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    SMK LOHANPEPERIKSAAN AKHIR TAHUN TINGKATAN 4 2014

    CHEMISTRY

    Paper 2

    Time :

    Class : Marks :

    This question paper consists of threesections: Sectio A! Sectio " andSectio C.

    Kertas soalan ini mengandungi ti#abahagian: "aha#ia A! "aha#ia "dan "aha#ia C.

    Sectio A

    Bahagian A

    [60 marks

    [60 markah

    !ns"er a$$ questions in this section.

    Jawab %e&'asoalan dalam bahagian ini.

    #. Dia$ram %elo" sho"s the chemical formulae of t"o o&ides.

    Rajah di bawah menunjukkan formula kimia bagi dua oksida.

    Dia$ram'Rajah

    (a) *tate the names of these t"o metal o&ides.

    Nyatakan nama dua oksida logam ini.

    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [, marks', markah

    (%) *tate the properties of these t"o metal o&ides.

    Nyatakan sifat dua oksida logam ini.

    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [, marks', markah

    (c) (i) -rite the formulae of all the ions in Na,.

    Tuliskan semua formula ion dalamNa,.

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [, marks', markah

    (ii) /&plain ho" each of these ions is formed.

    Jelaskan bagaimana setiap ion ini terbentuk.

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [, marks', markah(iii)*tate oe chemical propert of Na,.

    #

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    Nyatakan %at'sifat kimiaNa,.

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [, marks', markah

    (d) *tate oe special propert of !l,1.

    Nyatakan %at'sifat istimewa !l,1.

    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [, marks', markah

    ,. The sm%ols of the elements and the proton num%ers are listed %elo". 2se these sm%ols to ans"er the

    questions.

    Simbol bagi unsur-unsur dan nombor proton disenaraikan di bawah. unakan simbol ini untuk menjawab

    soalan.

    Na&e

    Nama

    S(&)o$

    Simbol

    Proto '&)er

    Nombor proton

    !luminium!luminium

    !l #1

    3hosphorus

    "osforus3 #4

    Chlorine

    KlorinCl #5

    !r$on

    !rgon!r #

    3otassium

    Kalium7 #8

    9anadium

    #anadium9 ,1

    ron

    "erum;e ,6

    Copper

    KuprumCu ,8

    Ta%le'Jadual

    (a) *tate an element that is produced % the reduction of its o&ide "ith coke.

    Nyatakan unsur yang dihasilkan oleh penurunan oksidanya dengan kok.

    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

    [# mark'markah

    (%) i=e the sm%ol of a nonmetal that is used to sterilise "ater.

    %erikan simbol bukan logam yang digunakan untuk mensterilkan air.

    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

    [# mark'markah(c) Name an element that reacts "ith "ater to $i=e an alkaline solution. -rite an equation for this reaction.

    Namakan unsur yang bertindak balas dengan air untuk menghasilkan larutan beralkali. Tuliskan

    ,

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    persamaan untuk tindak balas ini.

    Name:

    Nama: ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    /quation:

    &ersamaan: $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

    [, mark'smarkah

    (d) This element is one of the plant nutrients. -rite do"n its sm%ol and its electronic confi$uration.

    'nsur ini merupakan suatu nutrien tumbuhan. Tuliskan simbol dan konfigurasi elektroniknya.

    *m%ol:

    Simbol: $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

    (le)troni)s )onfiguration:

    Konfigurasi elektronik: $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

    [, marks'markah

    (e) The o&ide of this element is used as a catalst in the Contact 3rocess.

    *ksida unsur ini digunakan sebagai pemangkin dalam &roses Sentuh.

    i. Name the o&ide of the element.

    Namakan oksida bagi unsur ini.

    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

    [# mark'markah

    1. (a) (i) The electron arran$ement of the sodium is ,..#. -h is this element =er reacti=e?

    Konfigurasi elektron bagi natrium adalah ,..#.Kenapa unsur ini sangat reaktif?

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [, marks', markah

    (ii) Name one other element in $roup # that is more reacti=e than sodium.

    Namakan satu unsur lain dalam kumpulan #yang lebih reaktif dari natrium.

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [# mark'# markah

    (%) ! chlorine atom "ith an electron arran$ement of ,..5 is unsta%le. Dia$ram sho"s a chlorine molecule that

    is formed %et"een t"o chlorine atoms.

    !tom klorin dengan konfi gurasi elektron ,..5 adalah tidak stabil. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan molekul

    klorin yang terbentuk antara dua atom klorin.

    Dia$ram'Rajah

    (i) Dra" a @e"is structure to sho" the formation of a chlorine molecule.

    +ukiskan struktur +ewis yang menunjukkan pembentukan molekul klorin.

