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SCE 3107 (ECOSISTEM & BIODIVERSITI)DR. KARTINI ABDUL MUTALIB

Hasil Pembelajaran: 1. 2. 3. kepelbagaian pengelasan haiwan mengukur kepelbagaian spesies kekayaan, kesamarataan species ujikaji dlm kurikulum sekolah rendah

Secara keseluruhan Alam Haiwan Sangat luas sangat tinggi kepelbagaiannya

Ciri Haiwan

Multicellular banyak sel dengan tubuh yang lengkap Heterotrofik - tidak mensintesis makanan (herbivor @ karnivor) Terdiri dari tisu-tisu yg berkembang daripada lapisan embrio Tiada dinding sel lebih fleksibel Mobil boleh bergerak

Ciri Haiwan

Pelbagai bentuk invertebrata & vetebrata Habitat pelbagai jenis marin, air tawar, daratan Pembiakan seksual sperma + telur + zigot, Perkembangan embrionik - sel-sel membahagi membentuk morula, blastula & gastula Unik tisu spt tisu saraf dan otot

Early embryonic development in animalsOnly one cleavage stagethe eight-cell 2 embryois shown here. In most animals, cleavage results in the formation of a multicellular stage called a blastula. The blastula of many animals is a hollow ball of 3 cells.

The zygote of an animal undergoes a succession of 1 cell divisions called mitotic cleavage.

Blastocoel

endoderm of the archenteron develops into the tissue lining the animals digestive tract.5 The

6 The

Cleavage

Cleavage

Zygote

Eight-cell stage Blastocoel

Blastula

Cross section of blastula

blind pouch formed by gastrulation, called the archenteron, opens to the outside via the blastopore.

Endoderm Ectoderm Gastrula Gastrulation Most animals also undergo gastrulation, a rearrangement of the 4 embryo in which one end of the embryo folds inward, expands, and eventually fills the blastocoel, producing layers of embryonic tissues: the ectoderm (outer layer) and the endoderm (inner layer).

Blastopore

Figure 32.2

Ciri Haiwan

Evolusi tisu haiwan Simetri bilateral -3 lapisan germa (ektoderma, endoderma, mesoderma) Rongga pelan tubuh (acoelomates, psedocoelomates atau coelomates), Endoskeleton - protosomes atau deuterosome Segmentasi

Acoelomates - tiada rongga tubuh Psedocoelomates - ada rongga antara mesoderma dan endoderma Coelomates mempunyai rongga tubuh yang dipenuhi cecair

Simetri(a)

Haiwan boleh dikategorikan Simetri atau tidak

Radial symmetry. The parts of a radial animal, such as a sea anemone (phylum Cnidaria), radiate from the center. Any imaginary slice through the central axis divides the animal into mirror images.

bilateral symmetri Dua bahagian simetri

Bilaterally symmetrical animals have A dorsal (top) side and a ventral (bottom) side A right and left side Anterior (head) and posterior (tail) ends Cephalization, the development of a head(b)

Bilateral symmetry. A bilateral animal, such as a lobster (phylum Arthropoda), has a left side and a right side. Only one imaginary cut divides the animal into mirror-image halves.

Bentuk / plan tubuh Berbeza mengikut organisasi tisu haiwan

Embrio Haiwan Bentuk lapisan germa tisu embrio ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm Haiwan Diploblastik = 2 lapisan germa Hiawan Triploblastik = 3 lapisan germa

Rongga Badan coelom yang berasal dari mesodermCoelom Body covering (from ectoderm)

(a)

Tissue layer lining coelom and suspending internal organs (from mesoderm) Digestive tract (from endoderm)

Coelomate. Coelomates such as annelids have a true coelom, a body cavity completely lined by tissue derived from mesoderm.Figure 32.8a

Pseudocoelomata Rongga tubuh berasal dari blastocoelBody covering (from ectoderm)

Pseudocoelom

Muscle layer (from mesoderm)

(b)

Digestive tract (from ectoderm)

Pseudocoelomate. Pseudocoelomates such as nematodes have a body cavity only partially lined by tissue derived from Figure 32.8b mesoderm.

acoelomates

Tanpa rongga tubuhBody covering (from ectoderm)

(c)

Tissuefilled region (from mesoderm)

Digestive tract (from endoderm)

Acoelomate. Acoelomates such as flatworms lack a body cavity between the digestive tract and outer body wall.

