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SCE 3107 (ECOSISTEM & BIODIVERSITI) DR. KARTINI ABDUL MUTALIB

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Page 1: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

SCE 3107 (ECOSISTEM & BIODIVERSITI)DR. KARTINI ABDUL MUTALIB

Page 2: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Hasil Pembelajaran:

1. kepelbagaian pengelasan haiwan2. mengukur kepelbagaian spesies -

kekayaan, kesamarataan species3. ujikaji dlm kurikulum sekolah

rendah

Page 3: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Secara keseluruhan – Alam Haiwan Sangat luas – sangat tinggi kepelbagaiannya

Page 4: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Ciri Haiwan Multicellular – banyak sel dengan tubuh yang

lengkap Heterotrofik - tidak mensintesis makanan

(herbivor @ karnivor) Terdiri dari tisu-tisu yg berkembang daripada

lapisan embrio Tiada dinding sel – lebih fleksibel Mobil – boleh bergerak

Page 5: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Pelbagai bentuk – invertebrata & vetebrata Habitat pelbagai jenis – marin, air tawar, daratan Pembiakan seksual – sperma + telur + zigot, Perkembangan embrionik - sel-sel membahagi

membentuk morula, blastula & gastula Unik tisu – spt tisu saraf dan otot

Ciri Haiwan

Page 6: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Zygote

Cleavage

Eight-cell stage

Cleavage

Blastula Cross sectionof blastula

Blastocoel

Blastocoel

Gastrula Gastrulation

Endoderm

Ectoderm

Blastopore

Early embryonic development in animals

Figure 32.2

In most animals, cleavage results in theformation of a multicellular stage called a blastula.

The blastula of many animals is a hollow ball ofcells.3

The endoderm ofthe archenteron

develops into thetissue

lining the animal’sdigestive tract.

6

The blind pouchformed by gastru-

lation, calledthe archenteron,

opens to the outsidevia the blastopore.

5

Most animals also undergo gastrulation, a rearrangement of theembryo in which one end of the embryo folds inward, expands, and

eventually fills the blastocoel, producing layers of embryonic tissues:the ectoderm (outer layer) and the endoderm (inner layer).

4

Only onecleavage

stage–the eight-cellembryo–is shown

here.

2

The zygote of an animalundergoes a succession of

mitotic cell divisions calledcleavage.

1

Page 7: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Evolusi tisu haiwan – Simetri bilateral -3 lapisan germa

(ektoderma, endoderma, mesoderma) Rongga pelan tubuh (acoelomates,

psedocoelomates atau coelomates), Endoskeleton - protosomes atau

deuterosome Segmentasi

Ciri Haiwan

Page 8: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Acoelomates - tiada rongga tubuh Psedocoelomates - ada rongga antara

mesoderma dan endoderma Coelomates – mempunyai rongga tubuh yang

dipenuhi cecair

Page 9: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Simetri Haiwan boleh dikategorikan

– Simetri atau tidak

Radial symmetry. The parts of a radial animal,such as a sea anemone (phylum Cnidaria), radiatefrom the center. Any imaginary slice through the

central axis divides the animal into mirror images.

(a)

Page 10: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

bilateral symmetri– Dua bahagian simetri

Bilateral symmetry. A bilateralanimal, such as a lobster (phylum Arthropoda), has a

left side and a right side. Only one imaginary cutdivides the animal into mirror-image halves.

(b)

Bilaterally symmetrical animals have– A dorsal (top) side and a ventral (bottom) side– A right and left side– Anterior (head) and posterior (tail) ends– Cephalization, the development of a head

Page 11: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Bentuk / plan tubuh– Berbeza mengikut organisasi tisu haiwan

Embrio Haiwan -Bentuk lapisan germa tisu embrio -ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm

Haiwan Diploblastik = 2 lapisan germaHiawan Triploblastik = 3 lapisan germa

Page 12: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Rongga Badan– coelom yang berasal dari mesoderm

Figure 32.8a

Coelom

Body covering(from ectoderm)

Digestive tract(from endoderm)

Tissue layerlining coelom

and suspendinginternal organs

(from mesoderm)

Coelomate. Coelomates such as annelids have a truecoelom, a body cavity completely lined by tissue derived

from mesoderm.

(a)

Page 13: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Pseudocoelomata– Rongga tubuh berasal dari blastocoel

Figure 32.8b

PseudocoelomMuscle layer

(frommesoderm)

Body covering(from ectoderm)

Digestive tract(from ectoderm)

Pseudocoelomate. Pseudocoelomates such as nematodes have abody cavity only partially lined by tissue derived from

mesoderm.

(b)

Page 14: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

acoelomates Tanpa rongga tubuh

Body covering(from ectoderm) Tissue-

filled region(from

mesoderm)

Digestive tract(from endoderm)

Acoelomate. Acoelomates such as flatworms lack a bodycavity between the digestive tract and outer body wall.

