#tion to te 100 m8 mar3 9

    a'ibration mar3.

    Preparation of a tanar olution !y ilution metho

    M&G&  M2G2M& 8 initial molarity

    G&  4 initial volume

    M2 8 final molarity

    G2 8 final volume

    @.TE : C.@CE@TRAT$.@ 8 &0 M.,AR$T) 4 mol m4+

      20 g m4+

    @eutrali9ation in our aily live

    A%ri#'t#re &odered 'ime +CaO- 'ime"tone +CaCO8- a"e" o$ b#rnt ood"ed to treat aidi "oi'.

    Ind#"trie" 1. &odered 'ime +CaO-

    "ed to treat aidi e$$'#ent $rom $atorie" aidi %a" SO2 emitted b) (oer "tation and

    ind#"trie".

    2. Ammonia (re4ent te oa%#'ation o$ 'ate* b) ne#tra'iin% te aid (rod#ed b) bateria in te 'ate*.

    Hea't 1. Antiaid" ontain ba"e" "# a" a'#mini#m )dro*ide and ma%ne"i#m )dro*ide to

    ne#tra'ie te e*e"" aid in te "toma.

    2. ?ine%ar +itri aid- i" #"ed to #re a"( "tin%" tat are a'3a'ine in nat#re.8. Ba3in% (oder +>aHCO8- i" #"ed to #re bee "tin%" and ant bite" tat are aidi in

    nat#re.

    ;. Toot(a"te ontain" ba"e" tat ne#tra'ie te aid (rod#e" b) bateria in o#r mo#t

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    CHAPTER "A,T

    A alt i" a om(o#nd $ormed en te hyrogen ion7 H  $rom an aid i" re('aed b) a metal ion or an

    ammonium ion7 @H(?

    Preparation of olu!le alt

     !  aid reati4e meta'+Zn 9 M%-à

      "a't H2  9 2H

    ?

      ? Mg Mg

    2?

      ? H2 !  aci ? !ae 6 metal oxie1 alt ? #ater

     !  aid a'3a'ià "a't ater 9 H?  ? .H4  H2. 6 @a.H7 I.H7 @H(.H1

     !  aci ? car!onate metal alt ? C.2  ? H2. 5 2H?  ? C.+

    2?  C.2  ? H2.

    Proceure:

    &0 pour + 2, ! 100m8- aid + 0., ! 2.0 mo' dm8- into a bea3er 

    20 eat "'o')

    +0 add "o'id 6metal 5 !ae5 car!onate 1 a little #nti' e*e"" 9 no more di""o'4e

    (0 tir

    0 filter te mi*t#re into evaporating ih

    *0 heat +"'o')- te filtrate #nti' 198 $rom ori%ina' 4o'#me 9 "at#rated "o'#tion $ormed

    B0 cool o#n te "at#rated "o'#tion +#nti' r)"ta''ied -0 filter +to "e(arate te r)"ta'"-

    J0 ry 9 tran"$er onto $i'ter (a(er 9 dr) beteen "eet" o$ $i'ter (a(er 

    .!ervation

    Chemical ea2SO;-

    8. tir

    ;. filter te mi*t#re

    ,. rine reiue 9 "o'id 9 (rei(itate

    =. ry beteen "eet" o$ $i'ter (a(er 

    .!ervation

    Cemia' e/#ation

    Ioni e/#ation

    Action of heat on alt

    Car!onateà  o*ide meta' +ba"e- CO2  except >a K and >H;

    E*am('e< C#CO8  à  C#O CO2

    @itrate à o*ide meta' nitro%en o*ide o*)%en except >a K 7 62>a>O8  à  2>a>O2  O2 -

    E*am('e < 2M%+>O8-2 à  2M%O ;>O2  O2

      6%ro#n ga1

    10

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    Ammonium chlorie à  ammonia %a" )dro%en 'oride %a" +>H;C' à  >H8  HC' -

    Confirmatory tet for cation an anion

    1. State te materia' 9 emia' 9 rea%ent2. (roed#re

    8. ob"er4ation

    ;. on'#"ion

    Example:  Yo# are %i4en a bott'e o$ ammoni#m 'oride "o'#tion. Decri!e chemical te"t to

    4eri$) te ation and anion.

    6a1 tet for cation +>H;-

    &0  (o#r 2 cm+ te "o'#tion" into a te"t t#be

    20 add 1 m8  o((er +II- "#'(ate "o'#tion

    +0  b'#e (rei(itate "o'#b'e in e*e"" to $orm ark !lue olution0

    .R

    (0 add 2 to + rop of @eler reagent into te te"t t#be0  bron (rei(itate.

    *0 Ammonium ion 6@H(?1 preent0

    6!1 tet for anion 6Cl41

    &0  (o#r 2 cm+  te "o'#tion into a te"t t#be

    20 add 1 m8 o$  ilute nitri aid and "i'4er nitrate olution.

    +0 ite (rei(itate $ormed

    (0 on$irm te (re"ene o$ chlorie ion

    Example: Yo# are %i4en 'ead +II- nitrate and a'#mini#m nitrate "o'#tion. De"ribe emia' te"t to4eri$) te ation and anion.

    6c1 tet for cation

    &0  (o#r 2 m8 te "o'#tion" into di$$erent te"t t#be"

    20 add 1 m8  (ota""i#m ioie "o'#tion into te te"t t#be"

    +0 yello# (rei(itate $ormed

    (0 lea 6$$1 ion (re"ent

    61 tet for anion

    &0  (o#r 2 m8  o$ 'ead +II- nitrate olution into a te"t t#be

    20 add 1 m

    8

     o$ di'#te "#'(#ri aid+0 add 1 m8 o$ iron +II- "#'(ate "o'#tion

    (0 "a3e te mi*#re

    0 tilt te te"t t#be add concentrate ulphuric aid carefully 99 rop !y rop don te "ide o$ 

    te te"t t#be

    *0 te bron rin% $ormed

    B0 nitrate ion7 @.+4 preent.

    11

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    Aim : To on"tr#t te ioni e/#ation $or te $ormation o$ 'ead +II- romate+?I-

    =Continuou variation metho>

    Apparatu : Te"t t#be" o$ te "ame "ie te"t t#be ra3 b#rette retort "tand it

    'am( r#'er %'a"" rod dro((er.

    Material : 0., mo' dm8 (ota""i#m romate +?I- "o'#tion 0., mo' dm8  'ead +II-

    nitrate "o'#tion.

    Proceure : 1. Se4en te"t t#be" o$ te "ame "ie ere 'abe''ed $rom n#mber 1 to F. Te) ere ('aed in a te"t t#be

    ra3.

    2. A b#rette a" $i''ed ;0 mol m4+ lea 6$$1 nitrate olution7 0;; cm+ of the lea 6$$1 nitrate

    olution a" r#n into ea te "e4en t#be".

    8. Anoter b#rette a" $i''ed it 0., mo' dm8 (ota""i#m romate +?I- "o'#tion.

    ;. &ota""i#m romate +?I- "o'#tion $rom te b#rette a" added into ea o$ te "e4en te"t t#be"

    aordin% to te 4o'#me" "(ei$ied in te tab'e.

    ,. Te mi*t#re in ea te"t t#be a" "tirred it a 'ean %'a"" rod.=. Te te"t t#be" ere 'e$t a"ide $or abo#t an o#r.

    F. Te ei%t o$ te (rei(itate in ea te"t t#be a" mea"#red. Te o'o#r o$ te "o'#tion abo4e te (rei(itate in ea te"t t#be a" ob"er4ed and reorded.