Perkembangan Protostome dan Deuterostome Haiwan boleh dikategorikan kepada mempunyai satu atau dua mod perkembangan 1. perkembangan protostome atau 2. perkembangan deuterostome

Pembahagian - CleavageDlm perkembangan protostome - Pembahagian adalah spiral dan boleh ditentukan Dlm perkembangan deuterostome - Pembahagian adalah radial dan tidak boleh ditentukan

Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annelids, arthropods)Eight-cell stage

Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates)Eight-cell stage

(a)

Figure 32.9a

Spiral and determinate

Radial and indeterminate

Cleavage. In general, protostome development begins with spiral, determinate cleavage. Deuterostome development is characterized by radial, indeterminate cleavage.

protostome -

Pembentukan Coelom - Coelom Formation

Pembentukan rongga kaviti disebut perkembangan schizocoelous Pembentukan rongga kaviti disebut perkembangan enterocoelousCoelom Archenteron

In deuterostome development

Mesoderm

Coelom Blastopore

Blastopore

Mesoderm

Schizocoelous: solid masses of mesoderm split and form coelom

Enterocoelous: folds of archenteron form coelom

(b) Coelom formation. Coelom formation begins in the gastrula stage. In protostome development, the coelom forms from splits in the mesoderm (schizocoelous development). In deuterostome development, the coelom forms from mesodermal outpocketings of the archenteron (enterocoelous development).

Blastopore Terhasil

Perkembangan protostome blastopore menjadi mulut

Perkembangan deuterostome blastopore menjadi anusAnus Mouth

Digestive tube

Mouth

Anus Anus develops from blastopore

Figure 32.9c

Mouth develops from blastopore

Neoproterozoic Era (1 Billion524 Million Years Ago)

Early members of the animal fossil record Include the Ediacaran fauna

Figure 32.5a, b(a) (b)

Paleozoic Era (542251 Million Years Ago)

The Cambrian explosion Marks the earliest fossil appearance of many major groups of living animals Is described by several current hypotheses

Figure 32.6

Mesozoic Era (25165.5 Million Years Ago)

During the Mesozoic era Dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates Coral reefs emerged, becoming important marine ecological niches for other organisms

Cenozoic Era (65.5 Million Years Ago to the Present)

The beginning of this era Followed mass extinctions of both terrestrial and marine animals

Modern mammal orders and insects Diversified during the Cenozoic

Pengelasan BiologiExample: Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Short-beaked Echidna Animalia Chordata Mammalia Monotremata Tachyglossidae Tachyglossus aculeatus

Alam HidupanEubacteria Archaeobacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia True bacteria Ancient bacteria Single cell Primary producers External digestion Consumers Eukaryotes Viruses Prokaryotes

Biodiversity:

8% of the worlds total species diversity >800,000 species 25,000 vascular plants 250,000 fungi 5,400 vertebrates (Phylum Chordata) 3,600 fishes, most endemic 850 birds, 45% endemic 700 reptiles, 89% endemic 357 mammals, 84% endemic (incl. 159 marsupials) 174 amphibians, 93% endemic ~520,000 invertebrates (the other 99%) 225,000 insects, many endemic

Beetle Diversity

Alam HaiwanMULTISEL TisuRadial simetri (Filum Radiata) Obor-Obor Bilateral simetri Filum Platyhelminthes (flatworm) Psedocoel FilumNematoda (cacing bulat) Filum Rotifera Tiada Tisu (Filum Porifera) Sponge

Coelom endoskeleton SegmenMoluska

Filum Echinodermata

Filum Chordata

Eksoskeleton Filum Annelida, Arthropoda

Phylum Porifera: SpongesAbout 5000 species, most marine and colonial Filter feed on fine particulate matter drawn in with water in through pores Skeleton used as bath sponges Small calcareous sponges, Heron Island

Phylum Porifera: Sponges

Poorly differentiated tissues; no organs No circulatory system No nervous system No respiratory or excretory system: gas exchange and waste excretion by diffusion

Very simple digestive system: no mouth or gut

Phylum Cnidaria/Radiata: jellyfish, sea wasps, hydrozoans, sea anemones, coralsMedusa of Class Scyphozoa jellyfish

9000 species; marine or freshwater Medusa - freefloating, (pelagic) and bell shaped (eg jellyfish) Polyp - attached tubular form (eg. a sea anemone)

clown anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris Heteractis magnifica

Class Anthozoa sea anemone

Phylum CnidariaNematocysts are a diagnostic feature (Stinging organelles for defence and capture of prey) People often experience stings (eg blue bottle). Stings from sea wasp (box jellyfish) are dangerous and often fatal

Class Anthozoa: CoralsSessile polyps that often live colonially. Feed by everting tentacles, catch zooplankton on nematocysts. Food passes between individual polyps to provide for whole colony Hard corals - polyps embedded in skeleton of calcium carbonate

Phylum Cnidaria

Radial symmetry No circulatory system Primitive nervous system: nerve net No respiratory system: gas exchange by diffusion

Simple digestive system one-way gastrovascular cavity

Phylum Platyhelminthes: flatworms, tapeworms and flukes12,700 species Class Turbellaria Flatworms (free-living) Class Monogenea Ectoparasitic flukes Class Trematoda Endoparasitic flukes (eg. liver fluke of sheep) Class Cesto