chemistry perfect score & x a plus module 2012 final 5 sept

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Chemistry Perfect Score Module 2012 1 BAHAGIAN PENGURUSAN SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH DAN SEKOLAH KECEMERLANGAN MODUL PERFECT SCORE& X A-PLUS SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH TAHUN 2012 PANEL PENYEDIA DAN PEMURNI: PN HJH WAN NOOR AFIFAH BT WAN YUSOFF SBPI GOMBAK PN HJH AISHAH PEONG BT ABDULLAH SBPI TEMERLOH TN HJ JA'AFAR B BAJURI SMS SULTAN MAHMUD PN. NORINI BT JAAFAR SEKOLAH SULTAN ALAM SHAH TN HJ CHE MALEK B MAMAT SBPI BATU RAKIT PN. ROSSITA BT RADZAK SMS TUANKU MUNAWIR EN JONG KAK YING SMS KUCHING EN OOI YOONG SEANG SMS MUAR CHE RAMLI B CHE ISMAIL SMS FARIS PETRA PN MASODIAH BT MAHFODZ SMS HULU SELANGOR PN. NORAINI BT ZAKARIA SMS SULTAN MOHAMAD JIWA CHEMISTRY 4541

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Chemistry Perfect Score Module 20121 BAHAGIAN PENGURUSAN SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH DAN SEKOLAH KECEMERLANGAN MODULPERFECT SCORE& X A-PLUS SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH TAHUN 2012 PANEL PENYEDIA DAN PEMURNI: PN HJH WAN NOOR AFIFAH BT WAN YUSOFF SBPI GOMBAK PN HJH AISHAH PEONG BT ABDULLAHSBPI TEMERLOH TN HJ JA'AFAR B BAJURI SMS SULTAN MAHMUD PN. NORINI BT JAAFARSEKOLAH SULTAN ALAM SHAH TN HJCHE MALEK B MAMATSBPI BATU RAKIT PN. ROSSITA BT RADZAKSMS TUANKU MUNAWIR EN JONG KAK YINGSMS KUCHING EN OOI YOONG SEANGSMS MUAR CHE RAMLI B CHE ISMAILSMSFARIS PETRA PN MASODIAH BT MAHFODZSMS HULU SELANGOR PN. NORAINI BT ZAKARIASMS SULTAN MOHAMAD JIWA CHEMISTRY 4541 Chemistry Perfect Score Module 20122 CHEMISTRY PERFECT SCORE & X A PLUS MODULE 2012 CONTENT 1 Guidelines & Anwering Techniques Format of an instrument of chemistry Construct requirement Guidelines for answering paper 1 Guidelines for answering paper 2 Guidelines for answering paper 3 The common command words in paper 22Set 1 The structure of Atom Chemical Formulae and equations Periodic Table of Elements Chemical Bonds 3Set 2 Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction 4Set 3 Acids and Bases Salts Rate of reaction Thermochemistry 5Set 4 Carbon compounds Manufactured Substance in Industry Chemicals for Consumers 6Set 5 Paper 3 set 1 Paper 3 set 2 Paper 3 set 3 Paper 3 set 4 Paper 3 set 5 Chemistry Perfect Score Module 20123 CHEMISTRYPERFECT SCORE & X A PLUSMODULE GUIDELINES & ANSWERING TECHNIQUES CHEMISTRY SPM Chemistry Perfect Score Module 20124 GUIDELINES AND ANSWERING TECHNIQUES FOR SPM CHEMISTRY PAPER 1.0 FORMAT OF AN INSTRUMENT OF CHEMISTRY BEGINNING SPM 2003 NoItemPaper 1 (4541/1) Paper 2 (4541/2) Paper 3 (4541/3) 1Type of instrumentObjective testSubjective testWritten Practical Test 2 Type of itemObjective itSection A :Structured Item Section B : Essay restricted response Item Section C : Essay extended response Item Subjective Item : Structured ItemExtended Response Item: (Planning an experiment) 3 Number of question 50 (answers all)Section A : 6 (answer all) Section B : 2 (choose one) Section C : 2 (choose one) Structured Item :1/2 items (answer all)Extended Response Item : 1 item 5 Duration of time1 hour 15 minutes 2 hour 30 minutes1 hour 30 minutes 2.0CONSTRUCT REQUIREMENT ConstructPaper1Paper 2Paper3 Knowledge20 m ( No 1- 20)14 - Understanding15 m ( No 21 35)21 - Application15 m ( No 36 50)29 - Analysis-21 - Synthesizing-15 - Science process--50Total mark5010050 3.0TIPS TO SCORE A CHEMISTRY 3.1Master the topics that contains the basic concepts of chemistry : 1.The structure of the atom 2.Chemical Formulae And Equations 3.Periodic Table 4.Chemical Bond 3.2FamiliarizewithdifferenttypesofquestionsaslistedbelowandcompletethepreviousSPM papers:1.Objectives questions (MCQ) (Paper 1)2.Structured questions ( Paper 2 & 3)3.Essays (Paper 2) 4.Planning an experiment ( Paper 3)5.Draw and label the diagram6.Writing chemical equation( balanced equation, ionic equation, half equation) 3.3Try to get :- 40 marks above for paper 160 marks above for paper 2 40 marks above for paper 3(Total= 180/2=80 , A+ in SPM) Chemistry Perfect Score Module 20125 4.0GUIDELINE FOR ANSWERING PAPER 1 4.1Paper 1 questions test students on 1. Knowledge ( Number 1 20) 2.Understanding( Number 21 35) 3.Application( Number 36 50 ) 4.2Score in paper 1 Indicates students level of understanding in chemistry: Less than 20 very weak 20 25 - weak 26 30 - average31 39- good 40 45- very good 46 50- excellent. 4.3Answerall SPM objective questions (2003 2010). Objective questions for each year contain all topics. If your score in paper 1 is 40 and above, you will able to answer questions in paper 2 & 3 easily. 5.0GUIDELINE FOR ANSWERING PAPER 2 (STRUCTURE AND ESSAY) 5.1Paper 2 questions test student on1.Knowledge 2.understanding3.analyzing4.synthesizing 5.2Steps taken are:1.Underline the command word and marks allocated for each question. 2.Match the command word to the mark allocated for each question. 1 point is awarded 1 mark. 3.Follow the needs of the question (Refer to the command words, page .) 4.Unnecessary repetition of the statement in the question is not required. 5.3Three types of questions which involve experiments in paper 2: I.Type1 Describe an experiment onInclude a labeled diagram in your answer 1.Diagram2.Procedure3.Observation/example/data/calculation/equation/sketch of graph/conclusion II.Type2 Describe an experiment( The diagram will support your answer.) 1.Nomark is allocatedfor a diagram2.Procedures3.Observation/example/calculation/equation/sketch of graph/conclusion III.Type 3 Describe a chemical/confirmatory test for . 1.Procedure 2.Observation 3.Conclusion Chemistry Perfect Score Module 20126 6.0GUIDELINE FOR ANSWERING PAPER 3 6.1Consist of 1 or 2 Structure Questionthattest the mastery of 11 Scientific Skills 1.Observing2.Classifying 3.Inferring 4.Measuring (burette , stopwatch, thermometer, voltmeter) 5.Predicting 6.Communicating( e.gconstruct table and draw graph) 7.Space-Time Relationship 8.Interpreting Data 9.Defining Operationally 10.Controlling Variables 11.Hypothesizing Mark allocated for each answeris : 3 marks/2 marks/1 mark/0Score : 11 X 3 = 33 Operational definition: 1. what you do 2. what you observe correctly Example: 1. When acid is added into latex, white solid is formed. When acid is added into latex, latex coagulated.- wrong2. When the higher the concentration sodium thiosulphate solution is added into sulphuric acid, time taken for `X~ mark to disappear from sight is shorter. 3. When iron nail is coiled with copper and immersed into jelly mixed with potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) and phenolphthalein solution, blue spot/colouration isformed. Operational definition forWhat you doWhat is observed 1.Rusting of ironWhen an iron nail coiled with a less electropositive metal is immersed in hot agar-agar added with potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) solution, Blue spots are formed 2.Coagulation of latexWhen acid is added to latexWhite solid is formed 3.Reactivity of Group 1 elements When a metal which is lower in Group 1 is put in a basin half filled with water Brighter flame is formed 4.Precipitation of silver chloride When silver nitrate solution is added to sodium chloride solution White solid is formed 5.Voltaic cellWhen two different metals are dipped into an electrolyte The needle of the voltmeter deflects 6.An acidWhena blue litmus paper is dipped into a substancewhich is dissolved in water, Blue litmus paper turns red Hypothesis: Relate manipulated variable followed by responding variable with direction. Example:1.The higher temperature of the reactant the higher the rate of reaction 3 marks The temperature of the reactant affect the rate of reaction 2 marks 2. Hexenedecolourised brown bromine water but hexane does not decolourised brown bromine water. 3. When acid is added into latex, latex coagulates, when ammonia is added into latex, latex cannot coagulates 4.Question 3 (essay) Test The Mastery of Planning Experiment. Chemistry Perfect Score Module 20127 Planning should include the following aspects: 1.Aim of the experiment/Statement of the problem 2.All the variables3.Statement of the hypothesis 4.List of substances/material and apparatus should be separated 5.Procedure of the experiment 6.Tabulation of dataScore : (5 X 3) + 2 = 17 The question normally starts with certain situation related to daily life. Problem statement/ aim of the experiment / hypothesis and variable can be concluded from thesituation given. State all the variables Manipulated variable : Responding variable : Constant variable: list down all the fixed variables to ensure the outcome of the respondingvariable is related only to the manipulated variables. Separatethe substances and apparatus -Separatethe substances and apparatus-Apparatus : list down the apparatus for the experiment. Example:Rate of reaction stop watchThermochemistry- thermometer Procedure : All the steps taken in the procedure must include the apparatus used, quantity and type ofsubstance (powder, solution, lumps etc). No mark is allocated for the diagram. The complete labeled diagram can help students in : I.Writingthe steps taken in the procedureII.Listing the apparatus and materials Tabulation of data: The number of columns and rows in the table is related to the manipulated and responding variables Units must be written for all the titles in each row and column of the table DO NOT WRITE the observation/inference/conclusion in the table. 7.0THE COMMON COMMAND WORDS IN PAPER 2 & PAPER 3 CHEMISTRYThe question normally starts with a commandword. Students must know the meaning of the command word to make sure that the answer given is according to the questions requirement. Match the command word to the mark allocated for each question.CommandwordExplanation/example Name/State the name (paper 2 & 3) Give the name , not the formula. Example: Name the main element added to copper to form bronze. Wrong answer:Sn. Correctanswer :TinState (paper 2 & 3) Give brief answer only. Explanation is not required. Example :State one substance which can conduct electricity in solid state. Answer :Copper State the observation (Paper 2 & 3) Write what is observed physically. Example 1 :State one observation when magnesium powder is added to hydrochloricacid. [ 1 mark] Wrong answer:Hydrogen gasis released. Correct answer :Gas bubbles are released Indicate the change of colour , give the initial and final colour of the substance/chemical. Example 2:What is the colour change of copper(II) suphatesolution.[2 marks] Wrong answer:The solution becomes colourless Correct answer :The blue colour of the solution becomes colourless Chemistry Perfect Score Module 20128 Explain (Paper 2 & 3) Give the answer with reasons to explain certain statement / fact / observation/ principal. Example 1 : Explain why bronze is harder than pure copper[4 marks]Correct answer :-Copper atoms in pure copper are allof the same size and ...........1 - they are arranged in layers that can slide easily when force is applied...........1-The presence of tin atoms in bronze that are different in size disturb theorderlyarrangement of atoms in bronze. ...........1 -This reduces the layer of atoms from sliding. ...........1 What is meant by.. (Definition) (Paper 2 & 3) Give the exact meaning Example:What is meant by hydrocarbon. Wrong answer: A compound that contains carbon and hydrogen Correct answer:A compound that contains carbon hydrogen only Describe chemical test (Paper 2 & 3) Statethemethod to conduct the test , observation and conclusion. Example:Describe how to identifythe ion present in the solution . [3 marks] Answer :- Pour in 2 cm3 of the solution in a test tube. Add a few drops of sodium hydroxide solution and the test tube is shake the test tube...........1 - A reddish brown precipitate formed............1 - Fe3+ ions present 1Describe gas test.