    Reult:Tet tu!e & 2 + ( * B

    ?o'#me o$ 0., mo'

    dm8

    &b+>O8-2 9m8

    ,.00 ,.00 ,.00 ,.00 ,.00 ,.00 ,.00

    ?o'#me o$ 0., mo'

    dm8

    K 2Cr O; 9m8

    1.00 2.00 8.00 ;.00 ,.00 =.00 F.00

    Hei%t o$ (rei(itate+m-

    0.=0 1.20 1.@0 2.;0 8.00 8.00 8.00

    Co'o#r o$ "o'#tion

    abo4e te (rei(itate

    o'o#r'e"" o'o#r'e"" o'o#r'e"" o'o#r'e"" o'o#r'e"" )e''o )e''o

    Paper 2

    Dicuion

    Te 4o'#me o$ 0., mo' dm8 (ota""i#m romate +?I- "o'#tion re/#ired to e*at') reat it ,.00 m8 o$ 0.,

    mo' dm8 'ead +II- nitrate "o'#tion i" ,.00 m8.

    Calculation:

     >#mber o$ mo'e" 'ead +II- ion" M?

    0., * ,.0091000 0.002, mo'.

     >#mber o$ mo'e" romate +?I- ion" M?

      0., * ,.0091000 0.002, mo'.Sim('e"t mo'e ratio o$ 'ead +II- ion" < romate +?I- ion"

    0.002, < 0.002,

      1 < 1

    12

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    Dicuion:

    1. A )e''o (rei(itate o$ 'ead +II- romate +?I- i" $ormed in ea o$ te "e4en te"t t#be".

    2. Te ei%t o$ te (rei(itate inrea"e" %rad#a'') $rom te"t t#be" 1 to , bea#"e more and more 'ead +II-

    romate +?I- i" $ormed d#e to te inrea"in% amo#nt o$ (ota""i#m romate +?I- added to te te"t t#be".

    8. Te o'o#r o$ "o'#tion abo4e te (rei(itate in te"t t#be" 1 to ; are o'o#r'e"" d#e to te e*e"" 'ead +II-nitrate.

    ;. Te o'o#r o$ "o'#tion abo4e te (rei(itate in te"t t#be" = to F i" )e''o d#e to te e*e"" (ota""i#m

    romate +?I-.,. Ioni e/#ation< &b2  Cr 2OF

    2  à  &bCr 2OF 

    Concluion:

    A" 9 en te 4o'#me o$ (ota""i#m romate +?I- "o'#tion #"ed inrea"e" te ei%t o$ te (rei(itate

    inrea"e" #nti' it aie4e" a ma*im#m ei%t.

    CHAPTER J : MA@/-ACT/RED "/%"TA@CE" $@ $@D/"TR)

    &0 Contact proce: manufacture ulphuric aci

    Sta%e E/#ation E*('anation

    1 S O2  à  SO2 S#'(#r i" b#rned in te e*e"" o$ o*)%en %a" to (rod#e "#'(#r

    dio*ide %a".

    2 2SO2  O2 à 2SO8  SO2 i" ten eated in e*e"" o*)%en %a" ata')"t ?anadi#m +?-

    o*ide 1 atm and ;,0 ! ,,0 o C to (rod#e "#'(#r trio*ide %a".

    8 SO8  H2SO;  à H2S2OF  5a" "#'$#r trio*ide di""o'4e in "#'(#ri aid to (rod#e o'e#m

    ; H2S2OF  H2O à2H2SO;  O'e#m i" added to ater to (rod#e "#'$#ri aid

    a ".+ i not iolve in #ater to prouce H2".( traight a#ay !ecaue the reaction #ill prouce a

    lot of heat #hich i angerou6 caue the forming of aci fume1

    "a%e o$ "#'(#ri aid<

    To man#$at#re $erti'ier "oa( and deter%ent

    To ma3e e*('o"i4e materia' (aint 9 (i%ment (o')mer A" meta' 'eaner and e'etro')te in ar batter).

    20 Ha!er Proce

     >2  8H2  à  2>H8

    Conition: Cata')"t< iron tem(erat#re< ;,0 ! ,,0 oC &re""#re 200 ! ,00 atm

    "a%e< to man#$at#re $erti'ier

    2>H8  H2SO; à  +>H; -2 SO;

    8>H8  H8&O; à  +>H; -8 &O;

     >H8  H>O8 à  >H; >O8

    18

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    8. Hi% (erenta%e o$ nitro%en i" a %ood $erti'"er $or ('ant". Ho to a'#'ate N> in $erti'i"er#rea CO+>H2-2 and ammoni#m nitrate +>H; >O8- i one i" a better $erti'i"er

    RAM < >1;P C12 PO1=P H1

    "ample an#er:

    N > in rea ma"" o$ nitro%en 9 RMM #rea * 100

      2*1; 9 =0 * 100 ;=.=FN

    N > in >H; >O8  2*1; 9 @0 * 100 8,.00 N

    /rea i a goo fertili9er tan ammoni#m nitrate bea#"e te percentage o$ nitro%en in #rea higher tan

    ammoni#m nitrate.

    ;. De"ribe o toxic #ate (rod#t $rom $ator) a$$et" te /#a'it) o$ te en4ironment. Yo#r de"ri(tion

    "o#'d in'#de te $o''oin% a"(et". "ource7 proce an effect0

    "ample an#er:

    1. "ource> "#'(#r dio*ide %a" (rod#ed b) $ator) or b#rnin% o$ $o""i' $#e'"

    2. proce  "#'(#r dio*ide %a" di""o'4e" in rain ater 9 ater to $orm aid rain

    2SO2 O2  2H2Oà  2H2SO;>

    8. effect  to*i a"te 9 aid $'o" to into 'a3e" and ri4er" aid rain 'oer" te (H 4a'#e o$ ater "oi'

    and air.

    ;. Gi" and oter a/#ati or%ani"m" die.,. aid rain orrode" onrete b#i'din%" and meta' "tr#t#re"

    =. aid de"tro)" tree" in $ore"t

    F. Aid rain reat" it minera'" in "oi' to (rod#e" "a't i are 'eaed o#t te to( "oi'.@. &'ant" die o$ ma'n#trition and di"ea"e".

    . Soi' beome" aidi #n"#itab'e $or %rot o$ ('ant" and de"tro)" te root" o$ ('ant".

    10. "#'(#r dio*ide a#"e" re"(irator) (rob'em" in #man".

    ,. P.,$MER < large molecule made #( o$ identia' re(eatin% "#b#nit" o$ monomer i are

     oined to%eter b) o4a'ent bond".

    "ynthetic polymer Monomer /e

    &o')tene Etene &'a"ti ba%" ('a"ti ontainer 

    &o')(ro(ene &ro(ene &i(in% ar batterie"&o')4in)' 'oride &?C C'oroetene Arti$iia' 'eater ater (i(e

    &er"(e* Met)'metar)'ate Sa$et) %'a"" re$'etor"

    1;monomer + etene-  (o')mer +(o')etene-

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    A,,.)

    An alloy i" a mi*t#re o$ to or more e'ement" it a ertain $i*ed om(o"ition in i te maor

    om(onent i" a meta'.

    &0 Te om(o"ition (ro(ertie" and #"e" o$ "ome alloy

    Alloy Compoition Propertie /e

    Brone CuTin

    Hard and "tron%

    doe" not orrode ea"i')a" "in) "#r$ae

    in b#i'din% o$ "tat#e or mon#ment".

    in ma3in% o$ meda'""ord" and arti"ti materia'

    Bra"" CuZin

    arder tan o((er in ma3in% o$ m#"ia' in"tr#ment" and3itenare

    Stee' $ron

    Carbon

    Hard and "tron% in on"tr#tion o$ b#i'din%" and brid%e"

    in b#i'din% o$ te bod) o$ ar" and rai'a)tra3"

    Stain'e"""tee'

    $ronCarbon

    Cromi#m

    "in)"tron%

    doe" not r#"t

    in ma3in% o$ #t'er)in ma3in% o$ "#r%ia'

    in"tr#ment

    D#ra'#min AluminiumCo((er 

    Ma%ne"i#mman%ane"e

    'i%t

    "tron%

    in b#i'din% o$ te bod) o$ aero('ane and

     b#''et train"

    &eter Tin Co((er 

    antimon)

    '#"tre "in)

    "tron%

    In ma3in% o$ "o#4enir"

    Brone i" harer tan (#re o((er. E*('ain.

