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SBP 2012

PHYSICSPERFECT SCORE MODULE

NAME :................................................................... CLASS/SCHOOL:.................................................

SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH 2012

Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012

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SBP 2012

PHYSICS PERFECT SCORE 2012 PANELS

NOR SAIDAH BT CHE HASSAN (Ketua Penggubal) Kolej Tunku Kurshiah JENNYTA BT NOORBI SMS Tuanku Munawir JAMILAH YUSOF Sekolah Seri Puteri HASLINA BT ISMAIL SMS Hulu Selangor KAMARIAH BT MOHD ARSYAD The Malay College of Kuala Kangsar JAMALUDIN BIN ABD GHANI SBPI Batu Rakit HJH NOR SHIDAH HJ MANSOR SMS Tengku Mahmud SURIYATI YUSOFF SMS Muzaffar Shah TAN LEE FAH SMS Miri ZULAIFAH ZINUDDIN Sekolah Tuanku Abdul Rahman

Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012

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SBP 2012

TABLE OF CONTENTSECTIONSection I

CONSTRUCT/CONTENTPhysics Concept / Rules / Principles /Laws

Page4

Section II

Examples of Common Mistakes And Misconceptions

14

Section III

Construct: Understanding

19

Section IV

Construct Decision Making

26

Section V

C Construct onceptualisation

40

Section VI

Construct (Qualitative)

53

Section VII

Problem Solving (Quantitative)

58

Section VIII A

Paper 3 Section A

63

Section VIII B

Paper 3 Section B

71

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SBP 2012

-PHYSICS CONCEPT AND DEFINITION Chapter 1: Introduction to Physics What is.. 1 Base Quantities Definition Base quantities are quantities that cannot be defined in terms of other base quantities Derived quantities are quantities that are obtained by combining base quantities by multiplication, derivition or both operations Scalar quantities are quantities that have only magnitude Vector quantities are quantities that have both magnitude and direction The consistency of of a measuring instrument is its ability register the same reading when a measurement is made repeatedly Accuracy is the degree of how close a measurement is to the actual vaue Sensitivity of an instrument is its ability to detect a small change in the quantity to be measured

2. Derived Quantities

3. Scalar Quantities

4. Vector Quantities

5. Consistency

6. Accuracy

7. Sensitivity

Chapter 2: Force And Motion What is.. 1. Speed 2. Velocity 3. Acceleration 4. Deceleration 5. Inertia Definition Speed is the rate of change of distance Velocity is the rate of change of displacement Acceleration is the rate of change of change/increase in velocity Deceleration is the rate of decrease in velocity The inertia of an object is the tendency of the object to remain its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line Newtons First Law of Motion states that every object continues in its state of rest or uniform speed in a straight line unless acted upon by an external force Linear momentum is the product of mass and velocity Principle of Conservation of Momentum states that the total momentum of a system remains unchanged if no external force acts on the system. Force is defined as anything that changes the state of rest or motion of an object moving in a straight line

6. Newtons First Law of Motion / Law of Inertia 7. Linear momentum 8. Principle of Conservation of Momentum

9. Force

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SBP 2012

What is.. 10. Newtons Second Law

Definition The acceleration of a body ,a, is directly proportional to the net force acting on it, F , and inversely proportional to its mass, m Impulse is defined as the change in momentum Impulsive force is defined as the rate of change of momentum

11. Impulse 12. Impulsive Force 13. Weight / Force of Gravity / Gravitational Force 14. Free-Fall 15. Gravitational Acceleration 16. Gravitational Field 17. Resultant Force / Net Force

Pulled force towards the centre of the earth A free-falling object is an object falling under the force of gravity only The acceleration of objects due to gravity // falling free The gravitational field is the region around the earth in which an object experience a force due to gravitational attraction Resultant force is a single force that represents the combined effect of two or more forces in magnitude and direction When the forces acting on an object is not balanced, there must be a net force/unbalanced/resultant force acting on it Unbalanced forces produce an acceleration to the object The object is said to be in a state of equilibrium when the resulting force acting on the object is zero ( no net force acting upon it)