(Paper 2 & 3) State the method to conduct the test observation and conclusion. Example: Describe the confirmatory test for gas released at the anode(oxygen). [3 marks] Wrong answer:Test with a glowing wooden splinter. Correct answer:-Place a glowing wooden splinter to the mouth of the test tube ...1 -The glowing wooden splinter is lighted up ...1 - Oxygen gas is released ...1 Describe an experiment (8 - 10 marks) (Paper 2) -Nomarkisawardedforthediagram.Thediagramcanhelpstudentswritethesteps taken in the procedure.-List of materials1m -List of apparatus 1m-Procedure( 5 8 m) -Observation/tabulation of data/ calculation/sketch of the graph/ chemical equation /ionic equation /conclusion etc.-Any additional details relevant derived from the question. Planan experiment( 17 marks) ( Paper 3)Answer the question according the requirement : Problem statement/Aim of experiment HyphotesisVariables List of substances and apparatus Procedure Tabulation of dataNote: For question 3, unlike PEKA reportstudents only needto answer according to what is stated inthe question. -Nomarkforthediagram.Diagramcanhelpstudentwritingthestepstakeninthe procedure. Describe the process Describe the structure . Describeand writeequation Describe how (Paper 2 & 3) Give relevant details derived from the question. Predict (Paper 2 & 3) Make a prediction for something that mighthappen based on facts Example:Experiment 1 is repeated using a larger beaker.Predict the increase in temperatureAnswer : The increase in temperature is lower than experiment 1. Compare (Paper 2) Give the similarities and differences between two items/ situations Differentiate Give differences between two items/situations Can be obtained from the diagram Chemistry Perfect Score Module 20129 (Paper 2)Example : State three differences between ionic and covalent compound. Answer : State three properties of ionic compound and three properties covalent compound Draw a labeled diagram of the apparatus(Paper 2) Drawa complete set up of apparatus (i)Functional set up of apparatus(ii)Complete label (iii)Shade solid, liquid and gas correctly. (iv)Draw an arrow and label heat if the experiment involvesheating Drawa diagramto showthe bonding formed in the compound(Paper 2) (i)Ionic compound The number of electrons in each shell is correct, 2 electrons in the first shell and 8 electrons in the second and third shell. Show the charge of each particle. Write the symbol of each element at the centre of the ion. (ii)Covalent compound The number of electrons in each shell is correct, 2 electrons in the first shell and 8 electrons in the second and third shell. The number of atoms sharing pair of electrons is correct. Write the symbol of each element at the center of each atom in the molecule. Draw graph (Paper 3) Draw graph as follows : Label the two axis with the correct unit Choose suitable scale, the size of the graph should be at least of the size of the graph paper. Plot all the points correctly Smooth graph ( curve or straight line ) Forthe determination of the rate of reaction (i)Draw a tangent at the curve. (ii)Draw a triangle at the tangent Calculate the gradient of the tangent Draw the energy level diagram ( Paper 2) Draw an arrow for the vertical axis only and label with energy. Draw two horizontal lines for the reactants and products Draw the arrangement of particles in solid, liquid and gas. (Paper 2) Solid: Draw at least three layers of particles closely packed in orderly manner and they are not overlap. Liquid : The particles packed closely but not in orderly manner Gas: The particles are very far apart from each otherDraw the direction of electron flow (Paper 2 /3) Draw the direction for the flow of electrons on the circuit, not through the solution. Write chemical equation (Paper 2 & 3) Write the balanced chemical equation Differentiate : (i)Balanced chemical equation (ii)Ionic equation (iii)Half equation for oxidation (iv)Half equation for reduction Calculate (Paper 2 & 3) Show all the steps takenGive final answer with unit. Classify (Paper 3) Draw table to represent the classification. Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 10 CHEMISTRY MODULE SET 1. The Structure of Atom 2. Chemical Formulae and Equations 3. Periodic Table of Elements 4. Chemical Bonds Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 11 SECTION A 1.Table 1 shows the proton number and nucleon number for atoms L, M and N. AtomProton number Nucleon number L16 32 M17 35 N17 37 Table 1 (a)(i) What is meant by proton number ? [1 mark ] (ii) What is the number of neutrons in atom M ? [1 mark ] (b)Which atoms are isotopes ? Explain your answer. [2 marks] (c)(i) Write the electron arrangement for atom L. [1 mark ] (ii) State the position of atom L in the Periodic Table [1mark ] (iii)Explain your answer in c (ii) .. . [2 marks ] (d)Write the formula of ion formed from atom M [1 mark ] Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 12 2Diagram2showspartofthePeriodicTableofElements.T,U,V,W,X,YandZdonotrepresentthe actual symbol of the elements. 118 21314151617 VXWZ UY T Diagram 2 (a)Write the electron arrangement ofU atom. ........................................................ [1 mark ] (b)(i)Which of the element exist as a monoatomic gas ? ................................................................................................................................................. [1 mark] (ii)Explain your answer in (b)(i). .. .................................................................................................................................. [2 marks ] (c)V reacts with W to form a compound. (i)Write the formula for the compound formed. [1 mark ] (ii) Draw the electron arrangement for the compound formed in (c)(i). [2 marks ] (d)(i) Choose an element that is a halogen. [1 mark ] (ii) Which element forms an amphoteric oxide ? . [1 mark] (iii) Choose the element which form a coloured ion orcompound . [1 mark ] Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 13 3 Table 3 shows the element in Period 3 with their respective proton numbers. ElementNaMgAlSiPSClAr Proton number1112131415161718 Table 3 (a)(i)Write the electron arrangement ofsulphur atom, [1 mark ] (ii)In which group of the Periodic Table is Sulphur, S located ? ............................................................................................................................. ........ [1 mark ] (b) (i) How does the atomic size change when going across the Periodfrom left to right ? ............................................................................................................................. .............. [1 mark ] (ii) Explain your answer in 2(b)(i) ............................................................................................................................. .............. ............................................................................................................................................ [2 marks ] (c)Argon, Ar is chemically unreactive. Explain why ? ............................................................................................................................. ................ ............................................................................................................................. ...............[2 marks ] (d)Which of the element when reacts with oxygen produces an amphoteric oxide ? ...........................................................................................................................[1 mark ] (e) Write the chemical equation when sodium react with water. ......................................................................................................................................... [2 marks ] 4.Table 4 shows the electron arrangement of atoms ofelements J,K,L,M and N. Element Electron arrangementof atom J1 K2.8.1 L2.8.6 M2.8.7 N2.8.8 Table 4 (a)State one element in Table 4 which ismetal and non-metal? Metal :....................................................................................................... Non- metal:........................................................................................................ [2 marks] Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 14 (b)(i) State an element thatexist as a diatomic gas.Explain your answer. ...... [1 mark ] (ii) Explain your answer in (b)(i) .... [3marks] (c)(i) What is the Proton Number for atom M ............................................................................................................................. ......... [1 mark ] (ii) Which group is atom M located in the Periodic Table ? Explain your answer. ..................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... [2 marks ] (d)Arrange atomsK, L and M in increasing atomic size ....................................................................................................................................... [1 mark ](e)Write the formula forK ion. ...................................................................................................................................... [1 mark ] (f)Kand M react to form an ionic compound.State the formula for this compound. ..................................................................................................................................... [1 mark ] 5(a)Table 5 shows three substances and their respective chemical formulae. Name of substanceChemical formula ChlorineCl2 MagnesiumMg Magnesium chlorideMgCl2 Table 5 Use information from Table 1 to answer the following questions : (i)State one substance which exists as an atom. .. [1 mark] (ii)Write the ionic formula for the substance in (a) (i). .. [1 mark] (iii)Which substance has the lowest melting point? .. [1 mark] Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 15 (iv)What is the state of matter of chlorine at room temperature? .. [1 mark] (v)Magnesium chloride can conduct electricity in aqueous solution. Give a reason. .. [1 mark] (b)Graph 1 shows the temperature against time when molten of acetamide, C2H5NO is cooled. Graph 1 (i)State the type of compound of acetamide. .......... [1mark] (ii)State the melting point of acetamide. . [1 mark] (iii)Describe the movement of the particles of acetamide between A and B during cooling. [1 mark] (iv)Draw the arrangement of particles of acetamide at stage CD. [1 mark] Temperature / 0C Time / s T1 T2 T3 A B C D Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 16 Heat 6(a)In a close container, contains 3.0 dm3 of carbon dioxide gas at room temperature. (i)How many molecules are there in3.0 dm3 of carbon dioxide gas, CO2 ? [Avogadros number = 6.02 x 1023 mol-1] [1 mole of gas occupies 24 dm3 atroom temperature] Use: Number of mole=Number of particles6.02 x 1023 mol-1 [2marks] (ii)Calculate the mass of carbon dioxide gas in the container [Relative molecularmass for CO2 = 44] Use: Number of mole =mass molar mass [1mark] (b)Diagram 6 shows the set-up of apparatus for an experiment to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide.. Diagram 