    Reaon:

    1. Te (re"ene o$ atom" o$ oter meta'" 9 tin tat are ifferent i9e2. Dirupt te order') arran%ement o$ o((er atom"

    8. Tin atom" reuce te layer of copper atom $rom "'idin%

    ;. A''o) i" "tron%er and harer tan (#re meta'

    2. Yo# a4e 'earnt te teel i" an a''o) o$ iron. Stee' i" arder tan pure iron. Bot iron and "tee' an r#"ten e*(o"ed to air and ater. Do they rut at the ame rate

    Aim : To om(are the rate of ruting beteen iron "tee' and "tain'e"" "tee'

    Pro!lem "tatement

    Ho# oe the rate of ruting beteen iron "tee' and "tain'e"" "tee' di$$er

    Hypothei

    Iron r#"t $a"ter tan "tee' and "tee' r#"t $a"ter tan "tain'e"" "tee'.

    Garia!le

    1,

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    Manipulate : Iron "tee' and "tain'e"" "tee'.

    Reponing : inten"it) 9 amo#nt o$ dar3 b'#e o'o#r 9 rate of ruting 

    -ixe : "ie o$ nai' onentration o$ "o'#tion d#ration o$ r#"tin%

    Proceure:

    1. C'ean te nai'" it "and (a(er +to remo4ed te r#"t $rom a'' te nai'"-

    2. &'ae te iron nai' "tee' nai' and "tain'e"" "tee' nai' into te te"t t#be A B and C re"(eti4e').

    8. &re(are a , N e'') "o'#tion b) addin% , % e'') to 100 m8

     o$ boi'in% ater. Add a $e dro( o$ potaiumhexacyanoferrate 6$$$1 "o'#tion.

    ;. &o#r te ot e'') into te te"t t#be" #nti' a'' te nai'" are $#'') immer"ed.

    ,. 7ea4e te nai'" $or 8 da)".=. Ob"er4e and reord te inten"it) o$ te dar3 b'#e o'o#r.

    Ta!ulation of ata

    Paper 2

    Concluion

    1. Te onentration o$ Ge2 ion" in te te"t t#be A i" i%er tan in te"t t#be B. >o Ge2 ion" are (re"ent in

    te"t t#be C.

    2. Te rate o$ r#"tin% in te"t t#be A i" i%er tan tat in te"t t#be B. >o r#"tin% ta3e" ('ae in te"t t#be C.A''o) "'o don te rate o$ r#"tin%.

    Propertie7 compoition an ue ifferent type of gla

    Type Propertie Chemical

    compoition

    /e

    G#"ed %'a"" ?er) i% "o$tenin% (oint

    Hi%') eat re"i"tantDoe" not ra3 en tem(erat#re an%e"

    4er) re"i"tant to emia' reation"

    di$$i#'t to be "a(ed

    SiO2 7en"e" te'e"o(e

    mirror" o(tia' $ibre"7aborator) %'a""are.

    Soda 'ime

    %'a""

    'o "o$tenin% (oint

    doe" not it"tand eatin%brea3 ea"i')

    'e"" re"i"tant to emia' reation"

    ea") to be "a(ed

    ra3" ea"i') it "#dden an%e in tem(erat#re

    SiO2CaCO8 9 >a2CO8

    G'at %'a"" 'i%t b#'b

    mirror" %'a""ontainer".

    Boro"i'iate 'oer terma' oe$$iient

    eat re"i"tant Doe" not ra3 en tem(erat#re an%e"

    4er) re"i"tant to emia' reation"

    doe" not brea3 ea"i')

    SiO2B2O8

     >a2O

    7aborator) %'a""are

    oo3in% #ten"i'".A#tomobi'e

    ead'i%t".

    7ead %'a"" 'o "o$tenin% (oint

    i% den"it)

    Hi% re$rati4e inde*

    SiO2&bO

    CaO

    Deorati4e item"

    r)"ta' %'a"" are

    'en" (ri"m ande'ier 

    Te"t t#be Te inten"it) o$ te dar3 b'#e o'o#r 99

    rate o$ r#"tin%

    A

    B

    C

    1=

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    Compoite Material i" a "tr#t#ra' materia' tat i" $ormed b) com!ining t#o or more di$$erent

    "#b"tane" "# a metal7 alloy7 gla7 ceramic an polymer.

    Compoitematerial

    Component Propertie ofcomponent

    Propertie ofcompoite

    /e ofcomponent

    Rein$ored

    onrete

    Conrete Hard b#t britt'e 'o

    ten"i'e "tren%t

    Stron%er i% ten"i'e

    "tren%t doe" not

    orrode ea"i') anit"tand i%er

    a(('ied $ore" and

    'oad" ea(er.

    Con"tr#tion o$

    $rameor3 $or

    i%a) brid%e"and i%ri"e

     b#i'din%Stee' Hard it i% ten"i'e

    "tren%t b#t e*(en"i4eand an orrode.

    S#(er

    ond#tor 

    Co((er+II-o*ide

     bari#m o*ide

    In"#'ator" o$ e'etriit) Cond#t" e'etriit) 5enerator"

    tran"$ormer"

    e'etri ab'eam('i$ier"

    om(#ter (art"MRI

    Gibre o(ti" 5'a"" o$ 'o

    re$rati4e inde*

    Tran"(arent doe" re$'et

    'i%t ra)".

    re$'et 'i%t ra)" and

    a''o 'i%t ra)" to

    tra4e' a'on% te $iber 

    Tran"mit data in te

    $orm o$ 'i%t in

    te'eomm#niation"

    5'a"" o$ i%

    re$rati4e inde*

    Gibre %'a"" 5'a"" Hea4) "tron% b#t britt'e

    and non$'e*ib'e

    7i%t "tron% to#%

    re"i'ient and $'e*ib'eit i% ten"i'e"tren%t not

    in$'ammab'e 'o

    den"it) ea"i')o'o#red "a(ed and

    mo#'ded.

    Water "tora%e

    tan3" "ma'' boate'met

    &o')e"ter ('a"ti 7i%t $'e*ib'e e'a"ti

     b#t ea3 andin$'ammab'e

    &oto

    romi

    %'a""

    5'a"" Tran"(arent doe" re$'et

    'i%t ra)".

    Sen"iti4e to 'i%t <

    dar3en" en 'i%t

    inten"it) i" i%

     beome" 'ear en'i%t inten"it) i" 'o.

    &otoromi

    o(tia' 'en" amera

    'en" ar

    ind"ie'd" o(tia'"ite" 'i%t

    inten"it) meter".

    Si'4er 'orideor "i'4er bromide

    Sen"iti4e to 'i%t

    1F

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    @ote:

    1. Cata')"t ! a "#b"tane #hich alter te rate o$ emia' reation i'e remain chemically

    unchange at te end o$ reation.

    2. .!erva!le change $or mea"#rin% te rate o$ reation.

