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  • Heat convective Olakan Haba Conduction (pengaliran) Heating heat bahangan Direct Terus-menerus 3 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • heat transfer occurs in liquids & gases. heat from fire heat the air - hot temperature. 4 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y OLAKAN HABA (HEAT CONVECTION)
  • heat transfer inside materials solid materials. heat from fire passed from molecule to molecule along material. 5 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y PENGALIRAN (CONDUCTION)
  • travels in sunrays, in straight lines. heat from rays - absorbed by combustible materials- causes them to heat up & ignite. 6 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y BAHANGAN (HEAT)
  • TERUS-MENERUS (CONTINUOUSLY ) The easiest way fire spreads. Fuels burned because fire spread through it if they get into contact with each other. 7 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • CONSTRUCT BUILDING THAT CAN .. i. Hold collapse enough time - residents save themselves Follow the rules - buildings are designed properly materials & structures quality comply with specifications. 9 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y HOW TO OVERCOME THE FIRE FLARE IN BUILDING
  • ii. CAN DAM UP FROM SMOKE & FIRE FLARE layout of the building separate compartment space & horizontal separated floor . vertical separated wall 10 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • Fire door iii. Materials of wall & floor : not flammable dam up the fire & prevent smoke from get through
  • HOW ARE FIRES CLASSIFIED? Fires are caused by different materials, & classified to 4 categories: 12 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • CLASS A Ordinary combustibles or fibrous material ( wood, paper, cloth, rubber & some plastics ) CLASS B Flammable @ combustible liquids : gasoline, kerosene, paint, paint thinners . 13 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • CLASS C Energized electrical equipment (appliance , switches, panel boxes & power tools) CLASS D Combustible metals : magnesium, titanium, potassium & sodium. - burn at high temperatures - React violently with water @ other chemicals - handled with care. 14 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE & FIRE FIGHTING METHODS 15 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y KELAS API CONTOH ALAT PEMADAM API PERMULAAN A Solid types paper , wood dust , cloth ABC (dry chemical fire extinguishers containing monoammonium phosphate) Water spray foam B Liquid types oil, gasolin, alkohol ABC, foam, CO2 , water , halon C Gas types acetylene , ammonia, butane ABC , water , halon (BCF ) D Metal type aluminium , calsium, magnesium ABC
  • CAUSES OF FIRES Use of flammable materials in buildings Careless use of electrical appliances /appliance is damaged . Imperfect electrical wiring circuit /not safe. 18 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • Throw cigarette butts all over the place Careless use of mosquito coils, gas stoves, kerosene / flammable fuel. Willful / treacherous 19 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • 20 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y Terms of fire fighting a. Starvation i. Transfer the fuel - not burned to another place. ii. Transfer the fuel burned to another place. iii. Breaking @ crushing of fuel burned easily off.
  • b. Smothering Preventing the entry of air. cover the surface of the burning fuel 21 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • c. Cooling . cheap & cool - accelerate the heat transfer by reducing heat temperature low - flame goes out. 22 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • d. Memutuskan Rantai Tindakbalas. Break the chemical chain - fire extinguisher such as CO2 ,BCF & dry powder 23 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • begins when heat, oxygen & fuel source combine a chemical reaction resulting in fire. known as ignition represented by a very small fire which often goes out on its own, before following stages are reached provides your best chance - suppression or escape. 25 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • where the structures fire load and oxygen are used as fuel for the fire. factors affecting the growth stage including where the fire started, what combustibles are near it, ceiling height and the potential for thermal layering It is during this shortest of the 4 stages when a deadly flashover can occur; potentially trapping, injuring or killing firefighters. - Growth 26 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • When the growth stage has reached its max and all combustible materials have been ignited, a fire is considered fully developed This is the hottest phase of a fire and the most dangerous for anybody trapped within. Fully Developed 27 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • Berkaitan unsur-unsur dalam bangunan bertujuan untuk: beri perlindungan kepada penghuni dari kecederaan semasa kebakaran bangunan beri kemudahan semasa anggota penyelamat menjalankan tugas elak api & asap merebak dari bangunan ke bangunan beri perlindungan kepada harta benda dari kemusnahan 29 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • laluan perlindungan kepada penghuni bangunan kebakaran laluan perlindungan kepada anggota bomba di waktu kecemasan 30 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • Lampu kecemasan ( emergency light ) Pengudaraan & pencahayaan cukup (adequate ventilation & lighting ) 31 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • i) Jalan Keluar Keselamatan (security exit). Road conditions are held: 32 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y Free from any obstruction Bebas daripada sebarang halangan Fire resistance door Pintu rintangan api Exit signs installed in the emergency lane Tanda keluar dipasang pada laluan kecemasan
  • PENGUDARAAN (VENTILATION) 33 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y untuk menjamin keselamatan penghuni keluar dari bangunan semasa selamatkan diri . Jenis-jenis sistem pengudaraan pada bangunan : pengudaraan biasa spt tingkap & struktur terbuka.