(c)

Page 15: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Perkembangan Protostome danDeuterostome

– Haiwan boleh dikategorikan kepada -mempunyai satu atau dua mod perkembangan1. perkembangan protostome atau2. perkembangan deuterostome

Page 16: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Pembahagian - Cleavage Dlm perkembangan protostome - Pembahagian

adalah spiral dan boleh ditentukan Dlm perkembangan deuterostome - Pembahagian

adalah radial dan tidak boleh ditentukan

Figure 32.9a

Protostome development(examples: molluscs, annelids,

arthropods)

Deuterostome development(examples: echinoderms,

chordates)

Eight-cell stage Eight-cell stage

Spiral and determinate Radial and indeterminate

(a) Cleavage. In general,protostome

development beginswith spiral, determinate

cleavage.Deuterostomedevelopment is

characterized by radial,indeterminate cleavage.

Page 17: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Pembentukan Coelom - CoelomFormation

protostome -– Pembentukan rongga kaviti disebut perkembangan

schizocoelous In deuterostome development

– Pembentukan rongga kaviti disebut perkembanganenterocoelous

Archenteron

Blastopore MesodermCoelom

BlastoporeMesoderm

Schizocoelous: solidmasses of mesodermsplit and form coelom

Enterocoelous:folds of archenteron

form coelom

Coelom

(b) Coelom formation. Coelomformation begins in the

gastrula stage. In protostomedevelopment, the coelomforms from splits in the

mesoderm (schizocoelousdevelopment). In deuterostome

development, the coelomforms from mesodermal

outpocketings of thearchenteron (enterocoelous

development).

Page 18: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Blastopore Terhasil

Perkembangan protostome– blastopore menjadi mulut

Perkembangan deuterostome– blastopore menjadi anus

Figure 32.9c

Anus

Anus

Mouth

Mouth

Mouth developsfrom blastopore

Anus developsfrom blastopore

Digestive tube

Page 19: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

(a) (b)

Neoproterozoic Era (1 Billion–524 Million Years Ago) Early members of the animal fossil record

– Include the Ediacaran fauna

Figure 32.5a, b

Page 20: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Paleozoic Era (542–251 MillionYears Ago)

The Cambrian explosion– Marks the earliest fossil appearance of many

major groups of living animals– Is described by several current hypotheses

Figure 32.6

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Mesozoic Era (251–65.5 Million Years Ago)

During the Mesozoic era– Dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial

vertebrates– Coral reefs emerged, becoming important

marine ecological niches for other organisms

Page 22: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Cenozoic Era (65.5 Million Years Ago to the Present)

The beginning of this era– Followed mass extinctions of both terrestrial

and marine animals Modern mammal orders and insects

– Diversified during the Cenozoic

Page 23: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Pengelasan BiologiExample: Short-beaked Echidna

Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Chordata

Class Mammalia

Order Monotremata

Family Tachyglossidae

Genus Tachyglossus

Species aculeatus

Page 24: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Alam Hidupan

Eubacteria

Plantae

Fungi

Archaeobacteria

Protista

Animalia

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

True bacteria

Primary producers

External digestion

Ancient bacteria

Single cell

Consumers Viruses

Page 25: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Biodiversity: 8% of the world’s total species diversity

>800,000 species

25,000 vascular plants

250,000 fungi

5,400 vertebrates (Phylum Chordata)– 3,600 fishes, most endemic– 850 birds, 45% endemic– 700 reptiles, 89% endemic– 357 mammals, 84% endemic (incl. 159 marsupials)– 174 amphibians, 93% endemic

~520,000 invertebrates (“the other 99%”)– 225,000 insects, many endemic

Page 26: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Beetle Diversity

Page 27: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Alam HaiwanMULTISEL

Tisu

Psedocoel

Radial simetri(Filum Radiata)

Obor-Obor

Tiada Tisu(Filum Porifera)

SpongeBilateral simetri

Filum Platyhelminthes(flatworm)

Coelom

FilumNematoda(cacing bulat)

FilumRotifera

endoskeleton Segmen

Moluska

EksoskeletonFilum Annelida,

Arthropoda

FilumEchinodermata

FilumChordata

Page 28: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Porifera: SpongesAbout 5000 species,

most marine andcolonial

Filter feed on fineparticulate matterdrawn in with water inthrough pores

Skeleton used as ‘bathsponges’

Small calcareous sponges, Heron Island

Page 29: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Porifera: Sponges Poorly differentiated tissues; no organs

No circulatory system

No nervous system

No respiratory or excretory system: gas

exchange and waste excretion by diffusion

Very simple digestive system: no mouth or gut

Page 30: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Cnidaria/Radiata: jellyfish, sea wasps,hydrozoans, sea anemones, corals

9000 species; marineor freshwater

Medusa - free-floating, (pelagic)and bell shaped (egjellyfish)

Polyp - attachedtubular form (eg. asea anemone)

Medusa ofClass

Scyphozoa -jellyfish

Class Anthozoa -sea anemone

clown anemonefishAmphiprion ocellarisHeteractis magnifica

Page 31: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Nematocysts are adiagnostic feature

(Stinging organelles fordefence and capture ofprey)

People often experiencestings (eg blue bottle).

