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BAHAGIAN PENGURUSAN SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH SEKOLAH KECEMERLANGAN KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA MARKING SCHEME PERFECT SCORE & X A-PLUS MODULE PHYSICS 2012

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Semoga bermanfaat kepada semua.. calon SPM 2013

TRANSCRIPT BAHAGIAN PENGURUSAN

SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH SEKOLAH KECEMERLANGAN

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

MARKING SCHEME

PERFECT SCORE & X A-PLUS MODULE

PHYSICS

2012 SECTION II - COMMON MISTAKES AND MISCONCEPTIONS

8.

Physical Quantity Physical quantity measured Physics Unit and symbol

Stop watch time Second. s

voltmeter Voltage, V Volt, V

thermometer temperature Kelvin or oCelsius

Bourdon gauge Gas pressure Pascal, Pa

Ammeter Electric current Ampere, A

9.

a

[The type of energy

when the object is at P]

Potential energy

Gravitational Potential Energy

b Pressure

Force acting on surface

area

Force/area

A product of depth, density

and gravitational

acceleration

Normal force acting on a unit of

surface area

c Pascal’s principle In a close container, force is

transmitted equally

In a close container, pressure is

transmitted equally.

d Latent heat of

vaporization Heat absorbed to change

by 1oC

Heat absorbed to change 1 kg

of liquid to gas without any

changes in temperature.

e Temperature

Transfer from hot body to

cold body

Amount of kinetic energy in an

object

f

[Physics phenomena in

a prism]

Reflection Total internal reflection g Critical angle

Critical angle is when the

refracted angle is 90o

Critical angle is the incident

angle when the reflected

angle is 90o

Critical angle is the incident

angle in denser medium which

produces when the refracted

angle in less dense medium is

90o

h Virtual image The image that formed

behind the lens

The image that cannot be

formed on the screen

i Monochromatic light A colour of one light light of one frequency /

wavelength / colour

j Amplitude Maximum point of the

highest displacement

…………………………..

displacement of any

particle/oscillating system from

its

………………………………………..

………………………………………..

k Period One complete oscillation

The time taken for any particle

to make one complete

oscillation

l Specification:

240 V, 1000 W

1000 W of energy is supplied

when the power supplied is

240 V.

1000 W of energy is consumed

in 1 s when connected to a 240

V power supply.

j electromagnet

When the current flow

through magnet

Is a combination of electric

and magnetic field

A conductor which can produce

magnetic field when current

passes through it.

k Beta particles Negative charge Fast moving electron B. Misconceptians

Examples:

Num Misconceptions Correction

1 Oil is used in hydraulic jack because it has

higher boiling point .. because it is not easily evaporate.

2

Snell’s law state that:

The sine of incident

angle =

Refractive

index The sine of refracted

angle

The sine of incident

angle = constant

The sine of

refracted angle

3

Container A Container B

The force exerted at X > the force exerted at

Y because smaller surface area (P = F /A)

Pressure at X = Pressure at Y because X

and Y are at the same depth, same

gravitational acceleration and in the

same type of liquid that has same density.

( P = hg)

To increase the efficiency of ac/dc

GENERATOR:

- Use more number of turns to

produce stronger magnetic field

Generator – the current is induced

The ship can float in sea water because the

buoyant force is bigger than the weight of

the ship

The ship can float in sea water because

the total density of the ship is less than

the density of water

The buoyant force is equals to the total

weight of the ship

water C. Paper 3

1. Data Tabulation

Title - no unit

Content- not consistent

Example:

Electric Current Voltage

0.1 0.5

0.12 1

0.14 1.5

Electric Current, I (A) Voltage, V (V)

0.10 0.5

0.12 1.0

0.14 1.5

TOV 1 – SPM FORMAT SET 1

4531/2 SECTION A

Question 5

a The force that gravitation exerts upon a body 1

b(i) The mass of slotted weigh in Diagram 5.1 > Diagram 5.2 1

b(ii) The nett force in Diagram 5.2 > Diagram 5.1 1

b(iii) The acceleration in Diagram 5.2 > Diagram 5.1 1

c The greater the nett force , the greater the acceleration 1

d(i) Net force in Diagram 5.1 > Diagram 5.3 1

d(ii) The acceleration in Diagram 5.1 > Diagram 5.3 1

d(iii) The weight of 20 N in Diagram 5.1 is perpendicular to the tension of the string 1

Question 6

a(i) Diagram 6.1 : no relative motion

Diagram 6.2 : there is a relative motion 2

a(ii) Number of turns in Diagram 6.3 > Diagram 6.2 1

b(i) The greater the number of turn of coil, the greater the change in magnetic flux 1

b(ii) The greater the number of turn of coil, the greater the magnitude of induced

current 1

d

When the magnet is pulled away from the coil

Reason : the current will flow in such direction that oppose the change that

cause it

2 Question 7

a Depth of water 1

b

P = hg5

= 2.5 x 103 x 10

= 2.5 x 104 N m-2

2

c Less different of water pressure 1

d(i) Place the water tank P higher than water tank R // use water pump

It will increase the water pressure // sufficient water supply 2

d(ii) Bigger base area //thicker wall at the bottom

Less pressure exerted on the ground // could withstand water pressure 2

d(iii) Low density material // fiber tank

Light // can withstand stronger pressure 2

Question 8

1. (a)

(b)

(c)(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(d)

Atmospheric pressure is the weight of the atmosphere on an object

1. Vacuum pump is used to pump out the air from the suction cup

2. Partial vacuum is created in the suction cup

3. Higher atmospheric pressure push the glass sheet onto the suction cup

Low pressure

Larger difference in pressure

Big diameter cup

Greater force

Triple cups

Greater force

R

Straw/syringe/siphon/vacuum cleaner

1

3

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

12

Question 9

a The force exerted by the gas molecules onto a unit of surface area 1 b

When temperature increases, the average kinetic energy increases

Rate of collision also increase

Rate of change of momentum increase

Force exerted on a unit of surface area increase

4

c

Temperature of gas : 9.3 > 9.2

Volume of gas : 9.3 = 9.2

Reading of pressure gauge : 9.2 < 9.3

Temperature increase, reading of pressure gauge

Pressure Law

5

d

Characteristics Explaination

Large radius Rate of rotation is less // Temperature does not

increase easily

Many tyres Increase the surface area // less pressure

Tyres with treads Provide a gripping surface

Strong tyre Prevent from deformation

High melting point Can withstand high temperature

10

Question 10

a Electromagnetic induction 1

b 4

c

Number of turns of coil : Diagram 10.3 > Diagram 10.4

Speed of magnet : same

Deflection of galvanometer : Diagram 10.3 > 10.4

When number of turns of coil increased, deflection also increased

5

d

Characteristics Explaination

Curve magnet Produce radial magnetic field

Stronger magnet Produce stronger magnetic field

Replace component X

with commutator Current is induced in one direction

Copper wire coil Good conductor

Thick copper wire Less resistance

10 Question 11

(a) Distance between optical centre and focal point

(b)(i) M1 correct substitution into formula or correct answer

M = v/u = 60/20 = 3

(b)(ii) M1 correct substitution into formula:

f = 15 cm = 0.15 m

(b)(iii) M1: P = 100/f = 100/15

M2: Answer with correct unit: = 6.67 D

(c) M1: Parallel light rays from the hot sun at infinity pass through a convex lens// labeled

diagram

M2: Light rays are focused after passing through the lens // labeled diagram

M3: Light rays are converged onto a focal point of the lens

M4: At the point, the intensity of lights is great (and the light energy) causes an increases in

temperature. When the spot on the paper become hot enough, the paper start to

burn // light energy change to heat energy.

Aspect Reason

Low power of eye piece Focal length is longer // eyepiece must be more longer focal

length than objective lens

High power objective lens

Focal length is shorter / objective lens must be powerful lens

than eyepiece lens// Objective lens must be shorter focal

length than eyepiece lens.