    +a- 4o'#me o$ %a" 'iberated+b- (rei(itate $ormation

    +- an%e in ma"" d#rin% reation o'o#r tem(erat#re (re""#re

    1. Cata')"t +Man%ane"e +I?- o*ide-

    a- Deom(o"ition o$ "odi#m 'orate +?- 2>aC'O8 à  2>aC' 8O2

     b- Deom(o"ition )dro%en (ero*ide 2H2O2 à  2H2O O2

    2. Catalytic converter in te ar e*a#"t ")"tem ontain rodi#m ('atin#m or romi#m +III- o*ide Cr 2O8.

    Example:

    &0 Aim: To in4e"ti%ate te effect of temperature o$ "odi#m tio"#'(ate >a2S2O8 olution on te rate o$

    reation

    Pro!lem "tatement:

    Ho# oe tem(erat#re o$ "odi#m tio"#'(ate >a2S2O8 "o'#tion a$$et te rate o$ reation

    Hypothei:

    Wen te tem(erat#re o$ "odi#m tio"#'(ate >a2S2O8 olution inrea"e" te rate o$ reation inrea"e".99 te

    i%er te tem(erat#re o$ "odi#m tio"#'(ate olution te i%er te rate o$ reation.

    Garia!le:

    Manipulate :Tem(erat#re o$ "odi#m tio"#'(ate "o'#tion.

    Reponing :Rate o$ reation9 Time ta3en $or te ro"" Q6 to di"a((ear $rom te "i%t.

    -ixe : Concentration an volume o$ "#'(#ri aid concentration an volume o$ "odi#m

    tio"#'(ate "o'#tion.

    Apparatu : 1,0 m8 onnia' $'a"3 ,0 m8 mea"#rin% )'inder10m8 mea"#rin% )'inder "to(at

    termometer B#n"en b#rner tri(od "tand ire %a#e.

    Material: ;02 mol m4+ "odi#m tio#'(ate "o'#tion 1.0 mo' dm8 "#'(#ri aid ite (a(er mar3ed 6

    at te entre.

    Proceure

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    F.Te "to(at i" "to((ed a" "oon a" te mar3 di"a((ear $rom "i%[email protected] ta3en i" reorded.

    . Ste(" 1 to are re(eated b) #"in% te di$$erent tem(erat#re o$ "odi#m tio"#'(ate "o'#tion.

    Data an .!ervation

    Experiment Temperature 7

    6oC1

    Time taken for the K'L mark to

    iappear from vie#7 t 61

    &5 time taken 7

    &5t 6 4&1

    1 2@2 8,

    8 ;0

    ; ;,

    , ,0

    Dicuion

    Ba"ed on ('otted %ra(< a'#'ation

    Te i%er te tem(erat#re o$ "odi#m tio"#'(ate te "orter te time ta3en $or ro""Q6 to di"a((ear

    $rom te "i%t.Te rate o$ reation diret') (ro(ortiona' to te tem(erat#re o$ "odi#m tio"#'(ate "o'#tion #"ed. 99

    A" te tem(erat#re "odi#m tio"#'(ate "o'#tion inrea"e" te time ta3en derea"e". Tere$ore te rate o$ reation inrea"e".

    Concluion :

    Te rate o$ reation inrea"e" a" te tem(erat#re "odi#m tio#'(ate "o'#tion inrea"e".

    Energy profile iagram

    20

    1. Ea ! ati4ation ener%) ito#t ata')"t2. Ea  ati4ation ener%) it ata')"t

    8. E*otermi reation ! eat re'ea"ed 9%i4en o#t

    ;. Ener%) ontent in reatant" i%er tan (rod#t",. U H i" te ener%) di$$erene in reatant" and (rod#t"=. Heat %i4en o#t d#rin% !on formation i" greater tan eat

    ab"orbed d#rin% !on !reaking 

    F. E*otermi reaton. U H

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    20 Aim: to in4e"ti%ate effect of catalyt on te rate o$ deom(o"ition )dro%en (ero*ide.

    Pro!lem tatement: ho# oe a ata')"t a$$et te rate o$ deom(o"ition )dro%en (ero*ide

    Hypothei< man%ane"e +I?- o*ide MnO2 inrea"e" te rate o$ deom(o"ition o$ )dro%en (ero*ide

    Garia!le:

    Mani(#'ated < (re"ene o$ man%ane"e +I?- o*ide +MnO2-

    Re"(ondin% < rate o$ reation

    Gi*ed < onentration o$ H2O2 initia' tem(erat#re o$ H2O2 "o'#tion.

    Apparatu< te"t t#be 10 m8 mea"#rin% )'inder te"t t#be ra3 "(at#'a.

    Material: +,10- ! 4o'#me o$ H2O2 "o'#tion man%ane"e +I?- o*ide +MnO2- (oder ooden "('inter 

    Proceure:

    1. 'abe' to te"t t#be a" A and B2. "in% a mea"#rin% )'inder mea"#re , m8 o$ 20 ! 4o'#me o$ H2O2 "o'#tion and (o#r into te"t

    t#be A.

    8. Add V "(at#'a o$ man%ane"e +I?- o*ide (oder into te"t t#be A.;. Sa3e te te"t t#be.

    ,. Immediate') ('ae a %'oin% "('inter into te te"t t#be.

    =. Ob"er4e and reord te an%e".F. Re(eat te "ame (roed#re $or te"t t#be B ito#t MnO2

    .!ervation: =Paper 2>

    Tet tu!e .!ervation

    A E$$er4e"ene o#rred. Te %'oin% ooden "('inter re'i%t.

    B >o e$$er4e"ene. Te %'oin% ooden "('inter did not re'i%t.

    Dicuion:

    Man%ane"e +I?- o*ide +MnO2- inrea"e" te rate o$ deom(o"ition o$ )dro%en (ero*ide. Deom(o"ition

    o$ )dro%en (ero*ide (rod#e" o*)%en %a". 2H2O2 à 2H2O O2

    21

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    CHAPTER &&: CAR%.@ C.MP./@D

    1. Hyrocar!on ! emia' om(o#nd ontainin% car!on and hyrogen atom only.

    2. Alkene ! emia' om(o#nd ontainin% car!on an hyrogen atom and at 'ea"t

    one car!on4car!on ou!le !on 6 C C 1

    +0 $omer are mo'e#'e" it te ame molecular formula b#t it ifferent tructural formula.

    Example: C(H&; 8 !utane

    1. C2H; O H2O C2H;+OH-2  (#r('e t#rn" o'o#r'e"" 99 oran%e t#rn" %reen

    2. CH8COOH  C2HOH CH8COO C2H  H2O

    8. C2H; H2O C2H,OH

    22

    H 2SO; on"

    H 8 &O; =0 atm 800oC

    CH8COO C2H,Et)' etanoate

    CH8COOH

    Carbo*)'

    COOH

    C2H;Do#b'e bond beteen

    C atom" CC

    C=H12O=

    C2H=

    C2H,Br 

    C2H;+OH-2

    C2H;Br 2

    C2H,OH

    E"teri$iationH2SO;

    CH2 CH2

    Ad

    d

    it

    i

    o

    n

    O*idation

     Germention

    Br 2 

    H2 

    KMnO;9 H

    K 2Cr 2OF9 H

    H2O

    H6

    CnH 2n 2  n 12 a'3aneCnH2n   n 2 8 a'3ene

    CnH 2n 1 OH n 1 2 a'oo'

    CnH 2n1 COOH n01.. Carbo*)'i aid

    C2H,OH

    H)dro*)'

    OH

    KMnO;9H  9 K 2Cr 2OF9 H

    nb#tane

    2met)'(ro(ane

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    ;. C=H12O= 2C2H,OH 2CO2

    Homologou

    erie

    eneral formula -unctional group Mem!er 7 example

    A'3ane CnH2n 2 n 12.. Sin%'e o4a'ent bond

     beteen arbon atom". C C

    Etane

    A'3ene CnH2n n 2.. Do#b'e o4a'ent bond beteen arbon atom". CC

    Etene

    A'oo'" CnH2n 1 OH n 12.. H)dro*)' %ro#( 9 OH Etano'

    Carbo*)'iaid

    CnH2n 1 COOH n 012..