Stings from sea wasp (boxjellyfish) are dangerousand often fatal

Phylum Cnidaria

Page 32: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Class Anthozoa: CoralsSessile polyps that often live

colonially.Feed by everting tentacles,

catch zooplankton onnematocysts.

Food passes between individualpolyps to provide for wholecolony

Hard corals - polyps embeddedin skeleton of calciumcarbonate

Page 33: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Cnidaria Radial symmetry

No circulatory system

Primitive nervous system: ‘nerve net’

No respiratory system: gas exchange by

diffusion

Simple digestive system – one-way

gastrovascular cavity

Page 34: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Platyhelminthes:flatworms, tapeworms and flukes

12,700 species

Class TurbellariaFlatworms (free-living)

Class MonogeneaEctoparasitic flukes

Class TrematodaEndoparasitic flukes(eg. liver fluke of sheep)

Class CestodaTapeworms(eg. pork tapeworm, hydatid cysttapeworm)

Page 35: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Platyhelminthes Bilateral symmetry; dorso-ventrally flattened

Many are parasitic

Many are hermaphroditic

No circulatory system

No respiratory system: gas exchange by diffusion

Simple nervous system / simple eyes

Simple digestive system – one-way gastrovascular

cavity

Page 36: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Nemertinea: proboscis worms

900 speciesMostly marine species: rocky crevices, in sand,

under rocks, algal matsHave a unique eversible anterior proboscis

used for catching preyElongated, anteriorly pointedRange from few mm to ~30 metres in lengthMany brightly coloured

Page 37: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms12,000 species, many parasitic

Pseudocoelomate: possess fluid filled body cavity

Found in virtually every habitat

Cylindrical, with tapered ends

Thick collagen cuticle

Move by longitudinal muscle contraction

Elephantiasis is caused bya roundworm which blockslymphatic tissue, causing

grotesque swelling inaffected regions

Page 38: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms Bilateral symmetry; cylindrical

Pseudocoelomate – possess body cavity

Limited closed circulatory system, parasite

Rudimentary nervous system: aggregation of nervecells (brain), nerves running posteriorly, nerve cells oncuticle (setae, papillae, amphids)

No respiratory system

Through digestive system

Page 39: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Annelida: Segmentedworms

8700 species

Class Polychaeta (Marine bristle-worms)

Class Euclitellata

Sub-class Oligochaeta (Earthworms)

Sub-class Hirudinae (Leeches)

Page 40: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Annelida: Segmented worms

Coelomate – possess true body cavity

Segmentation and metamerism

Closed circulatory system (blood vessels)

Primitive respiratory systems

Nervous system – brain, ventral nervous cord andganglia in each segment

Through digestive system

Excretion through nephridial tubules

Page 41: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Arthropoda: insects, arachnids,crustaceans, millipedes, centipedes

Most species-rich phylum in animal kingdom

> 1 million species described Have

– hard chitinous exoskeleton (protects softparts, allows muscle attachment)

– evolution of wings– jointed limbs– tagmatisation (organisation of segments into

functional groups, eg thorax)– diversity and complexity of form

Page 42: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Arthropoda

Reduced coelom (haemocoel)

Open circulatory system – blood pumped by heart

through haemocoel

Well developed nervous system – brain with paired

nervous cord, segmental ganglia

Sexes separate; internal fertilization

Page 43: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Contoh - Phylum Arthropoda

Well developed respiratory systems

Complete digestive system

Specialized nitrogenous waste excretion:

Malpighian tubules collect dissolved N

waste

Page 44: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Sub-phylum Crustacea < 42,000 species prawns, crabs, crayfish, shrimps, copepods,

amphipods, isopods, barnacles Head, thorax and abdomen 2 pairs of antennae, mandibles, 2 pairs of

maxillae Carapace enclosing body Appendages (legs, swimmerettes) made of 2

parts – endopodite and exopodite

Page 45: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Sub-phylum Crustacea

Mostly aquatic, many marine

Omnivorous: scavengers, filter feeders,carnivores

Often have gills on limbs

Well developed nervous system, includingcompound and simple eyes (ocelli)

Page 46: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Class Insecta - Serangga Largest group of animals, about 800,000

species described

Among most numerous inhabitants ofterrestrial environments

Ability to fly - contributes to abundance anddistribution

Many are pests of humans and crops.

