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BAHAGIAN PENGURUSAN SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH SEKOLAH KECEMERLANGAN KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA MARKING SCHEME PERFECT SCORE & X A-PLUS MODULE PHYSICS 2012

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Semoga bermanfaat kepada semua.. calon SPM 2013

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BAHAGIAN PENGURUSAN

SEKOLAH BERASRAMA PENUH SEKOLAH KECEMERLANGAN

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

MARKING SCHEMEPERFECT SCORE & X A-PLUS MODULE

PHYSICS

2012

SECTION II - COMMON MISTAKES AND MISCONCEPTIONS8. Physical Quantity Stop watch voltmeter thermometer Bourdon gauge Ammeter 9. Terms [The type of energy when the object is at P] a Gravitational Potential Energy Potential energy Common Mistake Correct Answer Physical quantity measured time Voltage, V temperature Gas pressure Electric current Physics Unit and symbol Second. s Volt, V Kelvin or oCelsius Pascal, Pa Ampere, A

Force acting on surface area b Pressure Force/area A product of depth, density and gravitational acceleration c Pascals principle In a close container, force is In a close container, pressure is transmitted equally transmitted equally. Heat absorbed to change by 1oC Heat absorbed to change 1 kg of liquid to gas without any changes in temperature. Normal force acting on a unit of surface area

d

Latent heat of vaporization

e

Temperature

Transfer from hot body to cold body

Amount of kinetic energy in an object

[Physics phenomena in a prism] Total internal reflection

f

Reflection

Terms

Common Mistake Critical angle is when the refracted angle is 90o Critical angle is the incident angle when the reflected angle is 90o The image that formed behind the lens

Correct Answer Critical angle is the incident angle in denser medium which produces when the refracted angle in less dense medium is 90o The image that cannot formed on the screen be

g

Critical angle

h

Virtual image

i

Monochromatic light

A colour of one light

light of one frequency / wavelength / colour .. displacement of any particle/oscillating system from its .. ..

j

Amplitude

Maximum point of the highest displacement

k

Period

One complete oscillation

The time taken for any particle to make one complete oscillation

l

Specification: 240 V, 1000 W

1000 W of energy is supplied when the power supplied is 240 V.

1000 W of energy is consumed in 1 s when connected to a 240 V power supply.

j

electromagnet

When the current flow through magnet Is a combination of electric and magnetic field Negative charge

A conductor which can produce magnetic field when current passes through it.

k

Beta particles

Fast moving electron

B.

Misconceptians Examples: Num

Misconceptions

Correction

1

Oil is used in hydraulic jack because it has higher boiling point Snells law state that:

.. because it is not easily evaporate.

2

The sine of incident angle The sine of refracted angle

=

Refractive index

The sine of incident angle The sine of refracted angle

=

constant

Container A

Container B

water 3 The force exerted at X > the force exerted at Y because smaller surface area (P = F /A)

Pressure at X = Pressure at Y because X and Y are at the same depth, same gravitational acceleration and in the same type of liquid that has same density. ( P = hg)

To increase the efficiency of ac/dc GENERATOR: Use more number of turns to produce stronger magnetic field

Generator the current is induced

The ship can float in sea water because the total density of the ship is less than the density of water The buoyant force is equals to the total weight of the ship

The ship can float in sea water because the buoyant force is bigger than the weight of the ship

C. Paper 3

1.

Data Tabulation Title ContentExample: Common Mistake Correct Answer no unit not consistent

Electric Current 0.1 0.12 0.14

Voltage 0.5 1 1.5

Electric Current, I (A) 0.10 0.12 0.14

Voltage, V (V) 0.5 1.0 1.5

TOV 1 SPM FORMAT SET 14531/2 SECTION A Question 5 No a b(i) b(ii) b(iii) c d(i) d(ii) d(iii) Answer Scheme The force that gravitation exerts upon a body The mass of slotted weigh in Diagram 5.1 > Diagram 5.2 The nett force in Diagram 5.2 > Diagram 5.1 The acceleration in Diagram 5.2 > Diagram 5.1 The greater the nett force , the greater the acceleration Net force in Diagram 5.1 > Diagram 5.3 The acceleration in Diagram 5.1 > Diagram 5.3 The weight of 20 N in Diagram 5.1 is perpendicular to the tension of the string Mark 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Question 6 No a(i) a(ii) b(i) b(ii) c d Answer Scheme Diagram 6.1 : no relative motion Diagram 6.2 : there is a relative motion Number of turns in Diagram 6.3 > Diagram 6.2 The greater the number of turn of coil, the greater the change in magnetic flux The greater the number of turn of coil, the greater the magnitude of induced current Faradays Law When the magnet is pulled away from the coil Reason : the current will flow in such direction that oppose the change that cause it Mark 2 1 1 1 1 2

Question 7 No a b c d(i) d(ii) d(iii) Answer Scheme Depth of water P = hg5 = 2.5 x 103 x 10 = 2.5 x 104 N m-2 Less different of water pressure Place the water tank P higher than water tank R // use water pump It will increase the water pressure // sufficient water supply Bigger base area //thicker wall at the bottom Less pressure exerted on the ground // could withstand water pressure Low density material // fiber tank Light // can withstand stronger pressure Mark 1 2 1 2 2 2