    1

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    [, marks', markah

    (ii) Name the tpe of %ond in the chlorine molecule.

    Namakan ikatan yang terbentuk di dalam molekul klorin

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[# mark'# markah

    (c) (i) The electron arran$ement of element A is ,.., and the electron arran$ement of element B is ,.6. Name

    the force that e&ists %et"een these t"o elements if the form a compound.

    Konfigurasi elektron bagi A adalah ,.., dan konfigurasi elektron bagi B adalah ,.6.Namakan daya

    yang terbentuk antara dua elemen ini apabila ia membentuk sebatian.

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [# mark'# markah

    (ii) -rite the possi%le ions of A and B.

    Tuliskan ion yang mungkin bagi A dan B.

    A: +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    B: +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [, marks', markah

    (d) Dia$ram %elo" sho"s the formula of a compound that is formed %et"een t"o elements and B (the

    letters used are not the actual sm%ols of the elements).

    Rajah di bawah menunjukkan formula bagi sebatian yang terbentuk antara unsur dan B (abjad yang

    digunakan tidak mewakili simbol sebenar unsur).

    Dia$ram'Rajah

    -hich $roups of elements do and B %elon$ to?

    Kumpulan yang manakah diwakili oleh dan B?

    : +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    B: ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[, marks', markah

    . (a) A $rams of sodium hdro&ideE NaFE are dissol=ed in distilled "ater to produce ,.0 mol dmG1standard

    solution of NaF in #00 cm1. Dia$ram ! sho"s apparatus needed for the process.

    Agram natrium hidroksidaE NaF dilarutkan dalam air suling untuk menghasilkan ,.0 mol dmG1 larutan

    piawai

    NaF dalam #00 cm1.Rajah! menunjukkan set alat radas yang diperlukan untuk proses tersebut.

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    Dia$ram !'Rajah !

    (i) *tate the meanin$ of a standard solution.

    Nyatakan apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan larutan piawai.

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [# mark'# markah

    (ii) *tate a reason "h a =olumetric flask is more suita%le to %e used in the preparation of the standard

    solution rather than a %eaker.Nyatakan mengapa kelalang isipadu lebih sesuai digunakan dalam penyediaan larutan piawai

    berbanding bikar.

    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

    [# mark'# markah

    (iii)Calculate A "hich is the num%er of $rams of NaF that are needed to prepare a standard solution of

    0., mol dmG1NaF.

    Kirakan AgramNaFyang diperlukan untuk menyediakan 0., mol dmG1larutan piawaiNaF.

    [, marks', markah

    (%) Dia$ram H sho"s the apparatus set up for the titration of sulphuric acid "ith potassium hdro&ide.

    The results that are o%tained are $i=en in Ta%le %elo".

    Rajah H menunjukkan set alat radas untuk pentitratan asid sulfurik dengan kalium hidroksida. Keputusan

    yang diperolehi diberikan di dalam Jadual di bawah.

    Dia$ram H'Rajah H

    4

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    Re%'$t%*Keputusan

    Ta%le'Jadual

    (i) *tate the meanin$ of the end point of a titration.

    Nyatakan maksud titik akhir tindak balas peneutralan.

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [# mark'# markah

    (ii) *tate the chan$e in the colour of the methl oran$e at the end point.

    Nyatakan perubahan warna metil oren pada titik akhir.

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [# mark'# markah

    (iii)-hat is the a=era$e =olume of sulphuric acid used?

    %erapakah isi padu purata asid sulfurik yang digunakan,

    [# mark'# markah

    (i=)-rite an equation for the reaction %et"een potassium hdro&ide and sulphuric acid.

    Tuliskan persamaan tindakbalas antara kalium hidroksida dan asid sulfurik.

    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

    [# mark'# markah

    (=) Calculate the concentration of the sulphuric acid used if the concentration and =olume of the potassium

    hdro&ide solution used are #.,4 mol dmG1and ,0 cm1respecti=el.

    Kirakan kepekatan asid sulfurik yang digunakan jika kepekatan dan isi padu kalium hidroksida yang

    digunakan masing-masing adalah#.,4 mol dmG1dan ,0 cm1.

    6

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    [, marks', markah

    4. Dia$ram %elo" sho"s the structure of atom 3.

    Rajah di bawah menunjukkan struktur bagi atom 3.

    Dia$ram'Rajah

    (a)NameI

    NamakanI

    (i) the particle J.

    arahJ.

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [# mark'markah

    (ii) the particle * .

    arah *.

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [# mark'markah

    (%)*tate the tpe of char$e on each tpe of particle present in atom 3.

    Nyatakan jenis )as pada setiap arah yang hadir dalam atom 3.