Distance between lenses :

>fo + fe

To produce bigger image from the eyepiece // to increase

the magnification

Position of the specimen : fo<

u < 2fo To produce real, inverted and magnified image

The most suitable is :

microscope M

Focal length of eyepiece is longer than objective lens,

distance between lenses is greater than (fo + fe), and the

position of the specimen is between fo and 2 fo Question 12

(a) frequency

(b) 1 High pitch, high frequency / pitch directly propotional to frequency

2 frequency is inversly propotional to wave length // high frequency has shorter

wave length

3 Short λ / high f / high pith at C, will diffract / spread out/ bend less

4 Sound easily diffracted / bending / spread out during low pitch/ low f/long λ / at A,B,C

(c)

Characteristic Reason

Same as focal length Signal are focused/converged to the receiver

Microwave Has high frequency / high energy

High The signal is not blocked / easy to be

detected

Choose K because Because it has large diameter,

Same as focal length, use microwave and locate at high position.

(d)(i) v = 2s/t = (2 x 90)/0.12 = 1 500 m/s

(i) V = fλ

λ = 1 500/50 000 = 0.03 m = 3 cm

TOV 2 – SPM FORMAT SET 2

4531/2 SECTION A

QUESTION 5

a The size of the coin in Diagram 6.1 < Diagram 6.2 1

b Refraction of light wave 2

c

Light travels from water to air // denser to less dense medium

Light is refracted away from normal line

The image is seen bigger and closer to the observer eye

3

d

h = 16/(4/3)

= 12 cm

2

e Use liquid with bigger refractive index 1 QUESTION 6

a(i) Kinetic energy to electric energy 1

a(ii)

Rotating coil will cut the magnetic flux

Emf is produced

The commutatorwii ensure the current flow in one direction

3

b(i) The ratio Np : Ns is 6 : 1 1

b(ii) diode 1

b(iii) Capacitor

Reason : it can store and discharge charges 2

c Copper wire // laminated iron core

Reason : good conductor // reduce eddy current 2

QUESTION 7

a Temperature increases

Pressure increases

2

b When temperature increases, the average kinetic energy increases

Rate of collision also increase

Rate of change of momentum increase

Force exerted on a unit of surface area increase

3

c) P1 = 200 kPa

T1 = 273 + 30 = 303 K

P2 = 225 kPa

T2 = (T1P2)/ P1

= (303 x225) /200

= 340.875 K

3

d(i) More 1

d(ii) Able to support greater mass // heavier load

1

d(iii) Grips efficiently 1 QUESTION 8

(a) (b)

(c)(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

Concave mirror

1. Object between F and pole of mirror 2. Light parallel to principal axis reflected to F 3. Light through C reflect back original path 4. Extend the lines to back of mirror and draw a virtual image

Concave

To focus light

Big size

To collect and reflect more light

At focal point of the mirror

Light/energy will focus after light reflected

Z

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

12

QUESTION 9

a(i) Real image is an image which can be formed / projected on a screen. 1

a(ii)

object distance in 9.1 is shorter than 9.2

Size of image formed in 9.1 is bigger than in 9.2

Image distance in 9.1 is smaller /shorter

The shorter the object distance, the bigger the size of the image formed

When the object distance is shorter, the magnification scale is bigger.

5

b

4

P 1. Object is placed between F and P

2. Parallel light ray from top of object to mirror and reflected to F

3. Light ray from top to mirror and reflected back to C

4. Extrapolation of both rays and its intersection behind the mirror and an

upright image is drawn.

d

suggestion Explanation

Use higher power bulb Higher intensity of light / more light

produced.

The filament of the bulb

is at the focus point of

the concave mirror

The light ray focuses to one point.

More curvature Increase the intensity.

lens between f and 2f To produce real and enlarge / bigger

images.

Increase the distance /

further away the screen Larger image produced

10

QUESTION 10

10 (a) Monochromatic light: light of one frequency / wavelength /

colour 1

(b) In figure 10.1(a), distance between the double slit and screen, D is smaller

1

In figure 10.1(b), distance between two successive bright fringes, x is smaller

1

In figure 10.1(b), the number of fringes is bigger / more fringes

1

In figure 10.1(b), the width of fringes is smaller / narrower 1

When the distance between the double slit and screen, D increases, the distance between two successive fringes, x increases.

1

5

(c) Microwaves are transmitted by the radar 1

the radar transmits the signal towards the aeroplane 1

it detects the reflected signal from the aeroplane t seconds later.

1

calculate the distance of aeroplane from the radar,s by using formula s = vt/2, where v is the speed of microwaves in air.

1

4 Scheme

Modification Explanation

Shape of the boat is streamline

To reduce the water resistance / drag

Material used is strong

Can withstands high water pressure

Uses ultrasonic waves

Have high energy / sounds can travel at further distance

Put fish in a polisterine box containing ice

Ice has larger latent heat / ice can absorb a large quantity of heat from fish as it melts / fish can be kept at a low temperature for an extended period of time

Made of fiber glass / less dense material

The boat is lighter

10

TOTAL 20

QUESTION 11

11(a) Volume = area x height 1

(b)

1st : pressure of air is inversely proportional to the volume of air

2nd : the pressure inside the air bubbles is equal to the water pressure which is high at

the bottom

3rd : so the volume of air bubbles is small.

4th : as air bubble goes up to the surface, the pressure decreases., so the volume of air

bubbles increases.

4

(c)

1st : safety valve is needed

2nd : to releases extra steam so that the pressure is the cooker does not reach a

dangerous stage

3rd : Thickness of the pot is high

4th : to withstand high pressure

5th : specific heat capacity of the pot is low

10 6th : heats up quickly and food will be cooked faster

7th : specific heat capacity of the handle is high

8th : heats up slowly and can be held with bare hands

9th : K is chosen

10th : Reasons: It has a safety valve, high thickness, low specific heat capacity of the pot,

high specific heat capacity of the handle

(d)

1st : P1= 75 cm Hg, V1 = 10 cm

2nd : P2 = 75 + 3 = 78 cm Hg

3rd : P1V1 = P2V2

4th : (75)(10) = (78) (V)

5th : V2 = 9.62 cm

5

TOTAL 20 QUESTION 12 Exercise

a The force that gravitation exerts upon a body 1

b

Stone is denser than water

When the stone is immersed in the water , it experienced buoyant force, F

The tension which is the reading of spring balance, T = W-F

Archimedes’ Principle

4

c

i. 4.4.kg

ii. (44-36) = 8 N

iii. F = Vg

V = F/(g)

= 8/(103 x 10) = 8x10-4 m3

5

d

Characteristics Explaination

Denser material So the hydrometer stand up right

Large diameter of bulb Displaced more acid// stay floating

Long hydrometer To measure wide range of density of acid

Glass hydrometer Does not react with acid

The best choice is U because it is denser material, large diameter of bulb,

long hydrometer and glass hydrometer

10

SECTION III– UNDERSTANDING (Paper 2 Section B and C)

Question 1 [ Introduction to Physics ]

1. Consistency is the ability of the instrument to give the same readings close to each other when

repeated measurement are done

2. each measurement with little deviation among readings/ draw diagram bulls eye target.

3. Accuracy is the ability of an instrument to give a measured reading to the actual reading.

4. The value determined is accurate if it is near to the actual value/ draw diagram bulls eye

target.

Question 2 [Forces and Motion]

1. Fuel burns in the combustion chamber

2. Hot gases expelled at high speed / high momentum

3. A large downwards momentum is produced

4. The rocket gains upwards momentum of equal magnitude.

Question 3 [Forces and Motion

(i) Elasticity is the property of matter to return back to its original size or shape when the force that

acting on it is removed

(ii)1. There are two types of force; attraction and repulsive force between the particles of the solid. 2. When the solid is stretched, the molecules displaced away from each other

3. Attractive forces are acting to oppose the stretching

4. When the solid is compressed, the molecules displaced closer to each other

5. Repulsive forces are acting to oppose the compression

Question 4 [Forces and Motion]

(ii) The force forward = friction

The resultant force is zero

The object move with constant velocity

Question 5 [Forces and Pressure]

1. High altitude has low density of air

2. Air molecules has low temperature / low kinetic energy

3. Less collision of air molecules with surface

4. Rate of change of momentum decreases.

Question 6 [Forces and Pressure]

1. When air is pumped out , pressure inside decrease.

2. Atmospheric pressure outside is higher

3. Difference in pressure produces a forceto lift the mirror

4. Force is greater than the weight of the mirror.

Question 7 [Forces and Pressure]

(a) (i) Archimedes’ Principle states that buoyant force equal to the weight of fluid displaced.