  • Pengudaraan jalan-jalan keluar keselamatan : fire fighting lobby, safety ladder & under control corridors Prevent entry of smoke into protected area reduce spread of fire caused by smoke 34 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • sokongan kepada perlindungan pasif : cahaya kepada laluan keselamatan Example : light tape 35 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y PENCAHAYAAN ( LIGHTING )
  • Jalan keluar keselamatan (security exit ) Akses perkakas bomba (Fire Briged tools access ) Pemetakan ( building partition) 36 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • Perlindungan aktif Sistem perlindungan kebakaran - dipasang tetap utk mengawal & memadam kebakaran - manual @ automatik. I. Sistem pemasangan sprinkler. Kawal kebakaran peringkat awal- semburan air bertekanan khusus di zon / kawasan terbabit. Sistem dihubungkan dengan penggera kebakaran bertindak automatik. 37 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y WHAT IS ACTIVE SYSTEM??
  • Extinguishing systems using water Wet riser system Dry riser system Hose reel Fire hydrant Automatic water spray system 38 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • Sistem pemadam menggunakan gas (extinguishing system using gas) Sistem penggera kebakaran (fire alarm system) 39 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • ALAT PEMADAM API PERMULAAN Ditandakan simbol kelas api & jenis api yg boleh dipadamkan. 40 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y Cara guna alat pemadam api - PASS : P - Pull - Tarik pin di atas alat pemadam api A - Aim - Halakan muncung alat pemadam ke punca api (bahan) S - Squeeze - Pusing atau tekan pemegang S - Sweep - halakan pancutan ke arah punca api pada jarak 3 meter sehingga api padam.
  • 41 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y Fire Extinguisher Types Portable Types Permanent Types Water base Foam base CO2 Gas Dry powder
  • Burning material: carbon materials such as wood, paper, fabric, solid material. Outer tube filled with water - mixed with sodium nitrate & a tube called cartridges filled with CO2 gas compressed. Specification : Red cylinder Spray distance for weight 10 kg 4 m. The time period of use - 1 to 2 min for 10 kg cylinder. Water base 42 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • Advantages Not dangerous & easy to use Act quickly Can be refilled easily Disadvantages Used once Cant extinguish fires caused by oil, electricity & engines 43 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • Not a soluble liquid & floating on the surface. Could cover fire & separate oxygen Extinguish the fire involving oil, flammable liquids & fats. Cylinder:yellow Jet distance by weight of cylinder 10 kg - 4 to 5 m use of 30-90 seconds for weight 10 kg cylinder The rate of expansion 1: 8 materials in cylinder: 8% sodium bicarbonate mixed with 3% stabilizer Foam 44 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • Advantages Not dangers , easily handled, refillable Can distinguish a small fire due to oil & chemical liquids Covering the fire quickly. 45 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • Disadvantages Cannot extinguish fire due to electrical. Do not place in a hot temperature & do not keep in a max cold temperature . Used only once. 46 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • Extinguish fire from electrical CO2 spray Principle: smothering & cool the fire CO2 gas filled in the tube - a compressed liquid at a pressure of 744 psi - at a temperature of 600F. Advantages : Gas produced clean & not danger Do not leave the effect. Disadvantages : Cannot be refilled Gas content can not be seen Specifications : Black cylinder Jet distance by cylinder weighing 10 kg: 2 to 3 m ( 8 30 sec) CO2 Gas 47 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • Extinguish all types of fires blue cylinder- jet distance for 10kg weight = 4-6 m Chemical substances : 97% sodium bikarbonat 1.5% magnesium stearat ( filled in the outer tube) 1% magnesium karbonat 0.5% trikalsium fosfat Advantages: Act more effectively compared with others. Disadvantage :used once CO2 gas filled in the tube / cartridge Dry Powder 48 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • OTHERS FIRE EXTINGUISHER TYPES . Fire Blanket Supplied in cylinders with a clips that released immediately Asbestos Rolled glass / animal fur Small fire ( workshop @ house )
  • Sand Pail 10 litres capacity of bucket galvanised steel painted red Location : nearby portable fire extinguisher - immediate use small fire.
  • Fire Hydrant Use by fire fighter Water supply from water distribution pipe Hydrant provide 200 gallons of water out of building & certain distance Each building- provide a fire hydrant located < 91.5 m from nearest route of fire brigade
  • Dry Riser Install at building height over 18.3 m @ < 30.5 m 100 mm dia pipe installed vertically from ground to top floor In normal condition, hose reel did not contain water. Location of pipe installation : lift lobby / stair case space . 52 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y Source connector installed under the pipe to connect a fire hose to fire truck
  • Wet Riser Pipes installed vertically in a 13- storeys building /> 30.5 m Dia. Pipe 150 mm supply water from tank breaker contain 45,000 liters using pump. Pipes filled with water & pressure 53 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • 4. AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM SISTEM PEMERCIK AUTOMATIK - automatic action - high risk building & unoccupied (tidak dihuni ),> 2 storeys / tall building. Water pipes installed as grid system-separated by a distance of 2 m / pipe line system , max distance 4 m Connected directly from main water supply pipe through pipe risers Disambung terus dr paip bekalan air utama melalui paip penaik. 54 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • During fire, pressure of color liquid in the glass bulb will increase & expand until reaching a point - glass will break upon heat. ( 68 0 C 1800 C ). 55 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y
  • 56 DISEDIAKANOLEH:MAIAZUNAM.Y [email protected]