6 Table 1 shows the results of this experiment DescriptionMass (g) Mass of crucible + lid34.0 Mass of crucible + lid + magnesium ribbon36.4 Mass of crucible + lid + magnesium oxide38.0 Table 1 (b)(i)What is the meaning of emperical formula . .. [1mark] Magnesium ribbon Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 17 (ii)Base on table 1, calculate the mass of: Magnesium : Oxygen : [2marks] (iii)Calculate the ratio of mole of magnesium atoms to oxygen atoms. [Relative atomic mass: O=16, Mg =24] [1 mark] (iv)Determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide. [1 mark] (v)Why was the crucible lidopened once in a while during the experiment? .... [1 mark] (v)State why the empirical formula ofcopper oxide cannot be determine by using the same technique. .... [1 mark] 7. (a) What is the meaning of molecular formula? ... .. [1 mark] (b)Diagram 7.1 shows an incomplete equation which is one of the steps involved in determining the empirical formula. Complete this equation. Diagram 7.1 MassRelative atomic mass= Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 18 (c)Diagram 7.2 shows the apparatus set-up for two methods used to determine the empirical formula of two compounds. Method 1Method II Diagram 7.2 (i)Which method is suitable to be used to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide? . [1 mark] (ii)Why did you choose the method in 2(c)(i)? . [1 mark] (iii) When carrying out an experiment using Method I, why does the crucible lid need to be opened once a while? [1 mark] (d) Diagram 7.3 shows the results for an experiment to determine the empirical formula of lead oxide. Diagram 7.3 Based on Diagram 2.3, determine the values of the following [Relative atomic mass of O =16 ,Pb = 207] (i)Mass of lead = g [1 mark] (ii) Number of moles of lead. = mol [1 mark] (iii) Mass of oxygen = ..g [1 mark] (iv) Number of moles of oxygen. = mol [1 mark] (v)Empirical formula of oxide of lead. = Mass of combustion tube + porcelain dish = 54.00 g Mass of combustion tube + porcelain dish +lead oxide = 107.52 g Mass of combustion tube + porcelain dish + lead = 103.68 g Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 19 [1 mark] 8. Diagram 8 shows the apparatus set-up to determine the empirical formula of copper oxide. Diagram 8 Table 8 shows the result of this experiment. DescriptionMass(g) Combustion tube + porcelain dish42.25 Combustion tube + porcelain dish + copper oxide52.25 Combustion tube + porcelain dish + copper 50.25 Table 8 (a) (i) What is the meaning of empirical formula? [1 mark] (ii) State the function of the anhydrous calcium chloride. .. [1 mark] (b) (i) Based on Table 8, determine the mass of: Copper: =..g Oxygen: = ..g [2 marks] (ii) Calculate the ratio of moles of copper atoms to oxygen atoms. [Relative atomic mass: O = 16 ; Cu = 64] [1 mark] Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 20 (iii) Determine the empirical formula of copper oxide. [1 mark] (c) (i) Why is hydrogen gas passed through the combustion tube after heating hasstopped? . . [1 mark] (ii) State how to determine that the reaction between copper oxide with hydrogen has completed. [1 mark] (d)(i) State why the empirical formula of magnesium oxide cannot be determined byusing the same technique. [1 mark] (ii) State the name of another metal oxide whose empirical formula can bedetermine using the same technique. .. [1 mark] SECTION B 9(a) Diagram 9.1 shows the atomic structure of two carbon isotopes. Diagram 9.1 (a)Compare the two isotopes above in terms of number of proton, number of electron, nucleonnumber,physical properties and chemical properties. [6marks] Nucleus 6 neutrons Nucleus8 neutrons Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 21 (b) Diagram 9.2 shows the set up of apparatus used in experiment to determine the melting points ofX. Diagram 9.2 (i)Suggest one example of substance X. [1 mark] (ii)State the name of P. Explain why P is used? [2 marks] (iii)Graph 9 shows the heating curve of X. Graph 9 Describe Graph 9 in terms of state of matter, particles arrangement, kinetic energy ofparticles and attraction forces between particles. [10marks] (iv)After t3 minutes, X is cooled at room temperature. Sketch a graph of temperature against time for cooling process. .[2 marks] Temperature / 0C Suhu / 0C Time/ min 100 30 t1 t2 t3 80 0 Q X Heat P Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 22 10(a)Helium,He42exists as a monoatomic gas whereas chlorine,Cl3517exists as a diatomic gas. Explain why. [6 marks] (b)Table 10.1 shows the proton number of magnesium, chlorine and carbon. Element Magnesium ChlorineCarbonProton number12176 Table 10.1 (i)Carbon reacts with chlorine to form a compound.What type of the compound formed?Draw the electron arrangement to show the chemical bond in the compound. [3 marks] (ii)Explain how ionic bond is formed between magnesium and chlorine atoms. [7 marks] (c)Diagram 10 shows the set-up of apparatus to investigate the electrical conductivity of naphthalene and sodium chloride solution. Diagram 10 Table 10.2 shows the result of the experiments. Compound Observation Naphthalene Bulb does not light upSodium chloride solution Bulb lights up Table 10.2 Explain the electrical conductivity of the two compounds. [4 marks] Bulb Carbon electrode Compound Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 23 Empirical formula is CH2O. Relative molecular mass is 60. Reacts with calcium carbonate to produce a type of gas that turns lime water chalky. 11. (a) The following are the formulae of two compounds. Al2O3PbO2 (i) Based on the two formulae, write the formula forion aluminiumand ion lead [2 marks] (ii) Name both compounds based on the IUPAC nomenclature system. [2 marks] (b) The following information is about an organic compound, K. Based on the information given: (i) Determine the molecular formula of K. [Relative atomic mass : H = 1, C = 12, O = 16] [3marks] (ii) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction of compound K with calcium carbonate. [2 marks] (c) Diagram 11 shows the apparatus set up for experiment of decomposition ofcopper(II) carbonate.In this experiment copper(II) oxide and carbon dioxidegas are formed. Based on Diagram 11 (i) State two observations. [2 marks] (ii) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction [2 marks] (iii) ) State two informations from the chemical equation in (c)(ii).[2 marks] Diagram 11 Copper(II) carbonate powder Lime water Heat Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 24 (v)Calculate the mass of the copper(II) oxide formed from the decomposition of 12.4 g of copper(II)carbonate. ```` [ Relative atomic mass of C = 12; O = 16; Cu = 64] [3 marks] (vi) In other experiment 4.0 g copper(II) oxide is reacted with hydrogen gas to produce copper and water. If the mass of copper in copper(II) oxide is 3.2 g, calculate the mass of oxygenand the simplest mole ratio for the copper atoms to oxygen atoms [ Relative atomic mass of O = 16; Cu = 64] [2 marks] 12. Table 12 shows the positive and negative ions in three salts solution. Name of saltPositive ionNegative ion Iron(III) chlorideFe3+Cl- Potassium sulphateK+SO42- Lead(II) nitratePb2+NO3- Table 12 Use the information in Table 12 to answer the following questions. (a) (i) What areanother name for a positively charged ion and negatively chargedion? [2 marks] (ii) Name the ions in iron(III) chloride. [2 marks] (iii) Write the formula for potassium sulphate. [1 mark] (b) When 10 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 potassium sulphate solution is added to excess lead(II) nitrate solution, a white precipitate is formed. (i) Name the white precipitate and write the chemical equation for the reaction. [3 marks] (ii) Describe the chemical equation in (b)(i). [1 mark] (iii) Calculate the mass of precipitate formed. [Relative atomic mass of O = 16; S = 32; Pb = 207] [4 marks] (c)The information below is regarding an organic compound Z. Relative molecular mass is 46 Carbon : 52.2%Hydrogen : 13.0% Oxygen : 34.8% Relative atomic mass of H = 1; C = 12 and O = 16 Based on the information of the organic compound Z: (i) Determine the molecular formula for compound Z and [6 marks] (ii) Draw its structural formula. [1 mark] Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 25 SECTION C 13(a) An experiment is carried out using Group 1 elements;X, Y and Z reactwith oxygen gas.The set-up of apparatus and observations of the reaction are shown in Table 13. SetSet-up of apparatusObservation I Burns slowly andwhite fumes formed II Burns vigorously and white fumes formed III Burns rapidly and white fumes formed Table 13 (i)Based on the observation in Table 13, compare the reactivity of element X and Y. Explain your answer. [5 marks] (ii) Suggest the name of element Z. Using the symbol of element suggested, write the chemical equation for the reaction in set III. [3 marks] (b)State how elements of Group 1 are stored in laboratory and give a reason. [2 marks] (c) Using an example of Group 1 element, describe an experiment to prove above statement.Your description shouldinclude the following : List of material and apparatus Procedures of the experiment Observation Chemical equation [10 marks] Group 1 elements react with water to produce alkaline solution. Z X Y Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 26 14Table 14 shows the melting point, boiling point and electrical conductivity of compoundPQ2and compound XY. Compound Melting point and Boiling point Electrical conductivity SolidMolten PLow No No QHigh NoYesTable 14 (a)Suggest one possible compound for P. State the type of compound for P. Explain why P has low melting and boiling points. [4 marks] (b)Chemical formula of compound P is XY. Suggest one possible electron arrangement of atom X and atom Y. State the type of chemical bond and explain how the bond is formed between atom X and atom Y. [7 marks] (c)Plan one laboratory experiment to investigate the electrical conductivityof compound Q. Your answer should include the following : A list of material and apparatus Procedure of the experiment Observation of the experiment A labeled diagram showing the apparatus set-up [9 marks] 15(a) Metal P has the following characteristics:- Based on the information above, state the method used to determine the empirical formula of oxide of metal P.Give a reason for your answer. [2marks] (b)Diagram 15 shows the set up of apparatus for an experiment to determine the empiricalformula of the oxideof metal Y. Diagram 15 The results are obtained as follows: Table 15 Grey in colour Can react with steam Reactive metal Dry hydrogen Oxide of metal Y Combustion tube Mass of combustion tube + Porcelain dish = 54.30 gMass of combustion tube + Porcelain dish +Oxide of Metal Y=56.69 g Mass of combustion tube + Porcelain dish +Metal Y =56.37 g Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 27 (i)Based on the above information, determine the empirical formula of oxide ofmetal Y Given that the relative atomic mass of O = 16, Y = 207 [4marks] (ii) Describe the steps that should be taken to ensure that all the air in the combustiontube has been expelled . [3marks] (b)Describe an experiment on how to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide. In your description, state the precautions should be taken during the experiment and show how the empirical formula of magnesium oxide is obtained. [Relative atomic mass: O = 16; Mg = 24] [11 