    Carbo*)' %ro#( COOH Etanoi aid CH8COOH

    28

    Yea"t

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    ;. Yo#r are re/#ired to (re(are one name') e"ter b) #"in% ethanoic aci i" one o$ te reatant". B) #"in% a

    namely alcohol ecri!e one e*(eriment to (re(are te e"ter. In )o#r de"ri(tion in'#de te chemical

    e

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

      te boi'in% t#be.d- Heat te #n%'aed (ore'ain i(" trongly0 

    e- Ten eat te gla #ool gently to 4a(orie te (ro(ano'.

    $- De"ri(tion o$ te chemical tet to te %a" o''eted in te te"t t#be.

    Add 1 m8 o$ !romine #ater and "a3e e''. 

    =.!ervation>:Reih !ro#n colour of !romine ecolourie

    Or

    Add 1 m8 o$ aidi$ied (ota""i#m man%anate+?II- "o'#tion and "a3e e''.

    =.!ervation>:

    Purple colour of potaium manganate6G$$1 olution ecolourie

    Chemical e

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    0 Reord a'' te data obtained.

    /nvulcanie ru!!er Gulcanie ru!!er

    Reult 5 Data

    T)(e o$ r#bber Initia' 'en%t cm 7en%t a$ter remo4a' o$ ei%t  cm 

    4#'ani"ed

    #n4#'ani"ed

    Compare an contrat the propertie of vulcani9e ru!!er

    Gulcani9e ru!!er Elaticity /nvulcanie ru!!er

    Harder Hardne"" 7e"" arder  

    More e'a"ti E'a"tiit) 7e"" e'a"ti

    Stron%er Ten"i'e "tren%t Wea3er

    Can it"tand i%er tem(erat#re Re"i"tane to eat Cannot it"tand i%er

    tem(erat#re

    7e"" ea"i') o*idied Re"i"tane to o*idation More ea"i') o*idied

    Doe" not beome "o$t and "ti3) ea"i') E$$et o$ or%ani "o'4ent Beome "o$t and "ti3) ea"i')

    Concluion:

    1. Gulcanie ru!!er i" more elatic tan #n4#'ani"ed r#bber d#e to te (re"ene o$ cro4linkage ofulfur atom beteen te r#bber mo'e#'e". ?#'ani"ed r#bber o#'d ret#rn to it" ori%ina' 'en%t a$ter 

    remo4a' o$ te ei%t.

    To prepare vulcanie ru!!er

    R#bber an be 4#'anied b) di((in% nat#ra' r#bber "eet" into iulphur ichlorie olution

      in methyl!en9ene or eated it ulphur0

    @ote:

    ?#'ani"ed r#bber i more heat reitance d#e to te (re"ene o$ cro4linkage of ulfur atomincreae the i9e of ru!!er molecule. Gore o$ attration beteen mo'e#'e" i'' inrea"e.

    2F

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    B0 Compare and ifferentiate beteen name') alkene and alkane

    Alkane 6 hexane 1 Alkene 6 hexene 1

    1 H)droarbon + ontain C and H atom-2 7o me'tin% and boi'in% (oint

    8 In"o'#b'e in ater "o'#b'e in or%ani "o'4ent

    ; Cannot ond#t e'etriit)

    , Den"it) 'e"" tan ater  

    = Com('ete') omb#"tion (rod#e CO2  H2O

    F Sat#rated "in%'e o4a'ent bond CC n"at#rated ontain at 'ea"t one do#b'e bond CC

    @ nreati4e ! #nder%o "#b"tit#tion it

    a'o%en in te (re"ene o$ "#n'i%t 9 ? ra)

    Reati4e ! #nder%o addition reation+ )dro%enation

    a'o%enation" o*idation (o')meriation it a'ide

    "team+)dration-

    5enera' $orm#'a CnH2n2  n 12 CnH2n  n 2

    10 $entify tet1. Comb#"tion b#rn 'e"" "oot $'ame.

    +N o$ arbon (er mo'e#'e i" 'oer-

    1. More "oot $'ame.

    + N o$ arbon (er mo'e#'e i" i%er-.

    Chemical tet

    2. add bromine ater !ro#n o'o#rremain"

    8. add aidi$ied KMnO;  purple o'o#rremain"

    2. deo'oried !ro#n bromine ater 

    8. purple o'o#r i" deo'o#ried

    2@

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    CHAPTER &2: RED.'

    Reox reaction are emia' reation" in4o'4in% oxiation an reuction o#rrin% imultaneouly.

    &0 Tran"$er o$ e'etron M% à  M%2  2e 99 C#2  2e à  C#

    20 7o"" or %ain o*)%en C 2C#O à  2C# CO2

    +0 7o"" or %ain )dro%en H2S C'2 à  2HC' "

    (0 an%e" in o*idation n#mber 

     Ruting of iron

    1. Wen iron e*(o"ed to #ater and oxygen 2. Iron atom re'ea"e" 2 electron to $orm iron 6$$1 ion Ge2 9 i" o*idied to $orm iron +II- ion Ge2 

    8. Ge à  Ge2  2e 99 +anode- = oxiation>

    ;. Iron at" a" reucing agent

    ,. O*)%en and ater receive 5gain electron to $orm )dro*ide ion".=. O2  2H2O ;e à  ;OH

      +atode- =reuction>

    F. O*)%en at" a oxii9ing agent.@. Iron +II- ion Ge2 ombine it )dro*ide ion OH to $orm iron +II- )dro*ide Ge+OH-2.

    . Iron +II- )dro*ide Ge+OH-2 o*idied b) o*)%en to $orm iron 6$$$1 oxie !ro#n oli5precipitate

    Ge2O8.* H2O. 99 Ge2 à  Ge8 e

    Effect of the contact of other metal on the ruting of iron0

    2

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    Aim : To in4e"ti%ate the effect o$ in ontat o$ oter meta'" on ter#"tin% o$ iron.

    Pro!lem tatement<Ho doe" te effect on r#"tin% en iron i" in ontat it anoter meta' 99

    Ho doe" di$$erent t)(e o$ meta' in ontat it affect te r#"tin% o$ iron

    Hypothei :Wen a more e'etro(o"iti4e meta' i" in contact it iron te meta' inhi!it r#"tin%.

    Wen a 'e"" e'etro(o"iti4e meta' i" in contact it iron te meta' pee up te r#"tin%.

    Garia!le:

    Mani(#'ated < T)(e o$ meta' tat in ontat it iron.

    Re"(ondin% < R#"tin% o$ ironGi*ed < Iron nai'" tem(erat#re medi#m in i iron nai'" are 3e(t.

    Apparatu < Te"t t#be te"t t#be ra3 

    Material : iron nai'" ma%ne"i#m ribbon o((er "tri( in "tri( tin "tri( ot e'') "o'#tion (ota""i#me*a)ano$erat +III- K 8Ge+C>-= "o'#tion (eno'(ta'ein indiator "and (a(er.

    Proceure:

    1. Gi4e iron nai'" ma%ne"i#m ribbon o((er "tri( in "tri( and tin "tri( ere 'eaned it "and (a(er.

    2. Go#r iron nai'" ere oi'ed ti%t') it te ma%ne"i#m ribbon o((er "tri( in "tri( and tin "tri(

      re"(eti4e').8. A'' $i4e iron nai'" ere ('aed in "e(arate te"t t#be.

