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1 TOPIC 2: ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION

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TOPIC 2: ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION

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OBJECTIVES

At the end, students should:

Understand cosmological perception in Islam. Memahami pandangan semesta Islam.

Explain the main concepts in Islamic civilization. Menghuraikan Konsep Tamadun Islam.

Understand the Jihad concept and its role in Islam. Memahami konsep Jihad dan peranannya dalam kebangkitan Tamadun Islam.

Analyze the development of Islam in Malaysia. Menganalisis kebangkitan semula Islam dan penerapannya di Malaysia.

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2.0. INTRODUCTION

To understand about Islamic civilization. Untuk

memahami tamadun Islam

Islam is the way of life. Melihat/Mengkaji Islam sebagai satu cara

hidup

Understand about the meaning of

civilization in Islam. Melihat/Mengkaji tamadun

dalam konteks Islam

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WHAT IS ISLAM ?

Islam is also the teaching Islam is also the teaching brought by all prophets brought by all prophets

since Adam a.s.since Adam a.s.

Islam is derived from the Arabic root

,Salema": peace" (سلمسلم)

purity, submission and obedience. In the religious sense, Islam means submission to the will of God and obedience to His law.

2.1 ISLAMIC WORLD VIEW (cosmological perception )

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5MEANING OF ISLAM

peacepeace

purepure

SurrenderSurrender

Salama = salimaISLAMISLAM

To place the will of Allah at the utmost level.

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2.1.2. FOUNDATION OF ISLAMIC SYSTEM

1. ‘Aqidah (Belief)

2. Shari‘aЋ (Laws)

3. Akhlak (Ethics)

Basic principles in Islām. Basic principles in Islām. Prinsip-Prinsip Asas IslamPrinsip-Prinsip Asas Islam

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2.1.3. Main Characteristics of Islam based on al-Quran and as-Sunnah. Ciri-ciri Keistimewaan Islam

1. Rabbaniyyah (Godliness)

2. ‘Alamiyyah (Universal in diversity)

3. Syumuliyyah (Complete/Comprehensive)

4. Thabat wa Murunah (Fixed yet Flexible)

5. Waqi’iyyah (Realistic)

6. Inqilabiyyah (To Replace/Revolutionist)

7. Tawazun (Balanced between material & spiritual)

8. Wasatiyyah (Moderate)

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1. Rabbaniyyah

Definition:Islam comes from Allah. Man simply executes what Allāh orders or commands as the best he can since he believe that getting Allāh’s pleasures is his ultimate goal. Ianya membawa erti bahawa Islam ini datangnya daripada Allah. Manusia hanya sebagai pelaksana segala ketentuan yang ditetapkan

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Category of Rabbaniyyah :

1. Rabbani in terms of goals and intentions One’s intentions has to be specifically for Allāh i.e. his/

her ultimate goal in life is to get Allah’s pleasure.

2. Rabbani in terms approach and resources One’s approach and resources should be based on the

divine revelations to Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w)

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2. Alamiyyah (Universal)

Definition:

The teaching of Islam is not for a certain race or community but it is for all ummah from all layers of society. this is why Islām is called as universal religion.

Risalah Islam ditujukan untuk semua umat dan bangsa serta untuk

semua lapisan masyarakat. Ia bukan risalah untuk bangsa tertentu.

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Alamiyyah also means:

- Universal/ Suitable in the sense that the teachings of Islam transcend across time, space and geographical boundaries. In fact it never force anyone to embrace Islām.- Applicable anywhere and anytime from past to the present and the future.

Sesuai di semua tempat sama ada di Kutub Selatan, Khatulistiwa dan sebagainya.Ia juga sesuai untuk semua zaman sama ada zaman Rasulullah SAW atau zaman teknologi moden yang canggih ini. Sesuai sampai ke hari qiamat.

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3. SyumuliyyahDefinition:The teaching of Islam is complete and comprehensive. The scope of Islam is all-encompassing with guidance for all aspects of human life not excluding the smallest to the biggest of human conduct. Ajaran Islam lengkap dan menyeluruh. Ruang lingkup ajaran Islam adalah mencakupi seluruh aspek kehidupan manusia tanpa kecuali dari sekecil-kecil urusan sampailah ke sebesar-besar perkara.

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4. Thabat & MurunahDefinition:Fixed and firm in principles and flexible in practice.

Tetap dari segi prinsip dan hukum tetapi anjal atau fleksibel dari segi perlaksanaannya.

E.g. Solat/ prayer is an obligation to all Muslims (thabaat) but its practice could be done in flexible ways such as by jama’ and qasar for travellers. Another situation: A Muslim who faces illness, he/ she can pray by sitting, sleeping, etc.

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5. Waqi’iyyah

Definition:

Islam is realistic. Islam adalah mengikut realiti.

e.g: Islām recommend marriage and its also allows polygamy for man ...

Contohnya: Manusia dari segi fitrahnya ingin hidup berpasangan, maka Islam mensyariatkan perkahwinan bagi lelaki dan perempuan dan berpoligami hanya bagi lelaki…

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6. InqilabiyyahDefinition:Islam is revolutionist in positive sense. Islam should be strictly practiced in all situations. It is clearly distinguished and should not be intermingled with any jahiliyyah practice or system.

Menegakkan Islam atas keruntuhan jahiliyyah. Islam tidak boleh bercampur dengan jahiliyyah. Islam juga tidak boleh ditempel-tempelkan pada sistem jahiliyyah. Islam menggantikan zaman jahillyah

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7. Al-TawazunDefinition:Balanced and integrated state between spiritual and physical (material) of the human life.

e.g. Struggle for properties for life, and at the same time pay the zakat and give sedekah.