(a) (ii) 1. Volume of air displaced equal to volume of aballoon

2. Density of air decreased as a altitude increase

3. Weight of displaced air becomes smaller

4. At certain height weight of displaced air equal to weight of the balloon.

Question 8 [Forces and Pressure]

1. Hydrometer displaces water.

2. Weight of water displaced equal to weight of hydrometer.

3. The denser the liquid is, the less volume of water displaced.

4. Hydrometer will float higher.

Question 9 [Heat]

(i) Thermal equilibrium occurs when the net transfer of heat between two objects in thermal

contact is zero.

(ii) 1. Thermometer is placed in the boiling water. 2. Heat is transferred from boiling water to the thermometer

3. Thermal equilibrium between the thermometer and boiling is reached when the

net rate of heat transfer is zero.

4. The thermometer and the boiling water are at the same temperature.

Question 10 [Heat]

1. Molecules moving freely in random motion

2. When temperature increase, kinetic energy//velocity increase

3. Molecules strike the walls of pressure cooker more frequently

The rate of change of momentum increase

4. Force exerted on the walls increase, pressure (P = F/A) increase

Question 11 [Heat]

1. The specific heat capacity of the land is less than sea water.

2. During daytime, the land warms up faster than the sea.

3. Air above the land becomes hot and less dense, so it will rise up.

4. The cooler air from sea moves to the land.

Question 12 [Light]

1. The air close to the surface is much colder than the air above it

2. Light travels from denser to less dense medium

3. Light rays refracted away from normal line and bend downward toward the surface/total

internal reflection occur.

4. The observer will see the image of the ship due to light travels in a straight line.

Question 13 [Light]

1. The parallel rays of the sun will pass through the a convex lens

2. After entering the lens, the light rays is focused at the principal focus of the lens

3. At the principal focus, the light ray is focused on one small area

4. Heat energy causes an increase in temperature, the paper starts to burn

Question 14 [Waves]

(i) Sonar is a reflected ultrasonic waves. (ultrasonic echoes)

(ii) ultrasonic wave has a higher frequency waves , it has more energy so it can move further

it do not produce noise

(iii) 1. attach ultrasonic transmitter to a ship

2. use a microphone receiver to detect ultrasonic pulses

3. direct the ultrasonic pulses from the transmitter to the seabed

4. use microphone receiver to pick up the reflected pulses from the seabed

5. measure the time taken by the pulses to travel to the seabed and return

6. calculate the depth of the water using the formula 2

txvd

Question 15 [Waves]

1. The airplane engine produces noise which cause the air to vibrate

2. All particles in a material/matter/glass vibrate at its natural frequency

3. Due to resonance, the glass vibrate at a higher/maximum amplitude

4. Need strong glasses to withstand the effect of resonance/ the strong vibration/ high

amplitude, so that it does not break easily.

Question 16 [Electricity]

1. A parallel circuit can run several devices using the full voltage of the supply.

2. If one device fails, the others will continue running normally

3. If the device shorts, the other devices will receive no voltage, preventing overload damage.

4. A failure of one component does not lead to the failure of the other components. 5. More components may be added in parallel without the need for more voltage.

Question 17 [Electricity]

1. The two dry cells are connected in parallel

2. The effective e.m.f. remains the same

3. The effective internal resistance of the two cells is smaller

4. A larger current will flow through the bulb to make it brighter

Question 18 [Electromagnetism]

1. When the switch is on, the soft iron core becomes electromagnet. End A becomes north pole.

2. End B becomes south pole

3. Magnet P repels from end A

4. Magnet Q attracts to end B

Question 19 [Electromagnetism]

1. The (magnadur) magnets produce a magnetic field / diagram

2. The current in the wire produces a magnetic field / diagram

3. The two magnetic fields interact/combine to form a resultant / catapult field / diagram

4. Same direction of magnetic field produces stronger resultant magnetic field. Opposite direction

cancel each other and produce weaker magnetic field.

Question 20 [Electromagnetism]

1. When too high current flow, magnetic field strength become very strong / wire expand

2. electromagnet pull the soft iron armature / pulled to the right by spring P.

3. release the catch, contact separate and current does not flow

4. When reset button is pressed, spring Q pulls the soft iron armature back to its original position

Question 21 [Electromagnetism]

(i) Ideal transformer is when the efficiency is 100% / power output equal to power input

(ii) 1. When a.c. voltage is supplied to primary coil, (alternating current will flow) and the soft

iron core is magnetized.

2. The magnet produced varies in magnitude and direction.

3. This causes a changing magnetic flux pass through the secondary coil.

4. An induced e.m.f. across the secondary coil is produced

Question 22 [Electromagnetism]

1. Electric supply is continuous

2. Electric supply idepends on region, the region like city needs more electric supply than

interior region.

3. Peak hour need more electric supply.

4. If one region black out, the source of electric supply can be taken from another region.

5. Reduce the cost.

6. Easy to manage and to repair

* Choose any FOUR from the list.

S N Question 23 [Electronic]

1. Connect the dry cell terminal to the Y-input of CRO.

2. The Y-gain setting is recorded

3. The vertical displacement is measured = h.

4. Potential difference = ( Y-gain scale) x (Vertical displacement of direct current wave)

1. Put the radioactive source opposite the detector

2. Detector is connected to the thickness indicator

3. Detector detect the reading of the changes in counts

4. Thickness is measured with the thickness indicator. If the reading of the detector is less than the

specified value, the thickness of the paper is too tick/ vice versa

(a) Unstable isotopes which decay and emit radioactive particles / ray

(b)1. Radioisotope is injected into the pipe

2. G-M tube as detector is used to find the leakage

3. Reading on detector increases when near a leakage

1. Neutron bombarded a uranium nucleus and produced three neutral

2 The new neutron bombarded a new uranium nucleus

3. For every reaction, the neutrons produced will generate a chain reaction

4. Diagram of chain reaction SULIT 21

SECTION IV – DECISION MAKING (Paper 2 Section A – Question 8; Section C )

Question 1

Characteristics Explanation

Streamlined shape To reduce water resistance

High strength of metal To withstand high water pressure

Wide base cross section area So that ship can float / prevent from overturn //

ship more stable // ship not sink deeper

High volume of air space in the ship Increase buoyant force

Structure U Because it has streamlined ship, high strength of

metal, wide base cross section area, high volume

of air space in the ship.

Question 2 [Force and Pressure]

Specification Reason

Straight cut shape bottle Move faster/increase the speed

The body is streamline shape Reduce air friction

The angle of launching is 450 The rocket can achieve maximum distance

The volume of water 1/3 of the bottle To produce optimum momentum/speed

The rocket has functional fins Increase stability

The best water rocket is T,

because it has straight cut shape, body is streamline, angle of launching is 450 the volume of water is

1/3 of the bottle and the rocket has functional fins.

Question3 [Force and Pressure]

Specification Reason

With ABS To reduce jerking when it stopped immediately /

can be controlled if direction changes / does not

move side ways

Wide tyres Better support / more stable / safer when turn

Low mass Lighter, can move faster / low inertia

Low seat height Lower centre of gravity / more stable

C because it has ABS, wider tyres, low mass, low seat height.

Question 4

Specification Reason

High specific heat capacity The rate of temperature increased caused by

friction is low

High melting point Does not easily change in shape when the

temperature is high

Difficult to compress Pressure will be transmitted uniformly in all

directions.

Use ceramic Can withstand high temperature // less dust

produced

S because it has high specific heat capacity, high melting point, difficult to compress and use ceramic.

Question 5

Specification Reason

Size of the tyre is large Prevent backhoe from sinking into soft ground

Fluids used in hydraulic system is liquid Not easy compress compared to the gases // high

power

Large mass Avoid backhoe from moving

Large base area Ensure that the backhoe will not collide SULIT 22

Centre of gravity is low More stable

The most suitable backhoe is M.

Large tyre, fluids use in hydraulic system is liquid, large mass, large base area and the centre of gravity

is low.