marks] 16. (a) The following is the chemical formula of a compound. SO3 Name the compound and describe the composition of this compound. [3 marks] (b) Excess calcium carbonate chips is added to 30 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 acid HX. The chemical equation below shows the reaction between calcium carbonate andacid HX. CaCO3+ nHXCaX2 +CO2+H2O Given that the relative atomic mass of C = 12, O = 16 ,Ca = 40 and the molarvolume of any gas is 24 dm3 mol-1 at room temperature and pressure. (i) Suggest acid HX and name salt CaX2. Determine the value of n [3 marks] (ii) Calculate the maximum volume of carbon dioxide gas produced. [4 marks] (c) You are provided with a sample of M oxide powder. The colour of the M oxide powder is greenwhile the colour of metal M is grey. When it is heated withhydrogen, the M oxide is reduced to M metal.Based on the information given, describe an experiment to determine the empiricalformula of the M oxide. In your description, include the precautions that should betaken and show how the empirical formula of M oxide is obtained. [Relative atomic mass of O = 16 and M = 56] [10 marks] Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 28 CHEMISTRYMODULE SET 1.Electrochemistry 2.Oxidation and Reduction Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 29 SECTION A 1Diagram 1 shows the set-up of apparatus ofa voltaic cell. Diagram 1 Based on Diagram 1 , answer the following questions. (a)What is theenergy change that occurs in the voltaic cell? ............................................................................................................................. ..... [1 mark] (b)Write the formula of all ions in copper(II) sulphate solution. ............................................................................................................................. ..... [1 mark] (i)State the nameofthe negative terminal of the voltaic cell. ............................................................................................................................... [1 mark] (ii)Give a reason for your answer in (c)(i). ..................................................................................................................... [1 mark] (d) (i)State one observation at copper plate. ..................................................................................................................... [1 mark] (ii)Write the halfequation for the reaction occurat thecopper plate. ..................................................................................................................... [1 mark] (e)What is the colour change of the copper(II)sulphate solution? Give a reason. ............................................................................................................................. ..... .................................................................................................................................. [2 marks] (f)Another experiment is carried out by replacing the zinc plate with P ,Q and R metals.Table 1 shows the results. .Pair of metalVoltage/VNegative terminal P/Cu2.7P Q/Cu2.0Q R/Cu0.5R Table 1 Copper(II) nitrate solutionCopper plateZincplate V Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 30 (i)Arrange P, Q, R and Cu metal in accending order of electropositivity. ............................................................................................................................. ..... [1 mark] (ii)Predict the voltage for pair of Q/R. .................................................................................................................................. [1 mark] 2.Diagram 2 shows the set-up of apparatus to investigate the reaction occurred in test tubesX and Y. (a)Based on test tube X, (i)Name the reaction occurred. [1 mark] (ii)Write the half equation for the reduction reaction. [2 marks] (iii)Describe a chemical test to verify the product formed in (a)(ii). ........................................................................................................ .......................................................................................................... [2 marks] (b)Based on test tube Y, (i)State the observation involved. ................................................................................................................ [1 mark] (ii)Experiment is repeated by using copper to replace zinc.State the observationinvolved. .................................................................................................................. [1 mark] (c) Compare the answer in (b)(i) and (b) (ii) and explain why there is a difference in the observation. ............................................................................................................................. ................ ............................................................................................................................................. [2 marks] (d)When iron is exposed to water and oxygen, it rusts easily. State one method to prevent the rusting of iron. .......................................................................................................................................... [1 mark] Test tube X Test tube Y Agar solution+Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution+ Phenolphthalein Iron nail coiled with zinc Diagram 2 Zinc Iron(III) sulphate solution Heat Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 31 SECTION B 3Diagram 3.1 shows the set-up of apparatus to investigate the electrolysis of magnesium chloride 1.0moldm-3 solution. Diagram 3.1 (a) (i)Based on Diagram 3.1;State the name of the products at the cathode and the anode.Explain the reaction at cathode and anode. Include the following in your explanation: List the ions attracted to cathode and anode. Statethe ions selectively discharged at cathode and anode. The reason why the ions are selectively discharged. Half equation for the reaction at cathode and anode. [10 marks] (ii)Predict the product at anode and cathode if magnesium chloride 1.0 mol dm-3 solution is replaced by magnesium chloride 0.0001 mol dm-3solution. [2 marks] (b)Diagram 3.2 shows the set up of apparatus when cell X is combined with cell Y. Compare and contrast cell X and cell Yin terms of following: Types of cells Energychanges Name of electrodes Ions in the electrolyte Half equations Observations . [8 marks] Copper plate Copper(II) sulphate solution Magnesium plate PQ R S Cell XCell Y Copper plate Diagram 3.2 V Magnesium chloride 1.0 mol dm-3 A Carbon electrodes Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 32 4 (a) The following are the formulae of two compounds. Na2O PbO2 (i)Based on the two formulae , state the oxidation number for sodium and lead. [ 2marks] (ii)State the name ofthe compoundsbased on the IUPAC nomenclature. [ 2marks] (b)Diagram 4 shows the observation of two experiment to study the effect of metal P and metal Q on the rusting of iron. ExperimentObservation Experiment 1 Large amount of dark blue precipitate Experiment 2 No dark blue precipitate. Solution turns pink. Diagram 4 (i)Suggest metal P and metal Q. (ii)Explain the observationsand write the half equation for the reaction in the experiment 1 and experiment 2. [ 10marks] (c)The equation shows a redox reaction. M is a metal. X(s)+ CuSO4(aq)XSO4 (aq) + Cu(s) Suggest metal X and explain the redox reaction in terms of the transfer of electrons . [6 marks] SECTION C 5Diagram 5 shows the set-up of apparatus for electrolysis of 1.0 mol dm-3sodium sulphate solution. Diagram 5 Carbon electrode Y Carbon electrode X 1.0moldm-3sodium sulphate solution Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 33 (a)State the name of gas produced at electrode X and electrode Y. [2 marks] (b)Explain the reaction at electrode X and electrode Y. Include the following inyour explanation. List of ion attracted to each electrodes, X and Y. State the name of the ions selectively discharged at each electrode. The reason why the ion are selectively discharged. [5 marks] (c)Whensodium sulphate solution is replaced bya solution of substance Zwith same concentration, the equal gas produced at electrode X and electrode Y . Suggest the substance Z. Write the half equation for the reaction at electrode X. [3 marks] (d)Zinc is placed above metal A in the electrochemical series.Zinc and metal A can be used to build a chemical cell, using suitable apparatus and the following chemicals ; Zinc Zinc nitrate solution Metal A A nitrate solution By naming metal A and A nitrate solution, describe how you build the chemical cell. Include a labelled diagram in your answer. On your diagram, mark the direction of electron flow, the positive terminal and the negative terminal. [ 10 marks] 6(a)The following are the equations of two reactions: Determine which reaction is a redox reaction.Explain your answer in terms of oxidation number. [4 marks] (b)Table 6 shows the observations of two experiments to determine the position of carbon in the reactivity series of metal. ExperimentReactantsObservation ICarbon + oxide of metal P A flame spreads to the whole mixture.A brown residue is formed. IICarbon + oxide of metal QNo change IIICarbon + oxide of metal R A glow spreads to the whole mixture. A grey residue is formed. Based on observations in Table 6, arrange the reactivity of metals P, Q, and R indescending order. Explain your answer.[6marks] (c) By using a named metal as a reducing agent and a named halogen as an oxidising agent,describe briefly how you would carry out these two conversion. Describe a test to show that each conversion has taken place. [ 10 marks] Reaction I:NaOH+HCl NaCl + H2O Reaction II:Mg+Zn(NO3)2Mg(NO3)2 + Zn Table 6 Iron(II) ions can be converted to iron(III) ions and iron(III) ions can be converted back to iron(II) ions. Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 34 CHEMISTRY MODULE SET 1. Acids and Bases 2. Salts 3. Rate of reaction 4. Thermochemistry Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 35 SECTION A 1.Diagram 1 shows four test tubeslabeled A,B,C and D which are used to study therelationship betweenpHvalue of acid and alkali with themolarity. pH paper ABCD 5 cm3HCl 5 cm3HCl5 cm3 NaOH 5 cm3NaOH 0.1 mol dm-30.01 mol dm-30.1 mol dm-30.01 moldm-3 (a)Determine which solution has(i) highest pH value. ` ......... [1 mark] (ii)lowest pH value. Give a reason for your answer. ............. [2 marks] (b)If the hydrochloric acid in test tube B is replaced with 5 cm3 of 0 .01 mol dm-3ethanoic acid, predict the pH value of the solution. Explain your answer ..... . [3 marks] (c)Excess of magnesium powder is added to 5 cm3 of 0.1moldm-3 hydrochloric acid in test tube A (i)State the name of the products formed. . ..... [1 mark] (ii)Write the chemical equation for the reaction in test tube A [1 mark] (iii) Calculate volume of hydrogen gas released at room conditions in test tube A [1 molofgas occupies 24 dm3 at room conditions] [3 marks] Diagram 1 Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 36 Add water (d)If the solution in test tube C is added to lead(II) nitrate solution. State the observation from the reaction. . [1 mark] 2.