    ;. Te 4o'#me o$ ot e'') "o'#tion tat a" mi*ed it a 'itt'e K 8Ge+C>-= "o'#tion and (eno'(ta'ein

    indiator a" (o#red into te ea te"t t#be to om('ete') o4er a'' te nai'".,. Te te"t t#be" ere 3e(t in a te"t t#be ra3 and ere a"ide $or a da).=. A'' ob"er4ation" ere reorded.

    .!ervation

    Meta' Ob"er4ation

    Inten"it) o$ dar3 

     b'#e o'o#ration

    Inten"it) o$ (in3 

    o'o#ration

    Condition o$ nai'

    Ge 7o Te "#r$ae o$ te nai' a" (artia'') o4ered it

    reddi" bron "o'id

    Ge

    M%

    Hi% >o reddi" bron "o'id a" $o#nd on te "#r$ae o$

    te nai'.GeZn Hi% >o reddi" bron "o'id a" $o#nd on te "#r$ae o$

    te nai'.

    GeSn Moderate 7o Te o'e "#r$ae o$ te nai' a" o4ered it

    reddi" bron "o'id

    GeC# Hi% 7o Te o'e "#r$ae o$ te nai' a" ea4i') o4ered

    it reddi" bron "o'id

    Te nai' in te"t t#be A r#"ted a 'itt'e. >o r#"tin% o#rred to te nai'" in te"t t#be" B and C .Te nai' in te"t

    t#be D r#"ted b#t te nai' in te"t t#be E r#"ted e4en more.

    80

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    1. Si'4er M and 7

    2. 7 an di"('ae "i'4er $rom "i'4er nitrate "o'#tion.

    8. 7 i" more e'etro(o"iti4e tan "i'4er 99 7 i" i%er tan "i'4er in e'etroemia' "erie".;. M meta' an di"('ae "i'4er $rom "i'4er nitrate "o'#tion.

    ,. M i" more e'etro(o"iti4e tan "i'4er 99 M i" i%er tan "i'4er in te e'etroemia' "erie".

    =. M annot di"('ae 7 $rom 7 nitrate "o'#tion.

    F. M i" 'e"" e'etro(o"iti4e tan 7 99 7 i" i%er tan M in te e'etroemia' "erie".

    20 Diplacement of Halogen:

    Aim: To invetigate oxiation an reuction in the iplacement of halogen from it halie olution0

    Proceure:

    &0 Pour 2m cm+ of potaium !romie olution into a tet tu!e0

    20 A 2 cm+ of chlorine #ater to the tet tu!e an hake the mixture0

    +0 A 2 cm+ of &7&7&4trichloroethane 5 tetrachlorometane to the tet tu!e an hake the mixture an

    leave it on the tet tu!e rack 

    (0 Recor theo!ervation00 Repeat tep & to ( uing another halogen an halie olution0

    Ta!ulation of ata:

      Halogen

    Halie

     olution

    Chlorine %romine $oine

    Potaium chlorie ' '

    Potaium !romine 5 '

    Potaium ioie 5 5

     

    Example: Cl2  ? 2I$ 2ICl ? $2  55 Cl2  ? 2$4  $2  ? 2Cl

    4

    82

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    Cl2 ? 2e 2Cl4  6 reuction1 2$4  $2 ? 2e 6oxiation

    +0 Tranfer of electron at a itance 8 /4tu!e

    Proceure:

    1. 'am( a t#be to a retort "tand

    2. (o#r di'#te "#'(#ri aid8. add "olution 6oxii9ing agent1 into one end o$ te arm o$ te t#be

    ;. Add olution 6reucing agent1 into te oter end.,. ('ae 9 di( arbon e'etrode" into ea arm o$ te t#be=. onnet te e'etrode" to a 4o'tmeter9 %a'4anometer #"in% onnetin% ire

    F. 'ea4e te a((arat#" $or 80min#te"

    @. reord te ob"er4ation

    ;. Ba"ed on e'etron tran"$er 7 E'P,A$@ te o*idation and red#tion reation in

      +i- Can%in% o$ Ge2 ion" to Ge8 ion"

      +ii- Can%in% o$ Ge8

     ion" to Ge2

    ion" 

    "e a uita!le example $or ea o$ te reation. In'#de a'$ e/#ation" in )o#r an"er.

    "ample an#er:

    6i1a. Ge2  →  Ge8  e

     b. Br 2  2e →  2Br ! 

    2. Iron +II- ion" re'ea"e" 9 donate" e'etron to beome iron+III- ion". Iron+II- ion" are o*idied.8. Bromine mo'e#'e" reei4e9 %ain e'etron" to $orm bromide ion". Bromine mo'e#'e" are red#ed.

    +an) "#itab'e o*idiin% a%ent C'2 KMnO;9H -

    6ii11. Ge8 e →  Ge2 

    2. Zn →  Zn2 2e

    8. Iron+III- ion" %ain e'etron to beome iron+II- ion". Iron+III- ion" are red#ed.

    ;. Zin atom" re'ea"e"9 donate" e'etron" to $orm in ion". Zin atom" are o*idied.+a< an) "#itab'e red#in% a%ent-

    88

     (ota""i#m iodide "o'#tion bromine ater 

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    ,. De"ribe an experiment to in4e"ti%ate o*idation and red#tion in te an%e o$ iron+II- ion" to iron+III-ion" and 4ie 4er"a.

      +i- Changing of -e2? ion to -e+? ion

    Proceure:

    1. &o#r 2 m8 o$ $re"') (re(ared iron+II-"#'(ate "o'#tion into a te"t t#be.

    2. "in% dro((er add bromine ater dro( b) dro( #nti' no $#rter an%e" are ob"er4ed.8. Heat "'o') 9 %ent')

    ;. Add 8 dro(" o$ (ota""i#m e*a)ano$errate +II- "o'#tion 9 "odi#m )dro*ide "o'#tion.

    ,. Dar3 b'#e (rei(itate 99 bron (rei(itate $ormed.

      +ii- Changing of -e+? ion to -e2? ion

    Proceure:

    1. &o#r 2 m8 o$ iron+III-"#'(ate "o'#tion into a te"t t#be.

    2. Add a'$ "(at#'a o$ in 9 M% (oder  to te "o'#tion.

    8. Sa3e te mi*t#re #nti' no $#rter an%e" are ob"er4ed.

    ;. Gi'ter te mi*t#re.,. Add 8 dro(" o$ (ota""i#m e*a)ano$errate +III- "o'#tion 9 "odi#m )dro*ide "o'#tion into the filtrate.

    =. Dar3 b'#e (rei(itate 99 %reen (rei(itate $ormed.

    Reactivity erie

    &0 reactive metal #ith oxygen

    Aim: 1. to in4e"ti%ate te reati4it) o$ meta' it o*)%en

      2. To arran%e meta'" in term o$ teir reati4it) it o*)%en

    Proceure:

    1. t one "(at#'a o$ (ota""i#m man%anate+?II- KMnO; 

    into a boi'in% t#be.2. " "ome %'a"" oo' into te boi'in% t#be and 'am( orionta'').

    8. &'ae one "(at#'a ma%ne"i#m (oder on a (iee o$ a"be"to" (a(er 

      and (#t into te boi'in% t#be.

    ;. Heat ma%ne"i#m (oder  trongly and ten eat te "o'id KMnO;.,. Ob"er4e and reord o vigorou the reaction and o'o#r o$

    te re"id#e en it i" hot an #hen it i col.

    2Mg ? .2  2Mg.

    8;

     >aCa

    M%A'

    C

    Zn

    H

    Ge

    Sn

    &bC#

    H%A%A#

    &o"ition" o$arbon and

    )dro%en in te

    reatin% "erie"

    o$ meta'

    &rod#e o*)%en

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    20 hyrogen ga #ith oxie of le

    reactive metal

    H2  ? P!. P! ? H2.

