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Page 1: Topic 2pdf

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Page 2: Topic 2pdf

FIRE INCIDENT

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Heat convective Olakan Haba

Conduction (pengaliran)

Heating heat bahangan

Direct Terus-menerus 3

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heat transfer occurs in

• liquids & gases.

heat from fire heat the air -

hot temperature. 4

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OLAKAN HABA (HEAT CONVECTION)

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heat transfer

•  inside materials

•  solid materials.

heat from fire

• passed from molecule to molecule

• along material.

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PENGALIRAN (CONDUCTION)

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travels in sunrays, in straight lines.

heat from rays - absorbed by combustible

materials- causes them to heat up & ignite.

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BAHANGAN (HEAT)

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TERUS-MENERUS (CONTINUOUSLY )

The easiest way fire spreads.

Fuels burned because fire spread through it – if they

get into contact with each other.

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CONSTRUCT BUILDING THAT CAN …..

i. Hold collapse

enough time - residents save

themselves

Follow the rules -

buildings are

designed properly

materials &

structures quality –

comply with

specifications.

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HOW TO OVERCOME THE FIRE FLARE IN BUILDING

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ii. CAN DAM UP FROM SMOKE & FIRE FLARE

layout of the building

separate compartment space

& horizontal separated –

floor .

vertical separated – wall

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Fire door

iii. Materials of wall & floor :

not flammable

dam up the fire & prevent smoke from get through

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HOW ARE FIRES CLASSIFIED?

Fires are caused by different materials, & classified to 4

categories: 12

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CLASS A

Ordinary combustibles or fibrous material ( wood, paper,

cloth, rubber & some plastics )

CLASS B

Flammable @ combustible liquids : gasoline,

kerosene, paint, paint thinners .

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CLASS C

Energized electrical equipment (appliance , switches,

panel boxes & power tools)

CLASS D

Combustible metals : magnesium, titanium, potassium & sodium.

- burn at high temperatures

- React violently with water @ other chemicals - handled with care.

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CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE & FIRE FIGHTING METHODS

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KELAS API

CONTOH ALAT PEMADAM API PERMULAAN

A Solid types – paper , wood dust , cloth

ABC (dry chemical fire extinguishers containing monoammonium phosphate) Water spray foam

B Liquid types – oil, gasolin, alkohol

ABC, foam, CO2 , water , halon

C Gas types – acetylene , ammonia, butane

ABC , water , halon (BCF )

D Metal type – aluminium , calsium, magnesium

ABC

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SYMBOL RELATED TO FIRE SAFETY IN BUILDING

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CAUSES OF FIRES

Use of flammable materials in

buildings

Careless use of electrical

appliances /appliance is damaged .

Imperfect electrical wiring

circuit /not safe.

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Throw cigarette butts all

over the place

Careless use of mosquito coils, gas

stoves, kerosene / flammable fuel.

Willful / treacherous

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Terms of fire fighting

a. Starvation

i. Transfer the fuel -

not burned to another

place.

ii. Transfer the fuel

burned to another

place.

iii. Breaking @ crushing

of fuel burned – easily

off.

Page 21: Topic 2pdf

b. Smothering

Preventing the

entry of air.

cover the surface of

the burning fuel

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c. Cooling .

cheap & cool - accelerate the

heat transfer by reducing heat

temperature low -

flame goes out.

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d. Memutuskan Rantai Tindakbalas.

Break the chemical chain -

fire extinguisher

such as CO2 ,BCF

& dry powder

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begins when heat, oxygen

& fuel source

combine

• a chemical reaction resulting in fire.

known as “ignition”

• represented by a very small fire which often goes out on its own, before following stages are reached

provides your best

chance

-

• suppression or escape.

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where the structures fire load and oxygen are used as

fuel for the fire.

factors affecting the growth stage including where the

fire started, what combustibles are near it,

ceiling height and the potential for “thermal

layering”

It is during this shortest of the 4 stages when a deadly

“flashover” can occur; potentially trapping, injuring

or killing firefighters. -

Growth

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When the growth stage has reached its max and all combustible materials have been ignited, a fire is considered fully developed

This is the hottest phase of a fire and the most

dangerous for anybody trapped within.

Fully Developed

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WHAT IS PASSIVE SYSTEM??

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FIRE PREVENTION SYSTEM

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Berkaitan

unsur-unsur dalam bangunan bertujuan untuk:

beri perlindungan kepada penghuni dari kecederaan semasa

kebakaran bangunan

beri kemudahan semasa anggota penyelamat

menjalankan tugas

elak api & asap merebak dari

bangunan ke bangunan

beri perlindungan kepada harta benda

dari kemusnahan

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laluan perlindungan kepada penghuni

bangunan kebakaran

laluan perlindungan kepada anggota bomba

di waktu kecemasan

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Lampu kecemasan ( emergency light )

Pengudaraan & pencahayaan cukup (adequate

ventilation & lighting )

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i)   Jalan Keluar Keselamatan (security exit). Road conditions are held:

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Free from any obstruction Bebas daripada sebarang halangan

Fire resistance door Pintu rintangan api

Exit signs installed in the emergency lane

Tanda keluar dipasang pada laluan kecemasan

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PENGUDARAAN (VENTILATION)

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untuk menjamin keselamatan penghuni

keluar dari bangunan semasa selamatkan

diri .

Jenis-jenis sistem pengudaraan pada

bangunan : pengudaraan biasa spt

tingkap & struktur terbuka.