(a)Diagram 2.1 shows the pH value of glacial ethanoic acid in solvent P and solvent Q respectively. (i)State what is solvent P and solvent Q. Solvent P: .... Solvent Q: . [2 marks] (ii)If magnesium ribbon is added into beaker containing glacial ethanoic acid and solventP, what can be observed? . [1 mark] (iii)Explain why ethanoic acid in solvent Pand solvent Q hasdifferent the pH value. . . . ... [3 marks] (b)Diagram 2.2 shows the concentration of hydrochloric acid in volumetric flask when a certain volume of hydrochloric from the beaker is transfer to the volumetric flask and added with water 7.0 4.8 Glacial ethanoic acid+ solvent P Glacial ethanoic acid +solvent Q 100 cm3 of 0.5 moldm-3hydrochloricacid Diagram 2.1 Diagram 2.2 250 cm3of 0.04 moldm-3hydrochloricacid Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 37 (i)What happen to the pH value of the hydrochloric acid when water is added to the acid? Giveareason for your answer. . . [2 marks] (ii)Calculate the volume of hydrochloric need to be transferred to the volumetric flask. . [2 marks] 3.A student carried out an experiment to investigate the properties of three solutions. Diagram 3 shows the results of the experiments. Test tubePQR Set-up of apparatus Observation The red litmus paper turned blue. No change Diagram 3 (a)What is meant by strong alkali? ............................................................................................................................. .......... [1 mark] (b)What is the property of the solution in test tube P? ............................................................................................................................. .......... [1 mark](c)What are the types of particles that exist in the test tubes P and Q? Particles in the test tube P: .......................................................................................... Particles in the test tube Q: ......................................................................................... [2 marks] (d)Is there any changes of colour of the litmus paper in test tube Q? Give a reason to your answer. ...................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................. ......... [2 marks] Ammoniagas dissolvedin water Red litmusPaper Ammonia gas dissolved in propanone Red litmusPaper Hydrogen chloride gas dissolved in water Magnesium Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 38 (e)(i) What can beobserved in test tube R? ...................................................................................................................................... [1 mark] (ii) Write a chemical equation for the reaction in test tube R. ....................................................................................................................................... [2 marks] (iii) 2.4 g of magnesium is reacted completely with the solution in test tube R.Calculate the volume of the hydrogen gas produced at room condition [Relative atomic mass: Mg,24; 1 mol of gas occupies 24 dm3 at room conditions] [2marks] 4Diagram4showstheapparatusset-upfortheneutralisationreactionbetweensulphuricacidandpotassium hydroxide solution for preparation of salt X. Diagram 4 (a)(i)State the colour change of the solution in the conical flask at the end point. . [1 mark] (ii)Write a chemical equation for the above reaction. . [2 marks] (iii)Calculate the concentration of potassium hydroxide used. [2 marks] (b)(i)State the name of salt X. .. [1 marks] 25.0 cm3potassium hydroxide solution + phenolphthalein indicator 15 cm3of0.1mol dm-3 sulphuric acid Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 39 (ii) Calculate the maximum mass of salt X formed. [Molar mass of salt X = 174 g mol-1] [3 marks] (c)(i)Theexperimentisrepeatedwith0.1mol dm-3nitricacidtoreplacesulphuricacid.Predictthe volume of nitric acid neededto neutralize completely potassium hydroxide .. [1 mark] (iii)Explain your answer in (c) (i). ............................................................................................................................. ......................... ...................................................................................................................................................... [2marks] 5.Diagram5 shows a series reaction ofcopper compound.

(a)Copper(II) nitrate solution reacts with sodium carbonate solution to form copper(II) carbonate precipitate.(i)What is the colour ofcopper(II) carbonate? ............. [1 mark] (ii)State the name of the reaction. ......................................................................................................................................................... [1 mark] (b) Heating of copper(II) carbonate producescopper(II) oxide and gas X. (i)State the name of gas X. .. [1 mark] (ii)Write the chemical equation of the reaction. ................................................................... [2mark] Copper(II) carbonate Copper(II) oxide Sodium carbonate Copper(II) nitrate Copper(II) sulphate Diagram 5 Acid Y HeatGas X + Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 40 (iv)Draw a labeled diagram for the heating ofcopper(II) carbonate to producecopper(II) oxideandgas X. In your diagram show how gas X is tested. [2 marks] (c)Copper(II) carbonate reacts withacid Y to produce copper(II) sulphate. The chemicalequation is shownbelow. CuCO3+Acid Y CuSO4+CO2 + H2O (i)What is acid Y? [1 mark] (ii)12.4 gcopper(II) carbonate reacts completely with excess acid Y. Calculate the mass ofcopper(II) sulphate formed. [Relative atomic mass:C = 12,O=16 , S = 32, Cu = 64] [3 marks] 6.Three experiments were conducted to investigate factors affecting the rate of reaction. The results are shown in the Table 6 ExperimentReactantsTemperature / 0C Time taken for all the magnesium to dissolve/s I 0.4g magnesium ribbon and 50 cm3 1 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid 30100 II 0.4g magnesium powder and 50 cm3 1 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid 3060 III 0.4g magnesium ribbon and 50 cm3 1 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid and copper(II) sulphate solution 3045 Table 6 (a)Write a chemical equation to show the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. [2 marks](b)Calculate the number of mole of (i)Magnesium [Relative atomic mass of Mg = 24] [1 mark] (ii)Hydrochloric acid [1 mark] Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 41 (c)If hydrochloric acid used is excess, calculate the maximum volume of hydrogen gas produce at room temperature and pressure.[1 mole of gas occupies the volume of 24 dm3 at room temperature and pressure] [2 marks] (d)Calculate the average rate of reaction for(i)Experiment I [1 mark] (ii)Experiment II. [1 mark] (iii)What is the purpose of using copper(II) sulphate? . [1 mark] (f) The factor that affects the rate of reaction in this experiment is total surface area and the use of catalyst. State two other factors that affect the rate reaction in this experiment. .. [2 marks] 7.Diagram7shows two experiments to investigate one of the factors that affect the rate of reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid Diagram 7 (a)(i) Based on Diagram 7, state the factor that affect the rate of reaction in this experiment. . [1 mark] 50 cm3 1 mol dm-3HCl Hydrogen gas Excess zincgranules Experiment I 50 cm3 1 mol dm-3HCl + copper(II) sulphate solution Hydrogen gas Excess zincgranules Experiment II Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 42 (ii) Besides measuring the change of volume of gas released at certain time interval, suggest another measurable change to determine the rate of reaction? .. [1 mark] (b)In Experiment II, 2.0 cm3 0.5 moldm-3copper(II) sulphate solution is added. The maximum volume of hydrogen gas releasedin Experiment I is V cm3.(i)Compare the volume of gas released in Experiment I andExperiment II.Give a reason for your answer. .. . [2 marks] (ii)The graph of volume of hydrogen gas released against time in Experiment I is shown below. Sketch the curve for Experiment II on the same axes in the graph above. [2 marks] (iii)With reference to collision theory, explain how copper(II) sulphate solution affect the rate of reaction in this experiment. [3 marks] (c)Table 7.1 shows three experiments done by a student. ExperimentReactants A Excess calcium carbonate chips + 25 cm3 1.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid B Excess calcium carbonate chips + 25 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid C Excess calcium carbonate chips + 100 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid Table 7.1 The graphof volume of carbon dioxide released against time is sketched as shown in graph 7 Based on theabovetable andgraph, determine which curve represents the resultsfor experiment B and C. Write your answers in the boxes provided. [1 mark] Time / s Volume of gas released/ cm3 Key : Experiment I : Experiment II : .. Time/s Volume of carbon dioxide /cm3 Experiment A Graph 7 Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 43 8. An experiment is conducted to study the heat of displacement for reaction between copper(II) sulphate and excess magnesium powder. 50.0 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3copper(II) sulphate solution is poured into a polystyrene cup and the initial temperature is recorded. The excess magnesium powder is added to the same polystyrene cup. The mixture is stirred slowly and the highest temperature is recorded. Initial temperature of copper(II) sulphate solution=28.5 oC Highest temperature of mixture=33.5 oC [Relative atomic mass :Cu=64; S=32; O=16; Mg= 24; Specific heat capacity of solution = 4.2 J g-1oC-1; Density of solution = 1 g cm-3] (a)What is the meaning of heat of displacement in this experiment? ............................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................[1 mark] (b)Why does magnesiumin the form of powder is used in this experiment? [1 mark] (c)Write the ionic equation for the reaction in this experiment. ............................................................................................................................ [2 marks] (d)(i)Based on the experiment, calculate the heat energyreleased. [1 mark] (ii)number of mole of copper(II) sulphate that has reacted [1 mark] (iii) heat of displacement in this reaction [2 marks] (e)Draw an energy level diagram for the reaction. [3marks] (f)Why polystyrene cup is used in this experiment? [1 mark] Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 44 5 g of zinc powder 50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3copper(II) sulphate solution Plastic cup 9.Diagram9showstheapparatusset-uptodetermineheatofdisplacementofcopperbyusingzinc powder.The result of the experiment is recorded in the Table 9. Diagram 9 Initial temperature of copper(II) sulphate solution (oC) 30.0 Highest temperature of the mixture (oC) 38.0 Table 9 (a)What is the meaning of heat of displacement? [1 mark] (b) (c) Why plasticcupis used in this experiment. [1 mark] State the type of reaction that occurs based on the temperature change. [1 mark] (d)Calculate :(i)the heat change for the reaction [Specific heat capacity of solution = 4.2 J g-1oC-1; Density of solution = 1 g cm-3] [1 mark] (ii)the heat of displacement for the reaction. [2 marks] (e)Draw energy level diagram for the reaction. [3 marks] Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 45 (f)Experiment is repeated by using 100 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 of copper(II) sulphate solution. (i)Predict the temperature change in the experiment. . ... [1 mark] (ii)Explain your answer in (e) (i). ... ... ... [2 marks] 10. Theequation for combustion of propanol in excess oxygen is given below. (a)What is meant by heat ofcombustion in this reaction? .......................................... [1 mark] (b)Statetwo information that can be obtained from the equation ........................................... [2 mark] (c)Heat given out from the complete combustion of 1.2 g propanol is used to heat 200 cm3 of water. Calculate: (i)The heat energy given out in the reaction. [Molar mass of propanol, C3H7OH = 60 gmol-1] [2 marks] (ii) The temperature change in the reaction. [Spesific heat capacity of water=4.2 Jg-1oC-1; Density of water = 1 gcm-3]