    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [# mark'markah

    (c)f the atomic mass of atom 3 is 5E ho" man particles of J are there in the nucleus?

    Jika jisim atom 3 ialah 5E berapakah bilangan arah J di dalam nukleus?

    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++[# mark'markah

    (d)(i) n "hich $roup of the periodic ta%le "ill ou place atom 3?

    i dalam kumpulan yang manakah anda akan letakkan atom 3?

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [# mark'markah

    (ii) n "hich period of the periodic ta%le "ill ou place atom 3?

    i dalam kala yang manakah anda akan letakkan atom 3?

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [# mark'markah

    5

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    (e)-rite the electronic arran$ement of atom 3.

    Tuliskan susunan elektron bagi atom 3.

    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [# mark'markah

    (f) dentif atom 3.

    Kenalpasti atom 3.

    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [# mark'markah

    ($)(i) 3redict the electrical conducti=it of element 3.

    Teka kekonduksian elektrik bagi unsur atom 3.

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [# mark'markah

    (ii) /&plain our ans"er to (i).

    Terangkan jawapan anda pada (i).

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [# mark'markah

    6. Dia$ram %elo" sho"s the setup of an electroltic cell. Heaker contains a components of a simple chemical cell

    "hereas electrolsis takes place in Heaker .

    Rajah di bawah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi satu sel elektrokimia. %ikar / mengandungi komponen sel kimia

    ringkas sementara proses elektrolisis berlaku di dalam %ikar //.

    D!J!M'R!J!0

    (a)*tate the chan$es in ener$ in Heaker and Heaker .

    Nyatakan perubahan tenaga di dalam %ikar / dan %ikar //.

    Heaker '%ikar /

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    Heaker '%ikar //

    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

    $

    [, marks', markah

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    (%)-hich metal is the ne$ati=e terminal in Heaker ?

    +ogam yang manakah ialah terminal negatif di dalam %ikar /,

    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

    $

    [# mark'# markah

    (c)(i) *tate the process occurred in the copper electrode in Heaker .

    Nyatakan proses yang berlaku di dalam elektrod kuprum di dalam %ikar.

    +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

    [# mark'# markah

    (ii) -hat "ould ou o%ser=e at the sil=er electrode in Heaker ?

    !pakah yang kamu dapat perhatikan pada elektrod argentum di dalam bikar /,

    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

    [# mark'# markah

    (d)-rite equations for reactions "hich occurred at anode and cathode in Heaker .

    Tuliskan persamaan bagi tindak balas yang berlaku di anod dan katod di dalam %ikar //.

    !node'!nod:

    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

    $

    [# mark'# markah

    Cathode'Katod:

    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

    $

    [# mark'# markah

    (e)(i) -hat happens to the =oltmeter readin$ "hen the ma$nesium electrode in Heaker is replace "ith Kinc

    electrode?

    !pakah yang berlaku pada ba)aan 1oltmeter apabila elektrod magnesium di dalam bikar / digantikan

    dengan elektrod ink,

    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

    $

    [# mark'# markah

    (ii)/&plain our reasons in (e) (i).

    Terangkan alasan kamu di 2e3 2i3.

    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

    [, marks', markah

    8

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    Sectio "

    Bahagian "

    [,0 marks

    [,0 markah

    !ns"er an oe questions from this section.

    Jawab mana-mana %at'soalan daripada bahagian ini.

    5. The ta%le sho"s the proton num%ers and nucleon num%ers of three elements 7E @ and M.Jadual berikut menunjukkan nombor proton dan nombor nukleon bagi unsur-unsur 7E @ dan M.

    Ta%le'Jadual

    (a) /&plain ho" the position of element 7 in the 3eriodic Ta%le of /lement can %e determined.Terangkan bagaimana kedudukan unsur K dalam Jadual %erkala 'nsur dapat ditentukan.

    [4 marks'markah

    (%) The reacti=it of elements 7E @ and M increases from 7 to M. i=e a reason for this.

    Ke)ergasan unsur-unsur 7E @ dan M berkurangan dari 7 ke M.%erikan sebabnya.

    [4 marks'markah

    (c) (i) Discuss ho" elements 7E @ and M should %e handled and stored in the la%orator.

    Terangkan bagaimana mengendali dan menyimpan unsur-unsur K4 + dan 5 di dalam makmal.

    [ marks'markah

    (ii) Descri%e %riefl the reactions of element @ "ith "ater and "ith chlorine. Bour description should

    include the o%ser=ationsE the names of the products and chemical equations for the reactions.Terangkan se)ara ringkas tindak balas antara unsur + dengan air dan klorin. Keterangan anda perlu

    meliputi pemerhatian4 nama hasil tindak balas dan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas yang berlaku.