Question 6 [Force and Pressure]

Specification Reason

A shape of cross section which is upper side is

higher Than the bottom//aerofoil

To produce the speed of airflow above the wings

to be higher than the speed of air below

Large area of the wing The larger the lift force

Low density of the wing material Less weight// produce more upward force

The higher the difference in speed of air The higher the difference in pressure

P was chosen because shape of aerofoil,large area of the wing,

Low density of the wing and the higher the difference in speed of air

Question 7[Force and Pressure]

Specification Reason

Volume of the balloon is bigger Produced bigger buoyant force / displaced more

volume of air

Material used for balloon is nylon Stronger / does not break easily

Material used for basket is rattan Lighter / low mass / increase the time impact /

reduce impulsive force

Temperature of air inside the balloon is higher

Reduce the density of air / reduce the mass of air

in the balloon / increase upward resultant force /

The best chosen is K because volume of the balloon is bigger, material used for balloon is nylon,

material used for basket is rattan and temperature of air inside the balloon is higher

Question 8[Heat]

Specification Reason

High boiling point It will not easily change into gas when absorb heat

from the engine

Low viscously It will not freeze during cold weather // can flow at

low temperature

High specific heat capacity It can absorb a big quality of heat with small rise in

temperature

A low ability to react with metals The metal parts of the engine will not corrode

easily

K because of its high boiling point, low viscosity, high specific heat capacity and low ability to react

with metals.

Question 9 [light]

Specification Reason

Type of objective lens is convex lens To converge the light and produce real image

Focal length of the objective lens is big To get higher magnification power

D < f0 + fe To get virtual and magnified image

Diameter of the objective lens is large More light can be captured, the image formed is

brighter

Lens S because lens used is convex lens, focal length of the objective lens is big, D D < f0 + fe and

diameter of the objective lens is large. SULIT 23

Question10 [Electricity]

Specification Reason

Thin diameter High resistance

Coil wire Increase length / resistance

Parallel arrangement If one panel not function, others still function

High melting point Withstand high temperature

G, because thin diameter, coil wire, parallel arrangement and high melting point.

Question 11

Characteristics Explanation

Curved shape Produce radial magnetic field

Soft iron Easily to magnetized and demagnetized

Soft spring Can detect small current // more sensitive // can

measured small current

Linear scale Uniform deflection // force produced directly

proportional to current.

T is chosen because curved shape, soft iron, soft spring and linear scale.

Question 12

Specification Reason

Low resistivity to reduce heat loss in the cables

Low density The cables will be lighter

Low rate of oxidation Not easily rust / corrode

Low rate of thermal expansion The cables will not expand under hot weather

Cable Q because it has low resistivity, low density, low rate of oxidation, low rate of thermal expansion.

Question 13

Specification Reason

Low density of the coil Lighter // less mass

High frequency of rotation The rate of change of magnetic field, more

current induced

Use 4 diodes Full wave rectification to get a d.c

Heat capacitor in the circuit To smooth the direct current obtained

Circuit I because it has low density coil, high frequency of rotation, consist 4 diodes and has capacitor

in the circuit SULIT 24

Question 14

Specification Reason

The valency of the intrinsic semiconductor is 4 When it is doped, the conductivity of the

semiconductor increases

The valency of the doping substance are 3 or 5

Valency of 3 is used to produce hole as majority

charge carrier (P type) and valency of 5 is used to

produce electron as majority charge carrier (N

type)

Size of the atom of the doping substance is almost

same as the size of the substance

Can maintain the crystallize structure of the

substance / give good effect in the doping

process

Substance T because the valency of the intrinsic semiconductor is 4, the valency of the doping

substance are 3 or 5 and the size of the doping substance is almost the same as the size of the

substance.

The type of pure semiconductor is silicon because it has greater power handling (not easy overheated.

Specification Reason

Gamma Has high penetrating power

Long half life Long lasting

Solid Easy to handle

Low ionizing power Does not ionize healthy cells / does not cause cell

mutation

K is chosen because it radiated gamma ray, the half life is long, the state of matter is solid and has low

ionizing power.

Specification Reason

Type of ray is Alpha Stronger ionizing power

Long half life Long lasting

State of matter is solid Easy to handle / does not spill or evaporate

Logic gate: NOT To inverse input

L is chosen because type or ray is alpha, long half life, solid and use logic gate NOT SULIT 25

SECTION V– CONCEPTUALIZATION (Paper 2 Section A – Question 5/6; Section B )

Question 1 [Force and Pressure]

1. Density of sphere A is less than B

2. Weight A is less than B

3. The weight of water displaced by A is less than B

4. The larger the weight of sphere, the bigger the weight of water displaced

5. Weight of water displaced = upthrust // When the weight of water displaced increase,

upthrust increase

Question 2 [Force and Pressure]

(a) Density is mass per unit volume (b) i Level of the boat is higher in the sea than in the river.

ii Water displaced in the sea is less than in the river.

iii Density of sea water is higher than river water.

(c) i The lower the density of water, the greater the volume of water displaced.

ii Weight of the boat = Weight of the water displaced

(d) Archimedes’ principle

Question 3 [Heat]

(a)(i) The temperature of air increase

The volume of air increase

(ii) The mass of air constant

(b)(i) When the temperature increase the volume of air increase

(ii) Charles’ Law

(iii) Temperature increases, kinetic energy increases

The rate of collision between molecules and wall increases/ pressure increases

To keep the pressure constant, volume increases/expand

Question 4 [Waves]

(a) Length between the two crest / trough / consecutive wave front

(b) (i) Wavelength in Diagram 4.2 is greater than 4.1

(ii) Wavelength remains constant after passing through the gap

(c) Curvature of the wave pattern in Diagram 4.2 is greater

(d) The greater the wavelength, the more circular the wave pattern

(e) Diffraction SULIT 26

Question 5 [Electromagnetism]

(a) Diagram 5.1 has less number of turns compare to Diagram 5.2

Deflection of pointer in Diagram 5.1 is smaller than Diagram 5.2

(b) P = North Q = South

(c) The larger the number of turns, the higher the induced current produced

(e) Increase the speed of the relative motion between the coil and the magnet //

Use a stronger magnet

(f) Direct Current Generator (D.C. Dynamo) //Alternating Current Generator (A.C. Dynamo) // Moving

coil microphone // Transformer

Question 6 [Force and Motion]

(a) The energy an object has because of its position.

(b) Load in Diagram 6.1 is higher than in Diagram 6.2.

Gravitational potential energy in Diagram 6.1 is higher

Work done in Diagram 6.1 is greater

The higher the position of the load, the greater the work done

The greater the work done, the greater the gravitational potential energy //

Work done = gravitational potential energy

Question 7 [Force and Motion]

1. Mass of the coin is greater than the leaf

2. Both objects reach the ground at the same time

3. The falling position of both objects is the same

4. Gravitational acceleration is the same

5. Gravitational acceleration does not depend on mass

Question 8 [Force and Pressure]

1. Reading of spring balance in the oil/Diagram 8(c) is greater than in the water/Diagram 8(b)

2. Weight lost in the water/Diagram 8(b)is greater than in oil/Diagram 8(c) // vise versa

3. Density of water is greater than density of oil

4. The greater the density of liquid, the greater the weight lost

5. The greater the density of liquid, the greater the buoyant force SULIT 27

Question 9 [Force and Pressure]

1. Density of air in Diagram 9(a) is higher than in Diagram 9(b)// vice versa

2. The number of load in Diagram 9(a) is greater than in Diagram 9(b)// vice versa

3. The height of the balloons in both Diagram 9(a) and Diagram 9(b) are equal

4. When the density of the air increase, the buoyant force increase

5. As the density of the air increase, the weight of the load carried increased// .

As the density of the air decrease, the weight of the load carried also decreased

Question 10 [Force and Pressure]

1. The mass of the fish is the same

2. The volume of the fishing net immersed in the water is the least in Diagram 10.3 and the largest in

Diagram 10.1

3. When the weight of water displaced is smaller, the force needed is greater

4. Buoyant force is equal to weight of water displaced

5. The greater the weight of water displaced, the greater the buoyant force

Question 11 [Light]

1. Density of glass block in Diagram 11(a) is smaller than density of glass block in Diagram 11(b)

2. Refractive index of glass block in Diagram 11(a) is smaller

3. Angle of refraction in Diagram 11(a) is greater than angle of refraction in Diagram 11(b)

4. The higher the density, the smaller the angle of refraction

5. The higher the refractive index, the smaller the angle of refraction.

Question 12 [Light]

1. Lens K is thicker than lens J

2. Light ray refracted more in lens K than lens J.

3. Focal length of lens K is shorter than lens J.

4. The thicker the lens, the greater the light refracted

5. The thicker the lens, the shorter the focal length SULIT 28

Question 13 [Light]