Kewujudan keseimbangan dan kesepaduan antara kehidupan rohani dan jasmani.

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8. Al-WasatiyyahDefinition:

1) Islam promote moderation. Keep it everything in which lawful according to Syarak such wearing clothes, eating, worship, pray etc in the justly balanced situation/ stand, not too extremes and not too simple.

2) Manage your life in properly and good condition such as time for study habit, eating habit, social life, sport etc.

Seimbang dalam melakukan setiap perkara yang diharuskan oleh

syarak seperti berpakaian, makan, melakukan ibadah sunat dan seumpamanya.

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“A Society Which Has Achieved Its Distinguished Moral Values and Culture”-al Attas-

“established based on Islamic teachings”Syed Qutb, Malik Bennabi, Prof. Richard E. Sullivan

““When the element of humanity laid by Allah becomes the utmost value in the society, then the society can be considered as Islamic & civilized society”-Syed QutbFi Zilalil Qur’an-

Islamic civilization meansIslamic civilization means……

2.2. CONCEPT OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION. KONSEP TAMADUN ISLAM

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To uphold Islām is the way of life.

2.2.2. GENERAL OBJECTIVE OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION

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Develop relationship Develop relationship with the God. with the God. Membina Membina

hubungan antara manusia dengan hubungan antara manusia dengan Allah s.w.tAllah s.w.t

Develop Develop relationship relationship with human with human

beings. beings. Membina Membina hubungan sesama hubungan sesama

manusiamanusia

Develop Develop relationship relationship

with the world/ with the world/ nature. nature. Membina Membina

hubungan antara hubungan antara manusia dengan alam/manusia dengan alam/

persekitaranpersekitaran

2.2.2. Shari‘aЋ in Islām divided into:

Islām stresses 3

main aspects in human

life, they are:

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2.2.3. Maqasid Shariah as manisfestation for Islamic civilization.

Definition of Maqasid Shariah :

It refers to process in protecting 5 main things shared by human beings: Religion, soul, mind, descendents/ dignity and property. Its is the main objective for Islamic laws revealed. Ia merupakan tujuan utama shariah (perundangan) dalam Islam yang melibatkan proses menjaga, memelihara, menjamin dan melindungi 5 perkara utama iaitu Agama, Nyawa, Akal, Maruah/Keturunan dan Harta.

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-In protecting religion

a)Doing all the obligatory deeds such as performing solat/ prayer, and strengthening faith (iman). Buat suruhan wajib spt tunaikan solat, kuatkan iman dll. Ia juga wajib tinggalkan apa yang dilarang oleh agama spt tidak murtad.

b)Protecting religion from been deviated. Jaga/lindungi agama daripada dihina, difitnah, dikeji oleh org Islam atau org bukan Islam.

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2.2.3. MAQASID SHARIAH

1) Protecting religion

2) Protecting human live/ soul

3) Protecting mind

4 Protecting descendents/ dignity.

5) Protecting property

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2.2.4. SOURCES IN ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION

Al-Quran. Al-Sunnah. IjtihadQiasIjma’ (Ulama’ consensus) all cultures and civilizations provided they are not contradict to Islamic teachings.Etc

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2.3. EMERGENCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION

Beginning of Islamic CivilizationIslamic Civilization at prophethood

time (Prophet Muhammad SAW) & Khulafa’ al Rasyidin.

During Umayyah /Abbasiyyah periods.The spread and development of Islam

to Africa, Europe, India and Asian continental

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2.4.1 Factors that leaded to excellence of Islamic civilization

Upholding the teachings of al-Quran dan al-Sunnah (Insan Rabbani- godliness individual generation).

Political stability. Cooperation between the Muslims especially

among their Muslim scholars/ intellectuals and rulers. Kerjasama Para Ulama/ Cendikiawan dengan Para Pemerintah yang membawa kepada galakan budaya nasihat, ilmu pengetahuan, dsbnya.

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Right ideology held by the Muslims based on al-Qurān and as-Sunnah. Kefahaman Islam yang tidak menyeleweng di kalangan masyarakat Islam – berpandukan al-Quran dan as-Sunnah.

Knowledge culture among the Muslims. Budaya ilmu dan membaca di kalangan masyarakat Islam, bukan budaya hiburan.

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2.4.2. Development of Islamic knowledge to Europeans

Diplomatic relation. Hubungan Diplomatik.

Translation activities. Universities such as at Sicily.

2.4.3 Intellectual activities occurred in:

Economy. Medicine. Astronomy. Math. Architecture Etc

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Teaching and Learning. Sistem Pengajaran dan Pendidikan

Maas media especially newspaper: materialistic generation - social problems.

Alien ideologies such sekularisme, capitalism, darwnism, etc.

2.5. ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION DURING COLONIAL ERA

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2.6. JIHAD IN ISLAM

Jihad in upholding the Islamic teachings. Mempertahankan Kesucian Islam.

Jihad against lust/ bad intention (Nafsu).

Jihad in education. Ilmu dan pendidikan.

Etc

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2.7 Islamic development in Malaysia.

Cultivating Islamic values in the administration. Penerapan Nilai-Nilai Islam dalam Pentadbiran – Islam Had.ari

Its application in economy

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2.8. CONCLUSION

Islam is a universal religion for all man kind. Its emergence brought good changes to human beings and the world whereby its teachings address a lot on good values and behaviours. Islamic civilization brought one distinguished civilization to the world the history ever seen whereby its main concept as “the way of life” gives a new dimension to religion perception. It later on paved a way to European renaissence and development.

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THANKS