    +0 car!on #ith oxie metal

    C ? 2Cu. 2Cu ? C.2

    Aim:

    To determine te (o"ition o$ arbon in te

    reati4it) "erie" o$ meta'"

    Proceure:

    1. Mi* toro#%') a "(at#'a o$ arbon (oder and

    a "(at#'a o$ o((er+II-o*ide in a r#ib'e.

    2. Heat te mi*t#re trongly08. Reord te ob"er4ation.

    ;. Re(eat "te(" 1 to 8 #"in% ma%ne"i#m o*ide a'#mini#m o*ide and in o*ide to re('ae

    o((er+II-o*ide.

    (0 Car!on ioxie #ith metalC.2  ? 2Mg 2Mg. ? C

    Application of reactivity erie in the extraction of metal

    E*tration o$ iron $rom it" ore" ematite Ge2O8E*tration o$ tin $rom it" ore" a""iterite SnO2 in !lat furnace  arbon 9 o3e a" a red#in% a%ent.

    E*am('e<C O2 à CO2

    C CO2 à 2CO

    C CO2  2CO red#ed te iron o*ide" to iron

    8,

    O*idiin% red#in%

    a%ent a%ent

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    2 Ge2O8  8C à  ;Ge 8CO2

      Ge2O8  8CO à  2Ge 2CO2

      CaCO8 à  CaO CO2 + 'ime "tone deom(o"ed-

      CaO SiO2 à  CaSiO8 + im(#ritie" -

    Reox reaction in variou chemical cell

    8=

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    CHAPTER &+: THERM.CHEM$"TR)

    1. Exothermic 

     ! A emia' reation tat give out heat to te "#rro#ndin%" Te reatant" 'o"e eat ener%) to $orm te (rod#t"

    Te ener%) ontent o$ reatant" i" higher tan (rod#t"

    XH ne%ati4e2. Ener%) 'e4e' dia%ram +'abe' energy reatant" and (rod#t it orret emia' 9 ioni $orm#'a eat o$

    reation it unit.

    8. Heat o$ reation ! eat an%e9re'ea"e" en & mole o$ (rod#t $ormed. 3Jmo' 

    mCǾ

      9 mo'e

      Heat o$ ne#tra'iation ! eat re'ea"e" en & mole of H? ombine" it & mol of .H4  to $orm

    & mole of #ater. H? ? .H4  H2.

    ;. Heat o$ omb#"tion ! eat re'ea"e" en & mole o$ a'oo' b#rnt om('ete') in e*e"" o*)%en.

    C2H.H ? +.2  2C.2  ? +H2.

    ,. A" te n#mber o$ arbon atom (er mo'e#'e inrea"e" te eat o$ omb#"tion inrea"e" d#e to more

    prouct forme +CO2 H2O- . Tere$ore more eat re'ea"ed en more !on are forme.

    8F

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    =. To determine eat o$ omb#"tion +materia' and a((arat#" (roed#re tab#'ation o$ data a'#'ation

    ob"er4ation" (rea#tion"-.

    Proceure:

    1. +100 ! 200- m8 o$ #ater i" mea"#red #"in% a mea"#rin% )'inder

    2. and (o#red into a o((er tin.

    8. Te initia' tem(erat#re o$ ater i" mea"#red and reorded 1;. A "(irit 'am( i" $i''ed it b#tano'9 oter a'oo' and ei%ed * %ram

    ,.Te "(irit 'am( i" 'i%t and (#t #nder te o((er an.

    =.Te ater i" "tirred ontin#o#"') it a termometer.F.Wen te tem(erat#re o$ ater  increae !y +;oC te $'ame i" (#t o$$.

    @.Te "(irit 'am( i" ei%ed a%ain ) %ram

    .Te i%e"t tem(erat#re i" reorded 2

    Reult:

    Ma"" o$ ei%t o$ "(irit 'am( b#tano' 9% *

    Gina' ma"" o$ "(irit 'am( b#tano' 9% )Ma"" o$ b#tano' #"ed9% +*)- 99

    Hi%e"t tem(erat#re o$ ater 9oC 1Initia' tem(erat#re o$ ater 9oC 2Inrea"ed in tem(erat#re 9oC +1 2 - 99 8

    Calculation:

    Heat an%e m

      100 * ;.2 * +2 ! 1-  a J

    Precaution: 

    1. Ma3e "#re te $'ame $rom te omb#"tion o$ etano' to#e" te bottom o$ te o((er an 99 Te

    "(irit 'am( i" ('aed 4er) 'o"e or #"t beneat te bottom o$ te o((er an.2. "tir te ater in te o((er an ontin#o#"').

    8. Te "(irit 'am( m#"t be ei%ed immediate') +bea#"e te etano' i" 4er) 4o'ati'e-.

    ;. A #in hiel m#"t be #"ed d#rin% e*(eriment.

    Heat of iplacement

    Aim: To determine te eat o$ di"('aement o$ o((er b) in and iron

    Proceure:1. Mea"#re 2, m8 o$ 0.2 mo' dm8 o$ o((er+II-"#'(ate "o'#tion and (o#r into a ('a"ti #( 9 (o')"trene #(.

    2. Reord te initia' tem(erat#re o$ te "o'#tion.8. &o#r 0.,% o$ in (oder into te "o'#tion.

    ;. Stir te mi*t#re it termometer

    ,. Mea"#re and reord te highet temperature o$ te reatin% mi*#tre.

    Ta!ulation of ata:

    Metal $nitial temperature7 oC Highet temperature7 oC

    8@

    Heat o$ omb#"tion o$ b#tano' a J

    +9F;- mo'

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    inc

    $ron

    Heat of precipitation

    Aim: To etermine the heat of precipitaion of ilver chlorie7 AgCl

    Apparatu: ('a"ti #( termometer mea"#rin% )'inder

    Material : "i'4er nitrate "o'#tion 0., mo' dm8

      "odi#m 'oride "o'#tion 0., mo' dm8

    Proceure:

    1. Mea"#re 20 m8  0., mo' dm8  o$ "i'4er nitrate "o'#tion and (o#r into ('a"ti #(.2. Mea"#re and reord te initia' tem(erat#re o$ "i'4er nitrate "o'#tion.

    8. Mea"#re 20 m8  0., mo' dm8  o$ "odi#m 'oride "o'#tion and (o#r into ('a"ti #(.

    ;. Mea"#re and reord te initia' tem(erat#re o$ "odi#m 'oride "o'#tion.,. Add te "odi#m 'oride "o't#ion" into te "i'4er nitrate "o'#tion H; >O8-   Ca'i#m 'oride or

    ma%ne"i#m "#'(ate

    "odi#m aetate r)"ta'"

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    CHAPTER &(: CHEM$CA," -.R C.@"/MER"

    Example:

    1. +a- A "t#dent a"ed i" "o3" i ad oi') "tain". E*('ain te 'ean"in% ation o$ "oa( on te oi')"tain".In ater oap ioni9e to $orm ion"9anion CH8+CH2-* C..4  and ation "odi#m ion" >a

    Te anion" on"i"t" o$ hyrophilic part  + COO - and hyropho!ic part +)droarbon-

    Hyrophilic part iolve in #ater on') b#t )dro(obi (art di""o'4e in %rea"e on').Te anion reuce urface tenion of #ater a#"in% ettin% o$ %rea") "#r$ae.

    D#rin% a"in% and "r#bbin% te anion" (#'' te %rea"e and 'i$ted it o$$ te "#r$ae and brea3 it into

    a "ma'' dro('et" +Em#'"i$)in% a%ent-Rin"in% aa) te dirt) ater remo4e" te %rea"e +te dirt- and e*e"" "oa( and te "#r$ae i" 'ean.