1. Distance between the double-slit and screen, D, i n Diagram 13.1(a) is smaller

2. Distance between two successive bright fringes, x, in Diagram 13.1(b), is smaller

3. The number of fringes in Diagram 13.1(b) is bigger

4. The width of fringes in Diagram 13.1(b) is smaller

5. When the distance between the double-slit and screen, D, increases, the distance

between two successive fringes, x, increases

Question 14 [Waves]

1 . Number of oscillations in Diagram 14(a) is greater than in Diagram 14(b)

2. The amplitude of the wave in Diagram 14(a) is the same as in Diagram 14(b)

3 . The diameter of guitar string in Diagram 14(a) is smaller than diameter of

the string in Diagram 14(b)

4. When the diameter of the string increases , the frequency of the wave decreases

5 . The higher the frequency , the higher is the pitch//

As the frequency of the sound decreases, the pitch of the sound also decreases

Question 15 [Electricity]

1. Diagram 15.1 connected in series and Diagram 15.2 connected in parallel 2. The reading of ammeter in Diagram 15.2 is greater than in Diagram 15.1

3. The reading of voltmeter is the same

4. The effective resistance in Diagram 15.2 is smaller than in Diagram 15.1

5. When the effective resistance increases, the current flow decreases.

6. When the circuit is in parallel connection, the effective resistance is smaller

Question 16 [Electromagnetism]

1. The N-pole in Diagram 16(a) moved into the solenoid, the N-pole of the magnet in Diagram

16 (b) moved away from the solenoid.

2. The galvanometer pointer in Diagram 16(a) deflects to the right, the galvanometer pointer in

Diagram 16(b) deflects to the left.

3. When N-pole is moved into the coil, the top of the coil is a N-pole, and tends to repel the

magnet

4. When the N-pole is moved away from the coil, the top of the coil is a S-pole, and thus attracting the

receding N-pole.

5. Lenz’s Law which states that the direction of the induced electromotive force acts in such a way as

to oppose the action which produces it SULIT 29

Question 17 [Electronic]

1 The bulb in Diagram 17.2 does not light up while the bulb in Diagram 17.1 lights up

2. In diagram 17.2 the negative terminal of the cell is connected to the anode.

3. When the anode of the diode is connected to the positive terminal of a cell, the bulb lights up

4. When the diode is in forward bias connection, the current flow

5. Diode allows current to flow in one direction only

(ii). Difference:

Nuclear fission involves the fission of heavy nucleus.

Nuclear fusion involves the combination of light nuclei

Similarities:

Decrease/loss of mass after the process occurs.

Neutrons are produced.

E = mc2 // loss of mass/ mass defect directly proportional to the energy released .

1. Exponential graph

2. The time taken for the activity to become half of its initial value is constant

3. The time taken for the activity of P to be half of its initial value is constant //5 hrs

4. The time taken for the activity of Q to be half of its initial value is constant //100 s

5. Half-life

VI – PROBLEM SOLVING [QUALITATIVE] (Paper 2 Section A: Question 7; Section B

Question 9/10 )

QUESTION 1

Suggestion Reason

glass that is strong It is not easily broken

The capillary tube is made narrow and

thin It is more sensitive

The shape of the thermometer is

round/streamline It has a magnifying effect

The liquid has low freezing point It can measure very low temperature/ not freeze at low

temperature

Thin glass bulb’s wall Absorb / transfer heat faster SULIT 30

QUESTION 2

Suggestion Reason

Aerodynamic shape / stream line/

torpedo

Reduce air resistance

Low density material //

Strong material// high boiling point

Lighter //

Does not break easily// does not melt easily

Has liquid oxygen Boosting combustion // supply oxygen for combustion

Retro rocket /Has several stages that

can slip/strip off

To decrease mass

Increase the size of combustion

chamber More space for the fuel to be burnt

QUESTION 3

Suggestion Reason

Strong material Do not break easily

Low density Small mass / lighter //o increase the acceleration

Streamline javelin To reduce air resistance

The athlete runs with high speed /has to

increase his speed/acceleration To increase kinetic energy/energy/force/ momentum

Throw at an angle of 45o / Throw with

a great force To get maximum horizontal distance of throwing

QUESTION 4

Suggestion Explanation

Shape of the shuttle – conical shape /oval

/diagram / aerodynamic Allow for better / fast air flow//produce more lift force //

reduce air resistance

Material used for shuttle – feather / small

mass/ low density

Light// high velocity/ acceleration //further distance

travelled//reduce inertia // smaller mass

Material used for base of the shuttle –

cork/ small mass/ low density

Light// high velocity/ acceleration //further distance

travelled//reduce inertia // smaller mass

Material used for the string of the racquet –

strong/ low elasticity Not easily broken //withstand high force

High tension Short time impact// high impulsive force SULIT 31

QUESTION 5

Suggestion Reason

1 Balloon should be large size

To create sufficient buoyant force due to greater

weight of surrounding air displaced.

2 Balloon material is made of light weight

material like nylon

The total weight of the balloon is less than the

buoyant force//reduce weight

3 Balloon material should also have a high

melting point. It will not disintegrate when exposed to hot air

4

The part of the balloon (the skirt) near the

burner must be fire resistant /coated with fire

resistant material

So that it doesn’t catch fire easily

5 The burner burns (liquefied) propane/gas Warms up the air in the balloon

6 A large fan is needed initially To blow enough air into the balloon

7

flexible/safe material (e.g. rattan or cane

woven)

Prolong the collision time between basket and

ground// reduce impulsive force when basket hits

the ground

9

Best times to launch the balloon are early

morning and late afternoon when the air is

cooler

Cool air is denser, providing more buoyant forc

QUESTION 6

Suggestion Reason

Specific heat capacity of the wok is low Heat up faster / temperature increase faster

Thermal conductivity of the wok is high Can conduct heat faster

Melting point of wok is high Can withstand high temperature

Specific heat capacity of the oil is low Heat up faster

Boiling point of oil is high Will not change to vapour easily // cooking at higher

temperature SULIT 32

QUESTION 7

Suggestion Reason

Put ice in the cointainer Ice absorbs heat out from the packet drinks.

Add a little water to the ice Heat transfer is faster through the heat conduction.

Container has high specific heat capacity Heat up slower.

White container Does not absorb heat

Insulator // low density Avoid absorb heat from outside into the container // lighter

QUESTION 8

Modification Reason

Concave mirror Sunlight ray will converge / focus to the tank // absorb more

heat

Radius of curvature is smaller Reflect more light /focus light at shorter distance// reduce

energy lost

Black Absorb more heat

Low specific heat capacity The temperature rise up faster

QUESTION 9

Suggestion Reason

Convex mirror The image formed is virtual, upright an diminished

Large diameter Wider field view

strong Withstand change in weather / does not break easily

Less thickness Avoid multiple image formed / clearer image

At the sharp corner Can reflect the light from opposite direction SULIT 33

QUESTION 10

Suggestion Reason

Frequency of signal is low Longer wavelength/ diffraction easier

The location of transmitter higher no blocking / capture more signal

the number of transmitter is more /

many

increase the strength of signal/ increase energy of signal /

reduce energy lost during transmission

The strength of signal is higher have more energy / can move further

The distance between two transmitter

is closer increase the strength of signal/ increase energy of signal

QUESTION 11

Suggestion Reason

Attach switch for each lamp To allows each lamp to be switched on and off independently

Connect the metal fitting lamp to the

earth wire/cable To flows electron (extra) to earth to avoid lethal shock

Parallel Voltage across both bulbs is 240 V / if one bulb blows another

bulb can still function.

Using only 240 V light bulb To ensure the bulbs light up with normal brightness

Step down transformer / adapter Reduce the voltage from 240 V to 12 V.

QUESTION 12

Suggestion Reason

Soft spring Give a greater sensitivity/ can detect small changes

Small density Small mass / light

Curve in shape of the magnet Radial magnetic field, create uniform strength of magnetic

field around the coil

copper coil To reduce energy loss / Low resistance material of the coil

Place the seismometer in direct

contact with the earth to convert very small motions of the earth into electrical signals SULIT 34

QUESTION 13

Suggestion Reason

OR gate The gate's output is ON if either one sensor is ON

Thermistor Resistance decrease when temperature increase

At R1 and R2

Base voltage increase, when the temperature increase.

Base current flows, collector current flows. Alarm will

triggered.

Replace the lamp or at the collector circuit It converts the electrical signal into sound energy/ Alarm

triggered when collector current flow.