[2 marks] (d)Draw the energy level diagram for this reaction. [3 marks] C3H7OH +9O2 3CO2+ 4H2O , H =-2015 kJ mol-1 2 2 Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 46 (e)The value of the heat of combustion of propanol obtained from the experiment is lessthan the theoretical value. Suggest one precaution step that should be taken in order to get a more accurate result. ............................................................................................................................................................ [1 mark] (f)Table 10 shows the molecular formula and the heat of combustion for methanol andethanol. AlcoholMolecular formulaHeat of combustion/kJmol-1 MethanolCH3OH-728 EthanolC2H5OH-1376 Based on the information in Table 10, explain why there is a difference in the value of heat of combustion between methanol and ethanol. .......................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................. ............. .......................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................. ............. [3 marks] SECTION B 11.(a)A student has carried out an experiment to construct an ionic equation for the formation of lead(II) iodide.Seven test tubes of the same size were labeled 1 to 7.A fixed volume of 5.0 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 potassium iodide solution was poured in each test tube.The volume of 1.0 mol dm-3lead(II) nitrate solution that added are shown in Table 11.The height of precipitate formed in each test tube was measured.The results are shown in Table11. Table 11 (i)BasedonTable 11, plot a graph of the height of precipitate against volume of lead(II) nitrate solution. [3 marks] (ii)Determine the number of moles oflead(II) ions and iodide ions that are required for the formation of lead(II) iodide.Your answer shouldconsist of the following: the volume of lead(II) nitrate solution that had reacted completely with 5.0 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 potassium iodide calclate thenumber of moles of lead(II) ions and iodide ions calculate the number of moles of iodide ions that has reacted with 1 mol oflead(II) ions. write the ionic equation for the formation of lead(II) iodide. [7 marks] Test tube1234567 Volume of 1.0 moldm-3 lead(II) nitrate solution /cm3 0.51.01.52.02.53.03.5 Height of precipitate /cm1.12.23.44.45.55.55.5 Table 10 Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 47 (b)Diagram 11 shows the flow chart of reaction of salt J.X oxide which is brown when hot and yellow when cold is formed when salt J is heated strongly.Salt J dissolves in water to form colourless solution.The solution formed is tested with potassium iodide, KI solution. + + H2O Diagram 11 Based on the information in Diagram 11: (i)Identify salt J, X oxide, brown gas Y, colourless gas Z and yellow precipitate L. [5 marks] (ii)State the name of the anion present in salt J. Then describe one chemical test to determine the presence of anion in salt J. [5 marks] 12.Diagram 12.1 shows a series of reaction for salt S which is a green colour compound. Salt S is heated strongly to produce black residue of compound T and gas U. Compound T reacts with sulphuric acid to form blue solution of compound W. Diagram 12.1 Based on Diargram12.1: (a)(i)Suggest one formula of the anion in salt S. [1 mark] (ii)Identify salt S, compound T, gas U and compound W. [4 marks] (b)Write a chemical equation for the reaction between compound T and sulphuric acid. [2 marks] (c)Compound W is a soluble salt. Describe chemical test to verify the cation and anion in compound W. [5 marks] Salt JX OxideBrown gas Y Colourless gas Z Salt J solutionYellow precipitate L Potassium iodide solution Heat + Salt S Compound T Gas U Compound W + H2SO4 Lime water turns cloudy Pass through lime water Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 48 (d)Diagram 12.2 shows the chemical equation for the reaction between blue solution of compound W and barium nitrate solution. Diagram 12.2 Based on Diagram 12.2: (i)State the name of salt X and salt Y. [2 marks] (ii)State one observation and name the type of reaction occurred.[2 marks] (iii)Compound W reacts with 50 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 barium nitrate solution.Write the ionic equation for the reaction and calculate the mass of salt X produced. [Relative molecular mass of salt X: 233] [4 marks] 13 (a)Table 13shows the incomplete observation for two experiments to construct balanced chemical equation. ExperimentProcedureObservation ACopper(II)carbonate is heated and the gas produced is passed through lime water.. Green solid turns black.The lime water turns milky. BPotassium iodide solution is added to lead(II) nitrate solution. Table13 (i)Based on the observation, state the name of the products in experiment A and write the chemical equation for the reaction. [3marks ] (ii)State one observation in experiment B and state the name of the products formed. Write the chemical equation for the reaction. [4marks ] (b)You are given aluminiumnitrate solution and zinc nitrate solution.Describe chemical tests that can be used to verify the cations and anion in each solutions. [8 marks] (c)Excess of solid copper(II) oxide is added to 25 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3sulphuric acid to form copper(II) sulphate. [Relative atomic mass, Cu=64, S=32, O=16] (i)Write the chemical equation for the reaction (ii)Calculate the mass of copper (II) sulphate produced [5 marks] Compound W(aq)+Ba(NO3)2(aq) Salt X(s)+ Salt Y(aq) Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 49 14 (a)(i)Rate of a givenreaction is important in industries and in our everyday lives. State the four factors that affect the rate of reaction. [4 marks] (ii)What are the conditions required for the production of ammonia in Haber Process? [3 marks] (b)A student carried out two experiments to investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction. Diagram 3.1 shows the set-up of apparatus of the experiments. Experiment Set-up of apparatus I Diagram 14.1 Table 14.2 shows the result of the experiments. Time /s0306090120150180210 Volume of gas ofExperiment I /cm3 0.005.0010.0014.2018.0021.3024.0026.00 Volume of gas of Experiment II /cm3 0.0010.0017.0023.0025.0026.0026.0026.00 Table 14.2 (i) Plot the graph of the volume of carbon dioxide gas against time for Experiment I and II on the same axes on the graph paper provided . [4 marks] (ii) Calculate the average rate of reaction for Experiment I and II. [4 marks] (iii) Compare the rate of reaction between Experiment I and Experiment II. Explain the differences in the rate of reaction with reference to the collision theory. [5 marks] 0.2 g calcium carbonate powder Excess hydrochloric acid0.2mol dm-3 Water Air 0.2 g calcium carbonate powder Excess hydrochloric acid0.5mol dm-3 Water Air II Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 50 Question 14 (b) (i) Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 51 15. (a) A fixed mass of magnesium is added to 50 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 of excess sulphuric acid . State 3 ways to shorten the time for the magnesium to dissolve completely. [3 marks] (b) When potassium chlorate(V) is heated, it decomposedto release oxygen gas according to the equation below. 2KClO3 2 KCl+3O2 (i)Name a suitable catalyst that can be used to increase the rate of decomposition of potassium chlorate(V) [1 mark] (ii)State 2 characteristics of a catalyst [2 marks] (iii) Contact Process is an industrial process to manufacture sulphuric acid in large scale. State and justify any two of the conditions involved in this process . [4 marks] (c)The graph below shows the change of rate of reaction with time when excesscalcium carbonate granules is reacted with dilute hydrochloric acid. State and explain how the rate of reaction changes with time. [3 marks] (d)Describe an experiment to study the effect of catalystmanganese(IV) oxide on the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.[7 marks] 16.(a)Diagram 16.1 and 16.2 show energy level diagrams. (i)Compare both the energy level diagrams above. Your explanation should include the followingionic equationstype of chemical reactionsenergy content of reactants and products [6 marks] (ii)Basedondiagram16.1,calculatethechangeintemperatureofthesolutionifexcess magnesium powder is added to 50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 iron(II) sulphate solution. [Given thatSpecific heat capacity of solution : 4.2 J g -1oC-1][3 marks] Diagram16.1 Diagram16.2 Time / s Rate of reaction MgSO4+Fe Mg(s)+ FeSO4 Energy H= - 200 kJmol-1 Energy CaCl2+ Na2CO3 CaCO3+ 2NaCl H= + 12.6 kJmol-1 Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 52 (b)Explain why the heat of reaction between 1.0 mole of silver nitrate solution and 1.0 mole of sodium chloride solution is the same as the heat of reaction between 1.0 mole of silver nitrate solution and 0.5 mole of magnesium chloride solution. [4 marks] (c)A student carried out an experiment to determine the heat of neutralisation for the reaction between 50 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid and50 cm3 of2.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution. The following data was obtained: Initial temperature of hydrochloric acid =30.2 oC Initial temperature of sodium hydroxide solution=30.2 oC Highest temperature of the mixture of the solutions =42.2 oC (i)Calculate the heat of neutralisation for this reaction. [Given that specific heat capacity of solution = 4.2 J g -1oC -1] [3 marks] (ii)If the experiment is repeated using 100 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid and 100 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution and all other conditions are the same, predict the increase in temperature. Explain your answer. [4 marks] SECTION C 17.(a) Using suitable examples, explain what is meant by (i)diprotic acid(ii)strong acid[ 4marks ] (b)Table 9 shows the pH value of sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia of the same concentration Explain why sodium hydroxide solution and aqueous ammonia of the same concentration have different pH value.[ 6marks ] (c)Describe how to prepare 250 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 potassium hydroxide starting from solid potassium hydroxide. State the size of volumetric flask used and calculate mass of potassium hydroxide needed. [Relative atomic mass: H, 1; O, 16; K, 39] [ 10 marks ] 18(a)Salts is widely used in various fields. Name one example of salt and its uses in each of the following fields: (i)agriculture (ii)food preparation (iii)medicine [6 marks] (b)Byusingallthechemicalsubstancesgivenbellowandsuitableapparatus,describealaboratory experiment to prepare dry zinc sulphate salt. In your description, include chemical equations involved. [12marks] AlkaliConcentration / moldm-3pH Sodium hydroxide solutiom1.014 Ammonia aqueoussolutiom1.011 zinc nitrate solutionDilute sulphuric acid sodium carbonate solution Acid HX is a monoprotic acid while H2X is a diprotic acid.Both acid HX and H2X are strong acid. Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 53 19 (a)Write an ionic equation to represent the reaction given in the box above. [2 marks] (b)The rate of the above reaction can be measured based on the mass of sulphur produced. Based on this statement,state the meaning of the rate of reaction. [2 marks] (c)Suggest two factors that canaffect the rate of reaction stated above and state the respective effects on the rate of reaction. [4 marks] (d)You are given a conical flask, a piece of white paper and all other common apparatus found in normal school laboratory. Describean experiment to show the effect of one ofthe factors that you have given in (b).In your answer, you are required to show how the data obtained can be analysedto help you draw the conclusion for your experiment. [12 marks] 20.Table 20.1 shows the data from Experiment I andExperimentII that were carried out to study the rate of reaction ofmagnesium ribbon with two acids,X and Y . ExperimentReactantsProducts IExcess ofmagnesium ribbon and50 cm3 of acidX1.0 mol dm-3 Magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas IIExcess ofmagnesium ribbon and50 cm3 of acid Y1.0 mol dm-3 Magnesium sulphate and hydrogen gas Table20.1 (a)(i) State the name ofacidsX and Y. Write the chemical equation for the reaction of acid X with magnesium. [3 marks] (ii)Calculate the number of mol of acid X or acid Y that react with excess magnesium ribbon. [1 mark] (iii)Based on this experiment what is meant by the rate of reaction?[1 mark] (b)(i) At the same axis, sketch the graph of volume of gas against time for experiment I and experiment II.[2 marks] (ii) Compare therate of reaction in experiment I and II . Explain your answer based on collision theory. [5marks] (c)Describe one laboratory experiment to conduct the Experiment I or Experiment II to determinethe rate of reaction. Your answer should include the following : -A labeled diagram showing the apparatus set-up -Proceduresof the experiment -A table to collect the data [8 marks] Sodium thiosulphate solution reacts with hydrochloric acid to form sulphur, pungent gas sulphur dioxide, water and salt Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 54 21(a) A student carried out an experiment in the laboratory to determine the heat of precipitation of silver chloride, AgCl using the following chemical substances : Table 21.1 shows the result of the experiment : Initial temperature of silver nitrate, AgNO3 solution 29.0 oC Initial temperature of sodium chloride, NaCl solution29.0 oC Highest temperature of reaction mixture33.0 oC Table 21.1 (i)Calculate the heat of precipitation of silver chloride [ Specific heat capacity for all solution is 4.2 Jg-1oC-1and the density of all solution is 1.0 g cm-3] (ii)Draw an energy level diagram for the reaction between silver nitrate and sodium chloride. [4 marks] (b)Table 10.2 shows the heat released for Experiment I, II and III using different acid that has been reacted with sodium hydroxide solution. ExperimentChemical EquationHeat released IHCl+NaOHNaCl+H2O57 IICH3COOH+NaOHCH3COONa+H2O54 IIIH2SO4+2NaOHNa2SO4+2H2O 114 Based on Table 21.2, explain the difference in heat released between : (i)Experiment I and Experiment II (ii)Experiment I and Experiment III[6 marks] (c)Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of displacement of metal by a more electropositive metal. In your description, include the following aspects : Materials and apparatus needed Procedure of experiment A table to collect data Calculation method [10 marks] 25 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 silver nitrate solution 25 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 55 22(a)What is meant by exothermic and endothermic reaction? Compare the changes in energy content of the reactants and products for both of the reactions.[4 marks] (b)Diagram represent the energy level diagram for a chemical reaction State four information that can be obtained from the above diagram. [4 marks] (c)Reaction I and II below are the thermochemical equation for the heat of precipitation. Reaction I:AgNO3+NaCl AgCl + NaNO3 H = - 210kJmol-1 Reaction II :AgNO3+KCl AgCl + KNO3 H = - 210kJmol-1 Explain why the value of heat of precipitation in reactions I and II are the same. [4 marks] d) Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of reaction for the above reaction. In your answer, include the following : chemicals required procedures of the experiment results and calculation involved[8 marks] 23. The thermochemical equation for the combustion of butanol is given as follows: C4H9OH+6O24CO2+ 5H2O H=-2679 kJmol-1 [Relative atomic mass : H=1, C=12, O=16,specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 Jg-1oC-1] (a)State three information that can be obtained from the above equation. [3 marks] (b)Calculate the mass of butanol that must be burnt to raise the temperature of 400 cm3 of water by 25C.[3 marks] (c) Describeanexperimenttodeterminetheheatofcombustionofbutanol.Youranswershould include: (i) apparatus set-up [2 marks] (ii)procedure of the experiment[6 marks] (iii)data obtained from the experiment[2 marks] (iv)calculation of heat of combustion of butanol. [4 marks] Energy A + B C+D H= + xkJ mol-3 Ca2+(aq)+CO32- (aq) CaCO3 (s) H = + 12.6 kJmol-1 Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 56 CHEMISTRY MODULE SET 1.Carbon Compounds 2.Manufactured Substancesin Industry 3.Chemicals for Consumers Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 57 SECTION A 1.Diagram 1 shows the structural formula of compound X. Diagram 1 (a) Compound X is an unsaturated hydrocarbon. What is the meaning of unsaturated hydrocarbon? .................................................................................... [2 marks] (b) State the homologous series for compound X. ............................................................................................ [1 mark] (c)Name the compound X. ............................................................................................ [1 mark] (d)At 180oC and in the presence of nickel as catalyst, compound X can be changed into saturated hydrocarbon compound. (i) Name the reaction. ............................................................................................ [1 mark] (ii)Draw the structural formula for the compound formed. [1 mark] (e)Compound X burns completely in excess oxygen. (i)Write a balanced chemical equation for the complete combustion of X. ............................................................................................................................. ................. [2 marks] (ii)2.1 g of compound X undergoes complete combustion at room conditions. Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide gas released. [1 mol of gas occupies 24 dm3 at room conditions; Relative atomic mass: H = 1; C = 12] [2 marks] Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 58 2.Diagram 2 shows a series of reactions.Compound P with the molecular formula C2H6O, can be prepared through fermentation of glucose solution. Diagram 2 (a)Name the compound P. ......................................... [1 mark] (b)State the functional group of compound P. ......................................... [1 mark] (c) In the reaction I, compound Q is produced when an acidified potassium dichromate (VI) solution is added into a test tube containing compound P. (i)Name the reaction I. .................................... [1 mark] (ii) State one observation for this reaction. ................................. [1 mark] (iii) Draw the structural formula of compound Q. [1 mark] (d)In the reaction II, compound R is formed when compound P reacts with compound Q in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid. (i)Name the reaction II. .................................... [1 mark] (ii) Name the compound R. .................................. [1 mark] (iii)Give one special physical property of compound R. .................................... [1 mark] (iv) Write the chemical equation for the reaction II. ........................................ [2 marks] Glucose Compound P C2H6O Compound Q Compound R Reaction II Reaction I Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 59 3.Diagram 3 shows a series of reactions involving compound Q, C2H6O. Diagram 3 (a)(i)State the name of reaction I. ..... [1 mark] (ii)State the name of compound Q. .......... [1 mark] (iii) Draw the structural formula for compound Q. [1 mark] (b)Write a chemical equation for the complete combustion of compound Q. ... [2 marks] (c)(i)State the name of gas R that produced in reaction III. ..... [1 mark] (ii)Draw the set-up of apparatus to carry out reaction III in the laboratory. [2 marks] (d)State the change of colour of acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution in reaction IV. [1 mark] Glucose Gas P Compound Q, C2H6O Gas R Compound S, C2H4O2 Compound T Water Yeast Combustion I + II III pieces of porcelain Acidified potassiummanganate(VII) solution IV Concentrated sulphuric acid,refluxed with compound Q. V Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 60 (e) (i) State the name of reaction V. . [1 mark] (ii) State the name of compound T. . [1 mark] 4.(a) The following flow chart shows the steps involved in the manufacture of an industrialsubstance L and the production of fertiliserM. (i)What is substance L? .. [1 mark] (ii)Name the industrial process to produce substance L. .. [1 mark] iii)What is substance K? ... [1 mark] (iv) The conversion of sulphur dioxide to substance M is very slow. Catalyst and high temperature are usedto overcome these problems. State the catalyst and the temperature used. [2 marks] (v)What is fertiliserM? . [1 mark] (b) Table 4 shows the manufactured substances in industries. MaterialSubstance LAlloyPolymerGlass Example Reinforced concretes Bronze Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Borosilicate glass Table 4 Based on Table 4, answerthefollowingquestions. (i)State the name of substance L. .. [1mark] (ii) Draw and label the arrangement of atoms in bronze. [2marks] Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 61 (iii) Write the chemical equation for the polymerisation process of Polyvinyl chloride. .. [1mark] (iv) State one reason for borosilicate glass to use in laboratory glassware. .. [1mark] 5.(a)Soap can be preparedfromthe reaction between oil and concentrated sodium hydroxide. Diagram 5 shows the equation for the reaction. + 3NaOH Soap Y+ R is a carbon chainwith 15 carbon atoms. (i) State what is soap. .. [1 mark] (ii) Draw the structural formulafor soap Yformed . On the diagram you have drawn , label the hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts of the soap [2 marks] (iii)Name this reaction . [1 mark] (iv)During the preparation of soap, sodium chloride is added to the soap mixture. Explain why? [1 mark] CH2OH O RCOCH2 CH2OH O RCOCH2 CH2OH O RCOCH2 Diagram 5 Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 62 (b)Medicine is often given to patients to cure or prevent diseases. The table below shows the examples of four types of commonly used medicines. MedicineExample AnalgesicsAspirin QPenicillin Psychotherapeutic medicineP (i)What is the function of analgesics medicines?