    +b- Anoter "t#dent arriedo#t $o#r e*(eriment" to

    in4e"ti%ate te 'ean"in% e$$et

    o$ "oa( and deter%ent onoi') "tain" in "o$t ater and

    ard ater re"(eti4e').

    ;0

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    Compare te 'ean"in% e$$et beteen+i- E*(eriment" I and II

    +ii- E*(eriment II and I?

    Explain the ifference in the o!ervation

    Exp0 $ an $$

    Te oi') "tain di"a((ear" in E*(eriment I b#t remain" oi') in E*(eriment II.

    Har #ater contain Ca2? an Mg2? ion i reat" it "oa( ion" to $orm

    cum 6inolu!le alt1

    Te $ormation o$ "#m ma3e" anion" 'e"" e$$iient $or 'eanin% te oi') "tain on te "o3 In "o$t ater a'' anion" are #"ed to 'ean te oi') "tain

    T#" "oa( i" on') e$$eti4e a" a 'ean"in% a%ent in "o$t ater and ine$$eti4e in ard ater.

    Exp0 $$ an $G

    Te "o3 in E*(eriment II remain" oi') b#t i" 'ean in e*(eriment I?.Te "oa( anion" $orm "#m en reat" it Ca2 and M%2 ion" in ard ater.Te $ormation o$ "#m ma3e" anion" 'e"" e$$iient $or 'eanin%

    Te deter%ent anion" CH8+CH2-* .".+4  9 CH8+CH2-*  ".+

    4  do not $orm a (rei(itate it Ca2

    and M%2 in ard ater.

    Hene deter%ent 'ean" e$$eti4e') in ard ater b#t "oa( doe" not 'ean e$$eti4e') in ard ater.

    20 Preparation of oap

    Proceure

    1. (o#r 10 m8 (a'm oi' + 4e%etab'e oi' - into a bea3er 2. add ,0 m8 o$ 0; mol m4+  >aOH 9 KOH "o'#tion

    8. eat te mi*t#re $or +10 min#te"-

    ;. "tir,. "to( eatin% add ,0 m8 di"ti''ed ater and oli @aCl=. boi' te mi*t#re $or , min#te"

    F. oo'@. $i'ter a" 9 rin"e

    . dr) + (re"" te re"id#e beteen $i'ter (a(er"

    ;1

    O

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    Tet

    10. &'ae a "ma'' amo#nt o$ te re"id#e into a te"t t#be add di"ti''ed ater "a3e it e''.

      (rod#e a 'ot o$ 'ater + 4er) $oam)-

    .!ervation < ite "o'id "'i((er) and (rod#e a 'ot o$ 'ater + 4er) $oam)-.

    Chemical e

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    Concluion:

    1. Hard ater ontain" M%2 or Ca2. Soa( anion $ormed cum +in"o'#b'e "a't- en react it M%2 or Ca2.

    2. Soa( i" not an e$$eti4e 'ean"in% a%ent in ard ater b#t on') e$$eti4e in "o$t ater.

    Compare an contrat oap an etergent

    "oap Detergent

    Sodi#m arbo*)'ate Sodi#m a'3)' "#'(ate Sodi#m a'3)'benene "#'(onate

    Materia' < $at 4e%etab'e oi'

     >aOH 9 KOH mo' dm8&etro'e#m $ration" < 'on% ain

    a'oo' >aOH 9 KOH

    , mo' dm8  H2SO;

    &etro'e#m $ration" < 'on% ain

    a'3ene >aOH 9 KOH

    , mo' dm8 H2SO; 

    &re(aration

    Sa(oni$iation 

    1. "#'(onation

    2. ne#tra'iation

    1. a'3)'ation

    2. "#'(onation

    8. ne#tra'iation

    The aitive in etergent

    Type -unction Example

    Gra%rane" To add $ra%rane to bot te deter%ent and

    $abri"

    Bio'o%ia'

    en)me"

    To remo4e (rotein "tain" "# a" b'ood Am)'a"e" (rotea"e" e''#'o"e" 'i(a"e"

    Witenin% a%ent" To on4ert "tain" into o'o#r'e""

    "#b"tane"

    Sodi#m (erborate

    S#"(en"ion a%ent" To (re4ent te dirt (arti'e" remo4ed $rom

    rede(o"itin% onto 'eaned $abri"

    Carbo*)met)'e''#'o"e +CMC-

    Gi''er" To add to te b#'3 o$ te deter%ent and

    enab'e it to be (o#r ea"i')

    Sodi#m "#'(ate "odi#m "i'iate

    O(tia' itenin% To add bri%tne"" and itene"" to ite

    $abri".

    G'#ore"ent d)e"

    ;8

    CH8 +CH2-1, COO >a

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    B#i'der To enane te 'eanin% e$$iien) o$

    deter%ent b) "o$tenin% te ater 

    Sodi#m tri(o')(o"(ate

    -oo aitive

    Type -unction Example

    &re"er4ati4e" To "'o don9 (re4ent te%rot o$ miroor%ani"m

    tere$ore $ood an 3e(t $or'on%er (eriod" o$ time

    "alt5ugar< ra# the #ater o#t o$ te e''" o$miroor%ani"m and retar the gro#th of

    microorganim0Ginegar: (ro4ide" an aidi ondition tat inhi!it the

    gro#th of microorganim0

    @a@.+ +B#r%er-

    %en9oic aci 5 oium !en9oate< to lo# o#n the

    gro#th of microorganim0

    Antio*idant" To (re4ent o*idation tat ana#"e" ranid $at" and bron

    $r#it"

    Acor!ic aci and vitamin E +Too(ero'-

    G'a4orin%" To im(ro4e te ta"te o$ $ood

    and re"tore ta"te 'o"" bea#"eo$ (roe""in%.

    S#%ar "a't MS5 4ine%ar a"(artame and ")nteti

    e""ene" +e"ter-

    Stabi'ier" To (re4ent em#'"ion $rom

    "e(aratin% o#t.

    7eitin $att) aid

    Ti3ener" It" #"e to ti3en $ood" &etin aaia %#m %e'atin

    D)e" To add or re"tore te o'o#r in

    $ood in order to enane it"

    4i"#a' a((ea' and maton"#mer" e*(etation".

     >at#ra' d)e" and arti$iia' d)e"< A9o compoun ortriphenyl compoun0

    Meicine

    Type -unction Example Effect on health

    Ana'%e"i To re'ie4e (ain ito#t a$$eted

    on"io#"ne""

    A"(irin Interna' b'eedin% and

    #'erationan a#"e brain and 'i4er

    dama%e to i'dren

    &araetamo' O4er do"e an a#"e brain and

    'i4er dama%e

    ;;

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    Codeine Addition de(re""ion and

    na#"ea

    Antibioti" To treat in$etion" a#"e b)

     bateria +t#ber#'o"i" TB- and

    pneumonia. Can 3i'' or "'odon te %rot o$ bateria.

    &enii''in

    + Penicillium

    notatum)

    Can a#"e a''er%i reation.

    Stre(tom)in Can a#"e na#"ea 4omitin%

    diine"" ra"e" $e4er 

    &")otera(e#ti To a'ter te abnorma' tin3in%$ee'in%" and bea4ior". Di4ide

    into 8 ate%orie" <

    a- timulant< to red#e $ati%#e

     b- antiepreant:

    to red#e ten"ion and an*iet)

    - antipychotic: to treat (")iatri i''ne""

    Amphetamine

    Hi% do"e an 'ead to an*iet)a''#ination" "e4ere

    de(re""ion and (")o'o%ia'

    de(endene.

    %ar!iturate 5

    tran

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    CHEMISTRY 2012 HJH ROSSITA RADZAK 

    "ome common meical plant an their function