Relay switch To switch on the alarm which is use a greater voltage

QUESTION 14

Component Function

Filament To heat up the cathode

Cathode Emits electrons

Control Grid

Controls the number of electrons//

control the brightness of the image

on the screen

Focusing anode Focuses the electrons into a beam

Accelerating anode To accelerate electrons to towards the screen

Y-plates To deflect the electron beam vertically

X-plates To deflect the electron beam

Horizontally

QUESTION 15

Suggestion Reason

Use forcep/robot The distance between the source and the body is far

Use a lead box/container with thick

concrete To prevent radiation leakage to surroundings

Keep the exposure time as short as

possible The body is not exposed to the radiation for a long time

Wear a film bandage To detect the amount of radiation exposed

Put radiation symbol on the storage box To inform the users of dangerous contents of the box

Wear coat lined with lead To protect the body from the radiation SULIT 35

SECTION VII– PROBLEM SOLVING [QUANTITATIVE] (Paper 2 Section C Question 11/12 )

1.

(i) impulse = mv – mu

= 1.5 ( -35-40)

= 112.5 kg ms-1

(ii) Impulsive force = mv-mu

t

= 140.625 N

2.

(i) 900 N

(ii) F – 900 N = 1000 (2)

F = 2 900 N

3.

(i) v = 18 x1000 = 5 ms-1

60 x 60

a =v – u

t

= 5 – 0

10

= 0.5 ms-2

(ii) F = ma

= ( 202) (0.5)

= 101 N

4.

(i)Spring constant P , k =F = 6N

x 12 cm

= 0.5 Ncm-1

Spring constant Q, k = F = 3N

x 12 cm

= 0.75 N cm-1

5.

(i) Buoyant force = weight of the boat

ρV g = 250 (10)

V = 0.25 m-3

(ii) Weight of the boat + weight of the load = buoyant force

2500 + WL = 1000 (4) (10) SULIT 36

WL= 40 000 – 2500

= 3 7500 N

Mass of load = 3 750 kg

6.

(i) F = 500 x 40

= 20 000 N

(ii) Resultant force = 20 000 – 800 (10)

= 12000 N

(iii) F = ma

a = 12 000

800

=15 ms-2

7.

(i) F1 = F2

A1 A2

F2 = 6N ( 1.2)

0.2

= 36 N

(ii) V1 = V2

A1h1 = A2h2

h2 = 1.2 (0.2)

1.2

= 0.2 cm

8.

(i) F = ρVg

= 1020 (2)(10)

= 20 400 N

(ii) Buoyant Force = weight of the boat + weight of the box

20 400 N = 15 000 + W

W = 5 400N

9.

(i) Mass,m =ρV

= 800 x 0.004

= 3.2 kg

(ii) Pt = mc

2 500 (t) = 3.2 (2 000) (130)

t = 332.8 s SULIT 37

10.

(i) 1/f = 1/u+1/v

1/-15 = 1/20 + 1/v

v = - 8.6 cm

(ii) Magnification = v/u

= 8.6 / 20

= 0.43

(iii) virtual, upright and diminished

11.

(i) 1/f = 1/v + 1/u

1/5 = ½ +1/v

v = -3.33 cm

(ii) m = v/u

=3.33/2

= 1.67 times

2

2

12.

(i)

sin = 0.75

= 48.6o

(ii)

= 41.8 oC

(iii)

sin b = 0.9642

b = 74.6o

β = 15.4o

1

1

1

1

1

13.

(i) 4 cm

(ii) 5 Hz

(iii) 20 cm s-1

2

1

2 SULIT 38

14. (i) Np= Vp

Ns Vs

= 240

12

= 20

Ratio = 20 : 1

(ii) P = IV

I = 60 /12

= 5 A

(iii) 80 = Po x 100

Pi

80 = 60x 100

Ip (240)

Ip = 0.3125A

15.

eV = ½ me v2

1.6 x 10-19 (3 x 103) = ½ (9.0 x 10-31) v2

v = 3.27 x 107 m s-1

16.

(i) (i) 1 ½ ¼ 1/8

(ii)

(iii) 3T½ = 3 X 8 days

= 24 days

(ii) 32 days = 32/8

= 4 T½

20 mg 10 mg 5 mg 2.5 mg 1.25 mg

or

(½)4 X 20 = 5/4

= 1.25 mg

SECTION VIII A – Paper 3 Section A

Question 1

a (i) Angle of incidence / i

(ii) Angle of refraction / r // sin r

(iii) Refractive index of the glass block

(b) & (c)

i sin i r sin r SULIT 39

15o 0.2588 11o 0.1908

30o 0.5000 20o 0.3420

45o 0.7071 29o 0.4848

60o 0.8660 36o 0.5878

75o 0.9659 41o 0.6561

(d) Draw graph sinr against sin i corecltly

(e) sin i is directly proportional to sin r

Question 2

5

a) (i) d increases as t increase 1

a) (ii)

Draw a dotted line at t = 0.4 s

d = 0.46 m

1

(show on the

graph)

1

b) (i)

Draw a tangent line at t = 0.5s

Draw a big triangle (shown on the graph)

PQ

=

1.64 - 0

QR 0.7 – 0.31

= 4.2051 ms-1

1

1

1

(shows the

working)

1

+ unit; 2 to 4

d.p.)

b) (ii)

a =

2m

=

(2)( 4.2051)

T 0.5

= 16.8204 ms-2

1

(substitution)

1

(answer + unit) c) (i) Velocity 1

c) (ii) Velocity increases as time increase 1 SULIT 40

d) Avoid parallax error by making sure the eye is perpendicular to the scale of

metre rule when measuring displacement 1

TOTAL 12 SULIT 41

SECTION VIII B– EXPERIMENT (Paper 3 Section B)

Question1 [Force and Motion]

(a) Inference The force affects the acceleration

(b) Hypothesis The greater the force, the greater the acceleration

(c)

i. Aim

ii. Variables

iii. List of apparatus

and materials

To investigate the relationship between the force and the acceleration

Manipulated variable : Force. F (weight of the load)

Responding variable : acceleration, a

Fixed variable : Mass of the trolley, m

A trolley, runway, ticker- timer, ticker-tape, power supply,metre rule and

wooden block

States the workable arrangement of the apparatus

Set up

Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram.

States the method of controlling the manipulated variable

Use load of F = 0.5 N to pull the trolley down the runway.

States the method of measuring the responding variable

Switch on the power supply and release the trolley.

Cut the ticker tape into 5-tick strips and a tape chart for the motion of the trolley

Calculate the acceleration of the usingt

uva

and record the data.

a.c power supply SULIT 42

Repeat the experiment at least 4 times

Repeat the experiment by using F = 1.0 N, 1.5 N, 2.0 N, 2.5, N and 3.0 N.

Tabulating of data

Force, F/ N acceleration , a /cms-2

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

State how data will be analysed

Plot graph of acceleration against Force

a/cms-2

F/N SULIT 43

QUESTION 2 (FORCE AND MOTION)

(a) Inference The mass affects the acceleration

(b) hypothesis The greater the mass, the smaller the acceleration

(c)

i. Aim

ii. Variables

iii. List of apparatus

and materials

To investigate the relationship between the mass and the acceleration

Manipulated variable : mass. m

Responding variable : acceleration, a

Fixed variable : Mass of the trolley, m

A trolley, runway, ticker- timer, ticker-tape, power supply,metre rule and

wooden block

States the workable arrangement of the apparatus

Set up

the apparatus as shown in the diagram.

Use load of F = 0.5 N to pull the trolley down the runway.

States the method of controlling the manipulated variable

Use trolley with the mass, m = 500 g

States the method of measuring the responding variable

Switch on the power supply and release the trolley.

Cut the ticker tape into 5-tick strips and a tape chart for the motion of the trolley

Calculate the acceleration of the usingt

uva

and record the data.

Repeat the experiment at least 4 times

a.c power supply SULIT 44

Repeat the experiment by using m = 1000 g, 1500 g, 2000 g and 2500 g

Tabulating of data

Mass, m/ g acceleration , a /cms-2

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

State how data will be analysed

Plot graph of acceleration against Mass

a/cms-2

m/g

Question3 [Force and Motion]

(a) Inference The speed affects the position of the driver when the car stops suddenly

(b) Hypothesis The greater the speed, the longer the distance to stop

(c) i. Aim To investigate the relationship between the speed and the distance

ii. Variables Manipulated variable : the height , h (the more the height, the greater the

speed)

Responding variable : the distance, s

Constant variable : the mass, m

iii. List of apparatus

and materials

runway, load, trolley, ticker timer and ticker tape, power supply, metre rule. SULIT 45

Labeled diagram:

Measure the height, h =10.0 cm of the inclined plane from the surface.