.... [1 mark] (ii) What is the negative effect of taking aspirin.

.... [1 mark] (iii) State the type of medicine for Q.

... [1 mark] (iv) Why is it very important to follow the prescription and to complete the dosage when taking penicillin? ....

.... [1 mark] (v) State one example of P. .. [1 mark] Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 63 SECTION B 6(a)Table 6 shows some information about three members of a homologous series. Member of homologous series Boiling point (C) PreparationOxidation product Ethanol78C2H4 + H2O C2H5OHEthanoic acid Propanol97C3H6 + H2O C3H7OHPropanoic acid Butanol118C4H8 + H2O C4H9OHButanoic acid Table 6 Based on Table 6, state and explain five characteristics of a homologous series. [10 marks] (b)The following information is about an organic compound X. Empirical formula is CH2O Relative molecular mass is 60 Reacts with calcium carbonate to produce a type of gas that turns lime water chalkyBased on the information given: (i)State the molecular formula of X. (Relative atomic mass : C = 12, H = 1, O = 16) [2 marks] (ii)State the name of the homologous series for X and explain your answer. [2 marks] (iii)Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction of compound X with calcium carbonate.[2 marks] (c)Diagram 6 shows the structural formulae of hydrocarbon of compounds P and Q. Compound P Compound Q Diagram 6 Compare and contrast these two hydrocarbons based on their structures. [4 marks] 7.(a) A hydrocarbon M, consists of 85.7% of carbon and X% of hydrogen by mass.[Relative atomic mass: C = 12; H = 1 , Relative molecular mass of M = 56.] (i) What is the value of X. [1 mark] (ii)Determine the empirical formula and molecular formula of hydrocarbon X.[5 marks] (iii) Draw the structural of the two isomers of hydrocarbon M.Write the names for each isomer [4 marks] (iv) Compound M burns with sootier flames as compared to butane. Explain andprove. [3 marks] Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 64 (b)Natural rubber is a natural polymer. (i) Give another two examples of natural polymer. [2 marks] (ii)Name and draw the structural formula of the monomer of natural rubber. [2 marks] (c)The tyres of aircrafts are made from vulcanised rubber. (i) What is vulcanised rubber? [1 marks] (ii)Explain why vulcanised rubber is more elastic than unvulcanised rubber. [2 marks] 8(a)Diagram 8.1 showsthe structural formula of two of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon A Hydrocarbon B Diagram 8.1 (i)State the type of bond, homologous series and general formula of hydrocarbon A and hydrocarbon B. [6 marks] (ii)Complete combustion of hydrocarbon A produces gas C and water.State the name of gas C and write the chemical equation for the reaction. [3 marks] (iii)Whichhydrocarbon change the colour of bromine water from brown to colourless. Explain your answer. [3 marks] (iv)Diagram 8.2 shows the burning of hydrocarbon A and hydrocarbon B in air. Compare the sootiness of hydrocarbon A and hydrocarbon B.Explain your answer.[Given that the relative atomic mass of H = 1, C = 12] [4 marks] Diagram 8.2 Porcelaindish Filter paper Soot Hydrocarbon AHydrocarbon B Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 65 (b)Diagram 8.3 shows the reaction between carboxylic acid X and alcohol Y. Diagram 8.3 Draw the structural formula and state the name of carboxylic acid X and alcohol Y. [4 marks] 9. (a)Sulphur dioxide, SO2, is one of the by-products of the Contact Process. It can cause environmental pollution like acid rain. Sulphur dioxide gas dissolves in rain water to produce sulphurous acid (i)Write the chemical equation for the reaction between sulphur dioxide gas and rain water. (ii)State three effects of acid rain to the environment. [4 marks] (b)Diagram 7 shows an industry preparation of sulphuric acid by the Contact Process. Diagram 9 (i)Name the compound X. (ii)Write the chemical equation of the reaction at stage II. (iii) The chemical equation below shows the reaction between sulphur and oxygen gas at stage I. S+O2 SO2 Given that the relative atomic mass of S = 32, O = 16 and the molar volume of any gas is24 dm3mol-1 at room temperature and pressure. Calculate the maximum volume of sulphur dioxide gas produced if 48 g of sulphur is burnt completely in oxygen gas. [6 marks] (c)Brass is an alloy of copper. Pure copper is ductile and malleable whereas brass is stronger and harder than copper. (i)Explain why pure copper is ductile and malleable? [5 marks] (ii)Name the element which is added to copper to make brass. Explain why brass is strong and harder than copper. Draw a diagram to show the arrangement of atoms in brass. [5 marks] SSO2 SO3 X H2SO4 Stage IStage II Stage III Stage IV OxygenOxygenConcentrated sulphuric acidWaterCarboxylic acid X AlcoholY + Water+ Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 66 10.(a) Food preservatives are substances added to food so that the food can be kept for longer periodsfor time. Using two suitable examples, explain how they work as preservative. [4 marks] (b)The following is the information about a child. 2 years old High fever Whooping cough (i)Can aspirin be used to treat the child? Explain why. [2 marks] (ii)Name two examples ofmodernmedicine that can be used to treat the child . [2 marks] (iii) Explain the effect if the precautions states in (b)(ii) are not followed properly. [2 marks] (c ) Table 10 shows the food additives that are added to a certain food by two chefs. Chef WanChef Koh Turmeric Sugar, salt and spice Garlic Tartrazine Monosodium glutamate Ascorbic acid Table 10 Based on Table 10, categorise the food additives. Include in your answer the function of each type of food additives and the disadvantages of using any two food additives. [10 marks] Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 67 SECTION C 11.(a)Table 11 shows the result of two sets of experiment to investigate the coagulation of latex. SetType of solutionObservation ILatex + solution XLatex coagulate very fastIILatex + solution YLatex does not coagulate Table 11 (i) Suggest one possible substance for solution X. and Y [2marks] (ii) Explain the process of coagulation of latex in set I [4 marks] (iii) Explain why latex does not coagulate in set II[2 marks] (b)Diagram 11 shows how compound Q is formed from alkene W. Diagram 11 (i) Name the homologous series of compound Q.[1 mark] (ii)State two chemical properties of compound Q. [2 marks] (iii)By using a compound Q with number of carbon atom per molecule more than one, describe an experiment to convert compound Q to alkene.Your answer should consist of the following: Procedure of the experiment A labelled diagram showing the apparatus set-up The test to confirm the product is alkene[9 marks] Alkene W+H2O Compound Q Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 68 12.Diagram 12.1 shows five structural formula of carbon compound. Diagram 12.1 (a)Choose any one of the compound in Diagram 12.1, state the products formed when the compound burn completely in excess oxygen gas. Write the chemical equation involve. [3marks] (b)State the name of two compounds in Diagram 12.1 that are isomer.Explain your answer. [3marks] (c)Describe a chemical test to differentiate between compound A and compound B. [4marks] (d)Diagram 10.2 shows the reaction between compound E and carboxylic acid. Diagram12.2 (i)State the name an example of a member of carboxylic acid and state the name of ester that formed when the named carboxylic acid react with compound E. Draw the structural formula of named carboxylic acid and ester that formed. [4marks] (ii)Describe an experiment to produce ester in (d) (i) in laboratory. [6marks] Compound E+ Carboxylic acid ester Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 69 13(a)Diagram 13.1 shows a structural formula of butene, Diagram 9.1 Draw structural formulae for another two isomers of butene and names each isomer according to the IUPAC nomenclature. [4 marks] (b)Diagram 9.2 shows the structural formula of an ester Diagram 13.2 Based on diagram 13.2: (i)Identify the two organic chemicals needed to produce the ester above. [2 marks] (ii)State three chemical properties for each organic chemicals that you stated in 9(b)(i). [6 marks] (c)Diagram 13.3 shows the formula of two hydrocarbons P and Q : PQ Diagram 13.3 (i)State the name of hydrocarbons P and Q. (ii)Describe two chemical tests to differentiate between hydrocarbon P and Q.Your description must include the procedure and observation. [8 marks] CCCCH HHHH H HH CCCOH H HH HHO C H H CH H CH3(CH2)4CH3CH3(CH2)3CH = CH2 Chemistry Perfect Score/X A-Plus Module 2012 70 14Diagram 14shows the industrial manufacture of ammonia. Diagram14 (a) State the name of the above process, catalyst Y and write a chemical equation for thereaction between hydrogen and nitrogen. [4 marks] (b) Table 14 shows the diameter of the dent formed in an experiment to compare the ha