18. Unbalanced Forces /

19. Forces in Equilibrium / Balanced Forces

When the equilibrium is reached, then the object is in two states, that is (i) remains stationary (if the object is stationary) (ii) moves at a constant velocity ( if the object is moving) / zero acceleration Newtons third law of motion states that, To every action there is an equal but opposite direction Work is defined as the product of the applied force ,F on the object and its displacement, s in the direction of the applied force Energy is the ability to do work (Work done is equal to the amount of energy transferred The Gravitational potential energy of an object is the energy stored in the object due to its position in a force field Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by an object due to its motion Principle of Conservation of Energy states that

20. Newtons Third Law of Motion

21. Work

22. Energy 23. Gravitational Potential Energy 24. Kinetic Energy 25. Principle of Conservation of Energy

Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012

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SBP 2012

What is.. 26. Power 27. Efficiency

Definition Power is the amount of work done per second Efficiency of a device is the percentage of the energy input that is transferred into useful energy Elasticity is the property of a substance which enables it to return to original shape after an applied external force is removed Elastic limit of a spring is defined as the maximum force that can be applied to a spring such that the spring will be able to restored to its original length when the force is removed Hookes Law states that the extension of a spring is directly proportional to the applied force provided that the elastic limit is not exceeded A spring constant of a spring is the force that is required to produce one unit of extension of the spring (measure of the stiffness of the spring) Elastic Potential Energy is the energy stored in a spring when it is extended or compressed

28. Elasticity

29. Elastic Limit

30. Hookes Law

31. Spring Constant / Force Constant

32. Elastic Potential Energy

Chapter 3: Force and Pressure What is.. 1. Pressure Definition Pressure is defined as the force acting normally on a unit of surface area The Atmospheric pressure is caused by the the weight of the air on the Earths surface Gas pressure is the force per unit area exerted by the gas molecules as they collide with the walls of their container Pascals principle states that when pressure is applied to an enclosed fluid, the pressure will be transmitted equally throughout the whole enclosed fluid Bouyant Force is an upward force resulting from an object being wholly or partially immersed in a fluid Archimedes Principle states that, When an object is immersed in a fluid, the buoyant force on the object is equal in size to the weight of fluid displaced by the object Bernoullis principlestatesthat the pressure of a moving liquid decreases as the speed of the fluid increases and vice versa

2. Atmospheric Pressure

3. Gas Pressure

4. Pascals Principle

5. Bouyant Force

6. Archimedes Principle

7. Bernoullis Principle

Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012

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SBP 2012

Chapter 4: Heat What is.. 1. Temperature 2. Heat Definition Temperature is the degree of hotness of an object / Amount of kinetic energy in an object Heat is the energy tranferred from hot to cold object Two objects are said to be in thermal equilibrium when; i) The rates of heat tansfer between the objects are equal (net flow of heat between the two objects is zero) ii) The objects have the same temperature Thermometric Property is the physical property of a substance which is sensitive and varies linearly with changes in temperature of the material Ice point is the temperature of pure melting ice Steam point is the temperature of steam from water that is boiling under standard atmospheric pressure Heat capacity of a body is the amount of heat that must be supplied to increase its temperature by 1 oC Specific Heat Capacity of a substance is the amount of heat that must be supplied to increase the temperature by 1 oC for a mass of 1 kg of the substance Latent heat is the heat absorbed or heat released at a constant temperature during a change of phase Specific Latent Heat of a substance is the amount of heat required to change the phase of 1 kg of the substance at a constant temperature Spesific Latent Heat of Fusion is the amount of heat required to change the phase of 1 kg of the substance from solid to liquid phase at a constant temperature Spesific Latent Heat of Fusion is the amount of heat required to change the phase of 1 kg of the substance from liquid to gaseous phase at a constant temperature Boyles Law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is inversely proportional to its volume when the temperature is kept constant Charles Law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the volume of the gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature when its pressure is kept constant Pressure Law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of t