Let the trolley moves down the inclined plane.

Calculate the speed of the trolley, v from the ticker tape obtained.

Measure the forward distance of the load, s

Repeat the experiment with h = 15.0 cm, 20.0 cm, 25.0 cm, 30.0 cm and 35.0

cm.

height, h /

cm speed, v (cms-1)

Forward distance, s

(cm)

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

35.0

The graph(axis) of s against v or h is drawn

TOTAL

Question 4 [Force and Motion]

(a) Inference The compression of the spring affects the vertical distance of the projectile

(b) hypothesis The greater the compression of the spring, the greater the vertical distance of

the projectile

(c)

i. Aim

ii. Variables

iii. List of apparatus

and materials

To investigate the relationship between the compression of the spring and the

vertical distance of the projectile

Manipulated variable : compression of the spring. x

Responding variable : vertical distance of the projectile, a

Fixed variable : Mass of the ping pong ball, m

A spring, ping pong ball,metre rule

Inclined plane

h

s

h s SULIT 46

States the workable arrangement of the apparatus

Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram.

States the method of controlling the manipulated variable

Compress the spring, x = 1.0 cm with the ping pong ball

States the method of measuring the responding variable

Release the ping pong ball

Measure the maximum distance of the ping pong ball, h using metre rule.

Repeat the experiment at least 4 times

Repeat the experiment by using x = 1.5 cm, 2.0 cm, 2.5, cm and 3.0 cm.

Tabulating of data

Compression of

the spring, x/ cm

vertical distance of the projectile ,

h /cm

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

State how data will be analysed SULIT 47

Plot graph of h against x

h/cm

x/cm

Question 5 [Force and Pressure]

(a)

(b)

(c) (

i

)

Inference

State a suitable inference

The pressure exerted on the surface depends on the area of contact.

Hypothesis State a relevant hypothesis

When the area decrease, the pressure increases

(i) Aim State the aim of experiment

To investigate the relationship between the area of contact and pressure (depth of hole).

(ii) Variables State the suitable manipulated variables and responding variable (Quantity

that can be measured)

Manipulated variable : Area of contact object. Responding variable : pressure exerted (depth of hole)

State the constant variable

Force applied (using 1 kg load)

(iii) List of Apparatus and Materials

State the complete list of apparatus and materials

Vernier caliper, soft plasticine, ruler, Load 1 kg, the object with different surface

area but same weight.

Draw the functional arrangement of the apparatus SULIT 48

(v)

State the method to control the manipulated variable

Measure the bottom area of the wooden block with vernier caliper/ruler, A1 cm2.

Place the wooden block on the plasticine. Place the 1 kg load on the top of the wooden block.

State the method to measure the responding variable

Remove the load and wooden block. Measure the depth of hole using vernier

caliper and record it.

Repeat the experiment at least 4 times with the values

Procedure 2 and Procedure 3 are repeated using A2,A3,A4,and A5

(Note : Based on SPM standard , at least five manipulated values required.)

State how the data tabulated with the title MV and RV

Area of contact/ cm2

Depth,x /mm

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

State how the data is analysed, plot a graph RV against MV

Depth,x/mm

Area of contact,A/ cm2

Question 6 [Force and Pressure]

(a)

Inference State a suitable inference

The pressure of liquid is depends on the depth

(b) ypothesis State a relevant hypothesis

The pressure of liquid increases as its depth increases.

(c) (ii) Aim State the aim of experiment

To investigate the relationship between the pressure and depth.

(ii) Variables State the manipulated variable and the responding variable

Manipulated : Depth, h

Responding : The pressure of liquid, P (difference of length of the liquid in SULIT 49

manometer, y)

State ONE variable that kept constant

The density of liquid

(iii) List of Apparatus and Materials

Complete list of apparatus and materials

Tall beaker, thistle funnel, manometer, metre rule

Arrangement of apparatus :

State the method of controlling the manipulated variable

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram.

2. Immerse the thistle funnel into the water until depth, h = 6.0 cm

State the method of measuring the responding variable

3. Measure the difference of length of the liquid in manometer, y by using ametre

rule.

Repeat the experiment

4. Repeat the experiment using h = 8.0 cm, 10.0 cm, 12.0 cm and 14.0 cm.

Tabulation of data:

h, cm difference of length of the liquid

in manometer, y / cm

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.0

14.0 SULIT 50

Analyse the data .

y/ cm

Depth, h / cm

Question 7 [Heat]

(a)

Inference

State a suitable inference

The type of fin affects the absorption of heat energy.

(b) Hypothesis State a relevant hypothesis

The smaller the specific heat capacity, the less the time taken to increase the

temperature of the water in the tank

(c) (i) Aim State the aim of experiment

To investigate the relationship between the specific heat capacity and the time

taken to increase the temperature

(ii) Variables State the manipulated variable and the responding variable

Manipulated : The specific heat capacity, c

Responding : increase the temperature, θ

State ONE variable that kept constant

time taken to increase the temperature, t

Complete list of apparatus and materials

5 different material of 1 kg of metal block with different specific heat capacity,

thermometer, ac power supply, heater, oil, felt, stop watch SULIT 51

Arrangement of apparatus :

State the method of controlling the manipulated variable

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram.

2. Measure the initial temperature of the aluminium block, T1

State the method of measuring the responding variable

1. Switch on the power supply and simultaneously start the stop watch

2. Switch off the power supply after 5 minutes and record the maximum

temperature, T2 using the thermometer.

3. Calculate the change in temperature, θ = T2 - T1

Repeat the experiment

4. Repeat the experiment using copper, glass, plumbum and steel blocks with

different specific heat capacity.

Tabulation of data:

solid block specific heat capacity, c (J kg-1

oC

-1)

Θ, oC

aluminium

copper

glass

plumbum

steel

Analyse the data .

Θ, oC

specific heat capacity, c (J kg-1 o

C-1

) SULIT 52

Question 8 [Heat]

(a)

Inference

State a suitable inference

The rate of cooling of an object depends on its volume//mass.

(b) Hypothesis State a relevant hypothesis

The rate of cooling of water increases as its volume//mass decreases.

(c) (ii) Aim State the aim of experiment

To investigate the relationship between the rat e of cooling of water and its

volume//mass.

(ii) Variables State the manipulated variable and the responding variable

Manipulated : volume //mass of water

Responding : Rate of cooling

State ONE variable that kept constant

Initial temperature / Final temperature

Complete list of apparatus and materials

Beaker 250 cm3, measuring cylinder, water, electric heater.stopwatch, thermometer,

triple beam balance.

Arrangement of apparatus :

State the method of controlling the manipulated variable

5. Apparatus is set as shown in the above figure.

6. Water is heated to 55oC.

7. 50 g // 50 cm3 of water is placed in a 250 ml beaker with a thermometer

immersed in the water. SULIT 53

State the method of measuring the responding variable

8. The stopwatch is started when the temperature of the water is at 50oC. The

stopwatch is stopped when the temperature reaches 35oC. The time, t is

recorded.

Repeat the experiment at least 4 times

5. The experiment is repeated using mass of water...................// volumes of water

100 cm3, 150 cm

3, 200 cm

3and 250 cm

3.

Tabulation of data:

Mass, m (g) Time, t (s)

50.0

100.0

150.0

200.0

250.0

Analyse the data .

Time, t (s)

Mass, m (g)

Total marks12

Question 9[HEAT]

(a) Inference

State a suitable inference

The volume of gas depend on its temperature

(b) Hypothesis State a relevant hypothesis

.The volume of gas increases as its temperature increases

(c) (iii) Aim State the aim of experiment

To investigate the relationship between the volume of gas and its temperature. SULIT 54

(ii) Variables State the manipulated variable and the responding variable

Manipulated : Temperature Responding : The volume of gas

State ONE variable that kept constant

Mass of gas

List of Apparatus

and material

Complete list of apparatus and materials

Capillary tube, thermometer, water, metre rule and sulphuric acid

Arrangement of apparatus :

State the method of controlling the manipulated variable

9. Apparatus is set as shown in the above figure.

10. Water is heated to 300C.

State the method of measuring the responding variable

11. The vertical column of trapped air is measured by using metre rule.

Repeat the experiment at least 4 times

4. The experiment is repeated using the temperature 400C, 50

0C, 60

0C and 70

0C.