Page 34: Topic 2pdf

Pengudaraan jalan-jalan keluar keselamatan : fire fighting

lobby, safety ladder & under control corridors

Prevent entry of smoke into protected area

reduce spread of fire caused by smoke 34

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sokongan kepada perlindungan pasif : cahaya kepada laluan keselamatan

Example : light tape

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PENCAHAYAAN ( LIGHTING )

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Jalan keluar keselamatan (security exit )

Akses perkakas bomba (Fire Briged tools access )

Pemetakan ( building partition)

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Perlindungan aktif Sistem perlindungan kebakaran - dipasang tetap utk mengawal

& memadam kebakaran - manual @ automatik.

I. Sistem pemasangan sprinkler.

Kawal kebakaran peringkat awal- semburan air bertekanan khusus di zon / kawasan terbabit.

Sistem dihubungkan dengan penggera kebakaran bertindak automatik.

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WHAT IS ACTIVE SYSTEM??

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Extinguishing systems using

water

Wet riser

system

Dry riser system

Hose reel

Fire hydrant

Automatic water spray

system

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Sistem pemadam menggunakan gas

(extinguishing system using gas)

Sistem penggera kebakaran

(fire alarm system)

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ALAT PEMADAM API PERMULAAN

Ditandakan simbol kelas api & jenis api yg boleh dipadamkan.

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Cara guna alat pemadam api - PASS :

�  P - Pull - Tarik pin di atas alat pemadam api

�  A - Aim - Halakan muncung alat pemadam ke punca api

(bahan)

�  S - Squeeze - Pusing atau tekan pemegang

�  S - Sweep - halakan pancutan ke arah punca api pada jarak 3

meter sehingga api padam.

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Fire Extinguisher

Types

Portable

Types

Permanent

Types

Water base

Foam base

CO2 Gas

Dry powder

Page 42: Topic 2pdf

Burning material: carbon

materials such as wood,

paper, fabric, solid

material.

Outer tube filled with water - mixed with sodium nitrate & a tube

called cartridges filled with CO2

gas compressed.

Specification :

Red cylinder

Spray distance for weight 10 kg –

4 m.

The time period of use - 1 to 2

min for 10 kg cylinder.

Water base

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Advantages

Not dangerous & easy to use

Act quickly

Can be refilled easily

Disadvantages

Used once

Can’t extinguish fires caused

by oil, electricity & engines

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Not a soluble liquid &

floating on the surface.

Could cover fire &

separate oxygen

Extinguish the fire involving oil,

flammable liquids & fats.

Cylinder:yellow

Jet distance by weight of cylinder

10 kg - 4 to 5 m

use of 30-90 seconds for weight 10

kg cylinder

The rate of expansion 1: 8

materials in cylinder: 8%

sodium bicarbonate mixed

with 3% stabilizer

Foam

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Page 45: Topic 2pdf

Advantages

Not

dangers ,

easily

handled,

refillable

Can

distinguish a

small fire due

to oil &

chemical

liquids

Covering

the fire

quickly.

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Page 46: Topic 2pdf

Disadvantages

Cannot

extinguish fire

due to

electrical.

Do not place in

a hot

temperature

& do not keep

in a max cold

temperature .

Used only once.

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Extinguish fire from

electrical – CO2 spray

Principle: smothering &

cool the fire

CO2 gas filled in the tube - a

compressed liquid at a

pressure of 744 psi - at a

temperature of 600F.

Advantages :

Gas produced clean & not danger

Do not leave the effect.

Disadvantages :

Cannot be refilled

Gas content can not be seen

Specifications :

Black cylinder

Jet distance by cylinder

weighing 10 kg: 2 to 3 m ( 8 –

30 sec)

CO2 Gas

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Extinguish all types of

fires – blue cylinder- jet

distance for 10kg weight

= 4-6 m

Chemical substances :

97% sodium bikarbonat

1.5% magnesium stearat ( filled in the outer tube)

1% magnesium karbonat

0.5% trikalsium fosfat

Advantages:

Act more effectively

compared with others.

Disadvantage :used once

CO2 gas filled in the

tube / cartridge

Dry Powder

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Page 49: Topic 2pdf

OTHERS FIRE EXTINGUISHER TYPES .

Fire Blanket

Supplied in cylinders with a

clips that released immediately

Asbestos

Rolled glass /

animal fur

Small fire ( workshop @

house )

Page 50: Topic 2pdf

Sand

Pail

10 litres capacity of

bucket

galvanised steel

painted red

Location : nearby portable fire

extinguisher - immediate use – small

fire.

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Fire

Hydrant

Use by fire fighter

Water supply

from water

distribution pipe

Hydrant provide 200 gallons of water –out of building & certain

distance

Each building- provide a fire hydrant located

< 91.5 m from nearest route of fire brigade

Page 52: Topic 2pdf

Dry Riser

Install at building

height over 18.3 m @ <

30.5 m

100 mm dia pipe installed vertically from ground to top

floor

In normal condition,

hose reel did not contain

water.

Location of pipe installation : lift

lobby / stair case space .

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Source connector installed under

the pipe to connect a fire hose to fire

truck

Page 53: Topic 2pdf

Wet Riser

Pipes installed vertically in a 13-

storeys building /> 30.5 m

Dia. Pipe 150 mm supply water from tank breaker contain 45,000

liters using pump.

Pipes filled with water

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Page 54: Topic 2pdf

4. AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM SISTEM PEMERCIK AUTOMATIK

- automatic action

- high risk building & unoccupied (tidak dihuni ),> 2 storeys / tall

building.

Water pipes installed as grid system-separated by a

distance of 2 m / pipe line system , max distance 4

m

Connected directly from main water supply pipe

through pipe risers Disambung terus dr paip bekalan air utama melalui paip penaik. 54

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During fire, pressure of color liquid in the glass

bulb will increase & expand until reaching a point -

glass will break upon heat. ( 68 0 C – 1800 C ).

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