Some are major vectors of disease (eg. malaria,bubonic plague)

Many positive impacts – pollination,pharmaceuticals, biological control

Page 47: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Insect body plan

Distinct head, thorax and abdomen

Head segments are fused

Head features compound eyes, antennae, threepairs of mouthparts

Thorax has 3 pairs of walking legs, and 2 pairs ofwings

Abdomen lacks appendages except for cerci

Page 48: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Class Insecta

• Variety of feedingmethods

• Gas exchange throughspiracles that openexternally, lead totracheae, divide intotracheoles

• Excretion system:Malpighian tubules

Page 49: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Major insect ordersColeoptera (beetles)Hemiptera (bugs)Diptera (flies)Orthoptera (crickets, locusts)Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies)Hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps)Trichoptera (caddis flies)Ephemeroptera (mayflies)Blattodea (cockroaches)Siphonaptera (fleas)Phasmatodea (stick insects)Mantodea (mantids)Isoptera (termites)Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies)

Page 50: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Class Insecta

Incomplete metamorphosis (successiveinstars)

Complete metamorphosis (adult form hasa completely different body form and feedingpattern to the juvenile stage)

(e.g. Wanderer Butterfly)

Page 51: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Mollusca

Second largest animal phylum (afterArthropods)

>100,000 living species Aquatic and terrestrial forms Includes chitons, gastropods (snails,

slugs,nudibranchs), bivalves (mussels,oysters, cockles), cephalopods (squids,octopuses)

Page 52: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Mollusca

Consist of muscular foot, visceral mass and mantle

(secretes the shell)

Open circulatory system

Well developed nervous system

Respiratory system: gills within the mantle cavity

Complete digestive system, including the radula

Excretory system present

Page 53: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Mollusca: Class Gastropoda

Variety of form –coiled, flattened

Distinct head withwell-developed senseorgans

Strong radula

Variety of habitats

Page 54: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum MolluscaClass Gastropoda:

nudibranch

Class Polyplacophora:chiton

Page 55: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Mollusca: ClassCephalopoda (head-foot)

Head surrounded by ring of arms andtentacles

Well developed brain, advancedcapability in vision (colour vision)

Page 56: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Echinodermata(“spiny skin”)

6000 marine species Asteroidea - sea stars Crinoidea - feather stars Ophuroidea- brittle stars Echinoidea - sea urchins Holothuroidea - sea cucumbersInternal skeleton composed of calcereous ossicles

Brittle star (top) and Sea star

Page 57: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Echinodermata Larvae have bilateral symmetry; adults exhibit

secondary radial symmetry (5-rayed) No head Have modified coelom - unique water vascular system

and tube feet used in feeding and locomotion No excretory organs – diffusion across body surface Well-developed digestive tract - radial Circulatory system via coelomic fluid Nervous system – relatively simple Respiratory system varied – gills, respiratory trees

Page 58: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Chordata Possess at some stage during development:

– a notochord (pre-cursor to a backbone)

– pharyngeal slits

– hollow dorsal nervous cord

Primitive chordates include:– Urochordates (tunicates: e.g. sea-squirts)

– Cephalochordates (e.g. Amphioxus)

– Hemichordates (e.g. acorn worms)

Page 59: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Phylum Chordata: Sub-phyla Vertebrata~38,000 species

DiagnosticPosses cartilaginous or bony vertebrae (backbone)Embryonic tissue called the ‘neural crest’Typical Bilateral symmetry Specialized head with a skull to protect brain and sensory organs Teeth Closed circulatory systems – heart, arteries and veins Respiratory system – from skin to lungs Complex digestive and excretory systems Well developed nervous system Variation in modes of locomotion

Page 60: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Sub-phyla VertebrataClasses Chondrichthyes (sharks, skates, rays) Osteichthyes (bony fishes - all common fish)

Tetrapods Amphibia (frogs, salamanders) Reptilia (snakes, crocodiles, turtles, lizards) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals)

Page 61: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Sub-phyla VertebrataChondrichthytes cartilaginous skeleton

Osteichthytes bony fish includes teleosts

– fusion of vertebrae in caudal fin– loss of dentine and enamel from scales

Lobe-finned fish (salamanders, lungfish andcoelacanth) are closes relatives to tetrapods

Page 62: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Sub-phyla Vertebrata:Class Mammalia

Mammary glands (produce milk)

Hair

Four-chambered heart; double circulation

Highly developed nervous system

Page 63: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Let’s ussee the video

Page 64: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN

Praktikal 4 dan 5

Amali 4: Mengukur danMembanding KepelbagaianSpesies

Amali 5: Memahami TrendaPopulasi

Bring your own broadband

Page 65: TAJUK_9_KEPELBAGAIAN HAIWAN