Tabulation of data:

Temperature, T (oC) Volume of gas, V (cm

3)

30

40

50

60

70

Analyse the data . SULIT 55

Volume of gas

Temperature

Total 12

Question 10 [Light]

Inference

State a suitable inference

The image distance/size of image depends on the object distance

(a) Hypothesis States a relevants hypothesis

The longer the object distance, the smaller the image distance/size of image

(b) Aim State the aim of experiment

To study the relationship between the object distance and the/image distance// the height

of the image

(c )

(Variables State the manipulated variable and the responding variable

Manipulated variable : Object distance, u

Responding variable : image distance, v // height of the image

State ONE variable that kept constant

Fixed variable : The power of the lens.

Complete list of apparatus and materials

Convex lens, meter rule, screen, lens holder, object SULIT 56

States the workable arrangement of the apparatus

States the method of controlling the manipulated variable

The object distance is measured to be u = 20.0 cm.

States the method of measuring the responding variable

The image distance // the height of the image that formed on the screen is measured

using the meter rule.

Repeat the experiment at least 4 times

The experiment is repeated by using different values of u = 25 cm, 30 cm, 35 cm, 40 cm

dan 45 cm.

Tabulating of data

The object distance, u (cm) The image distance, v (cm)

20.0

25.0

30.0

35.0

40.0

State how data will be analysed

Plot graph ofobject distance against the image distance // the height of image

Graph of v against u

The image distance // The height of image(cm)

The object distance, u (cm) SULIT 57

Question11 [Waves]

1 (a) Inference The color of monochromatic light affects the distance between two

consecutive fringes

(b) hypothesis The greater the wavelength, the greater the distance between two

consecutive fringes

(c)

iv. Aim

v. Variables

vi. List of

apparatus

and

materials

To investigate the relationship between the force and the distance between

two consecutive fringes

Manipulated variable : the wavelength,

Responding variable : the distance between two consecutive fringes

Fixed variable : the distance between the source of

monochromatic light to the screen, D

A power supply, monochromatic light source of different colors, single slit,

Young’s double slits, screen, meter rule

States the workable arrangement of the apparatus

Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram.

States the method of controlling the manipulated variable

Use red color of light with the wavelength, 1

States the method of measuring the responding variable

Switch on the power supply and observe the alternately bright and dark fringes

Measure the distance between 2 consecutive bright fringes, x and record the

data SULIT 58

Total

12

Repeat the experiment at least 4 times

Repeat the experiment using 4 different colors with different wavelength, 2 , 3, 4 and

5

Tabulating of data

wavelength, (m) The distance between two

consecutive fringes, x (cm)

1

2

3

4

5

State how data will be analysed

Plot a graph of x against

The distance between two consecutive fringes, x (cm)

The wavelength, (m)

Question 12 [Waves]

1 (a) Inference The displacement of the string affects the loudness

(b) hypothesis The greater the displacement of the string, the greater the amplitude

(c)

Aim

Variables

To investigate the relationship between the displacement of the string and the

distance between two consecutive fringes

Manipulated variable : the displacement of the string, d

Responding variable : the amplitude, x

Fixed variable : the tension of the string

A stretched string, a microphone, a CRO SULIT 59

Total

12

vii. List of

apparatus

and

materials

States the workable arrangement of the apparatus

Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram.

States the method of controlling the manipulated variable

Use red color of light with the wavelength, 1

States the method of measuring the responding variable

Switch on the power supply and observe the alternately bright and dark fringes

Measure the distance between 2 consecutive bright fringes, x and record the

data

Repeat the experiment at least 4 times

Repeat the experiment using 4 different colors with different wavelength, 2 , 3, 4 and 5

Tabulating of data

displacement of

the string

The distance between two

consecutive fringes, x (cm)

1

2

3

4

5

State how data will be analysed

Plot a graph of x against

The displacement of the string, x (cm)

The wavelength, (m) SULIT 60

Question 13 (Electric)

(a)

Inference Brightness/Current depends on the thickness/diameter/cross sectional

area of the wire

(b) hypothesis The current I increases when the diameter of the wire increase

(c) (i)

Aim

Variables

viii.

To investigate the relationship between current and the diameter of a

wire

Manipulated variable : diameter of the wire

Responding variable : current

Fixed variable : the length of wire

(iii)

List of

apparatus and

materials

Dry cells, voltmeter, ammeter, conductor wire, switch

(iv)

Procedure

(v) Use conductor wire with diameter of, d = 0.2mm.

Record the reading of the ammeter and tabulate the data.

Repeat the experiment using d = 0.4mm, 0.6mm, 0.8mm and 1.0mm

V

A SULIT 61

(vi)

Diameter/mm Current/A

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

A

(vii)

TOTAL 12

Inference Inference : The heating effect of a conductor is affected by the current.

hypothesis Hypothesis : The larger the current, the higher the temperature of the water which is being

heated

Aim

Variables

Aim : To investigate the effect of current on heating

Variable:

MV : current ,I

RV : temperature ,

Constant Variable : volume of water , inertial temperature of water

List of

apparatus and

Beaker, ammeter, immersion heater, thermometer, connecting wire, rheostat and stop watch

Current/A

Diameter/mm SULIT 62

materials

Arrangement of apparatus:

Procedure Pour 200cm3 of water into the beaker and measure its temperature.

Switch on the circuit and adjust the rheostat until the reading of ammeter is 1.0 A.

The stop watch is started. The final temperature is recorded after 2 minutes.

Step repeated by adjusting the rheostat so that the ammeter readings are 2.0 A, 3.0

A, 4.0 A and 5.0 A.

Tabulation of data

Current, A Increase in temperature, °C

Analysis of data.

Sketch the graph of increase in temperature against current.

TOTAL 12

Question 15 (Electromagnet)

15(a) Inference The number of dry cells affects the movement of the hammer

(b) Hypothesis: The bigger the current flow , the stronger the electromagnet (the more the

number of pins attracted) SULIT 63

© Aim : To investigate the relationship between the electric current and the strength

of the electromagetic

Variables Variables : Manipulated : electric current flow, I

Responding :the number of pins attracted, n

Constant Variable: Thenumber of turns of the coil

List of

apparatus

Solenoid, large iron nail, iron pins,ammeter , rheostat and power supply.

Arrangement

of apparatus:

(labeled

diagram)

Control of

Manipulated

Variable :

Wind the insulated wire around the large iron nail with 50 coils .

Switch on the circuit and adjust the rheostat until the current flow I = 0.5 A

Measurement

of Responding

Variable :

Bring the container filled with iron pins until it touches the solenoid

Record the number of iron nails attracted by the solenoid, n

Repeat the experiment with I = 1.0 A, 1.5 A, 2.0 A and 2.5 A with a constant

number of turns.

Tabulation of data

Electric current, I (A) No of nails attracted

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

Analysis of data.

Sketch the graph of n against I

TOTAL 12 SULIT 64

(b) Hypothesis: The bigger the current flow , the stronger the electromagnet (the more the number

of pins attracted)

1

(c) Aim : To investigate the relationship between the electric current and the strength of the

electromagnetic

1

Variables : Manipulated : electric current flow, I

Responding :the number of pins attracted, n

1

Constant Variable: Thenumber of turns of the coil 1

List of apparatus :Solenoid, large iron nail, iron pins,ammeter , rheostat and power supply. 1

Arrangement of apparatus: (labeled diagram)

1

Control of Manipulated Variable :

Wind the insulated wire around the large iron nail with 50 coils .

Switch on the circuit and adjust the rheostat until the current flow I = 0.5 A

1

Measurement of Responding Variable :

Bring the container filled with iron pins until it touches the solenoid

Record the number of iron nails attracted by the solenoid, n

1

Repeat the experiment with I = 1.0 A, 1.5 A, 2.0 A and 2.5 A with a constant number of turns. 1

Tabulation of data

Electric current, I (A) No of nails attracted

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

1 SULIT 65

Analysis of data.

Sketch the graph of n against I

1

TOTAL 12