    [6 marks'markah

    . (a) *tate "hat is meant % electrolsis.

    Nyatakan apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan elektrolisis.

    [, marks', markah

    (%) Dia$ram sho"s t"o tpes of cell.

    Rajah menunjukkan dua jenis sel.

    #0

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    Dia$ram'Rajah

    (i) Descri%e three differences %et"een cell 3 and cell .

    nclude the follo"in$ in our ans"er:

    for the reactions at the electrodes in %oth cells.

    Terangkan ti#aperbeaan antara sel 3 dan sel .

    5asukkan perkara berikut dalam jawapan anda:

    L the o%ser=ationE

    pemerhatian

    L half equation.

    persamaan setengah bagi tindak balas pada elektrod-elektrod dalam kedua-dua sel.

    [6 marks'6 markah

    (ii) /&plain "h the reactions that occur in cell 3 and cell are redo& in terms of the loss of electrons.

    Terangkan mengapa kedua-dua tindak balas yang berlaku dalam Sel 3 dan Sel adalah tindak balas

    redoks dari segi kehilangan elektron.

    [ marks' markah

    (c) Desi$n an e&periment to electroplate an iron ke "ith copper

    Bour ans"er should consist of the follo"in$:

    Reka satu eksperimen untuk menyadur kun)i besi dengan kuprum

    Jawapan kamu mestilah mengandungi perkara berikut:

    L the chemicals requiredE

    L bahan kimia yang diperlukan

    L the procedure of the e&periment set upE

    Lprosedur menjalankan eksperimen

    L a dia$ram sho"in$ the of apparatus set up

    L rajah menunjukkan susunan radas

    L the chemical equation in=ol=ed in the reactionLpersamaan kimia yang terlibat dalam tindak balas ini

    [ marks' markah

    ##

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    Sectio C

    Bahagian C

    [,0 marks

    [,0 markah

    !ns"er an oe questions from this section.

    Jawab mana-mana %at'soalan daripada bahagian ini.

    8. (a) -hat is meant % empirical formula?

    !pakah yang dimaksudkan dengan formula empirik,

    [# mark'markah

    (%) car%on compound contains 8,.1 of car%on and 5.5 of hdro$en % mass. The relati=e molecular mass

    of this compound is 5.

    ;ind the molecular formula of this compound.

    Satu sebatian karbon mengandungi 8,.1 karbon dan5.5 hidrogen per jisim. Jisim molekul relatif

    untuk sebatian ini ialah5.

    6ari formula molekul untuk sebatian ini.

    [Jelati=e atomic mass: CE #, FE #[Jisim atom relatif: CE #, FE #

    [4 marks'markah

    (c) Descri%e ho" ou could determine the empirical formula of ma$nesium o&ide in the la%orator. Bour

    description should include

    Terangkan bagaimana anda dapat menentukan formula empirik bagi magnesium oksida di dalam makmal.

    &enerangan anda perlu merangkumi

    L the procedure of the e&periment

    prosedur eksperimen

    L ta%ulation of the results penjadualan keputusan

    L the calculation of the results

    pengiraan keputusan

    [Jelati=e atomic mass: E #6 M$E ,

    [Jisim atom ralatif: E #6 M$E ,

    [# marks'markah

    #0. (a) Dia$ram ! sho"s the states of chlorine and neon "hich e&ist at room temperature.

    Rajah ! menunjukkan keadaan klorin dan neon yang wujud pada suhu bilik.

    #,

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    Dia$ram !'Rajah !

    (i) i=e the electron confi$urations of chlorine and neonE then determine their positions in the periodic

    ta%le.

    %erikan susunan elektron bagi klorin dan neon4 kemudian tentukan lokasi kumpulan mereka dalam

    Jadual %erkala 'nsur.

    [ marks'markah

    (ii) /&plain "h chlorine element e&ists in the form of diatomic molecules at room temperatureE %ut neon

    e&ists as monatomic molecules.

    0uraikan mengapakah unsur klorin wujud dalam bentuk molekul dwiatom di dalam suhu bilik4 tetapi

    neon wujud dalam bentuk molekul monoatom. [6 marks'markah

    (%) Dia$ram H sho"s that the chan$es in the chemical properties of the elements in t"o different $roups of the

    periodic ta%le are different "hen $oin$ do"n the $roups.

    Rajah H menunjukkan perubahan sifat kimia yang berbea bagi dua kumpulan yang berbea semasa

    menuruni kumpulan.

    Dia$ram H'Rajah H

    /&plain.

    Terangkan.

    [#0 marks'markah

    7/JT!* *[email protected]!N T!M!T

    #1