Question 8 No 1. (a) Answer Scheme Atmospheric pressure is the weight of the atmosphere on an object 1. (b) 2. 3. Vacuum pump is used to pump out the air from the suction cup Partial vacuum is created in the suction cup Higher atmospheric pressure push the glass sheet onto the suction cup Mark 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Low pressure Larger difference in pressure (c)(i) Big diameter cup Greater force (ii) Triple cups Greater force (iii) R Straw/syringe/siphon/vacuum cleaner (iv) (d)

12

Question 9 No a Answer Scheme The force exerted by the gas molecules onto a unit of surface area Mark 1

No b

c

Answer Scheme When temperature increases, the average kinetic energy increases Rate of collision also increase Rate of change of momentum increase Force exerted on a unit of surface area increase Temperature of gas : 9.3 > 9.2 Volume of gas : 9.3 = 9.2 Reading of pressure gauge : 9.2 < 9.3 Temperature increase, reading of pressure gauge Pressure Law Characteristics Large radius Many tyres Explaination Rate of rotation is less // Temperature does not increase easily Increase the surface area // less pressure Provide a gripping surface Prevent from deformation Can withstand high temperature

Mark 4

5

d

Tyres with treads Strong tyre High melting point

10

Question 10 No a b Number of turns of coil : Diagram 10.3 > Diagram 10.4 Speed of magnet : same c Deflection of galvanometer : Diagram 10.3 > 10.4 When number of turns of coil increased, deflection also increased Faradays Law Characteristics Curve magnet Stronger magnet d Replace component X with commutator Copper wire coil Thick copper wire Explaination Produce radial magnetic field Produce stronger magnetic field Current is induced in one direction Good conductor Less resistance 10 5 Answer Scheme Electromagnetic induction Mark 1 4

Question 11 (a) (b)(i) Distance between optical centre and focal point M1 correct substitution into formula or correct answer M = v/u = 60/20 = 3 (b)(ii) M1 correct substitution into formula:

M2

Answer with correct unit f = 15 cm = 0.15 m

(b)(iii)

M1: M2:

P = 100/f = 100/15 Answer with correct unit: = 6.67 D Parallel light rays from the hot sun at infinity pass through a convex lens// labeled diagram Light rays are focused after passing through the lens // labeled diagram Light rays are converged onto a focal point of the lens At the point, the intensity of lights is great (and the light energy) causes an increases in temperature. When the spot on the paper become hot enough, the paper start to burn // light energy change to heat energy. Aspect Reason Focal length is longer // eyepiece must be more longer focal length than objective lens Focal length is shorter / objective lens must be powerful lens than eyepiece lens// Objective lens must be shorter focal length than eyepiece lens. To produce bigger image from the eyepiece // to increase the magnification To produce real, inverted and magnified image Focal length of eyepiece is longer than objective lens, distance between lenses is greater than (fo + fe), and the position of the specimen is between fo and 2 fo

(c)

M1:

M2: M3: M4:

Low power of eye piece High power objective lens Distance between lenses : >fo + fe Position of the specimen : fo< u < 2fo The most suitable is : microscope M

Question 12 Answer: (a) frequency (b) 1 High pitch, high frequency / pitch directly propotional to frequency 2 frequency is inversly propotional to wave length // high frequency has shorter wave length 3 Short / high f / high pith at C, will diffract / spread out/ bend less 4 Sound easily diffracted / bending / spread out during low pitch/ low f/long / at (c) Reason Receive more signal Signal are focused/converged to the receiver Has high frequency / high energy The signal is not blocked / easy to be High detected Choose K because Because it has large diameter, Same as focal length, use microwave and locate at high position. Characteristic Large diameter Same as focal length Microwave A,B,C

(d)(i) v = 2s/t = (2 x 90)/0.12 = 1 500 m/s (i) V = f = 1 500/50 000 = 0.03 m = 3 cm TOV 2 SPM FORMAT SET 2

4531/2 SECTION A

QUESTION 5 No a b c Answer Scheme The size of the coin in Diagram 6.1 < Diagram 6.2 Refraction of light wave Light travels from water to air // denser to less dense medium Light is refracted away from normal line The image is seen bigger and closer to the observer eye n = rd/ad = H/h h = 16/(4/3) = 12 cm Use liquid with bigger refractive index Mark 1 2 3

d e

2 1

QUESTION 6 No a(i) a(ii) b(i) b(ii) b(iii) c Answer Scheme Kinetic energy to electric energy Rotating coil will cut the magnetic flux Emf is produced The commutatorwii ensure the current flow in one direction The ratio Np : Ns is 6 : 1 diode Capacitor Reason : it can store and discharge charges Copper wire // laminated iron core Reason : good conductor // reduce eddy current Mark 1

3 1 1 2 2

QUESTION 7 No a Answer Scheme Temperature increases Pressure increases b When temperature increases, the average kinetic energy increases Rate of collision also increase Rate of change of momentum increase Force exerted on a unit of surface area increase c) P1 = 200 kPa T1 = 273 + 30 = 303 K P2 = 225 kPa T2 = (T1P2)/ P1 = (303 x225) /200 = 340.875 K d(i) d(ii) d(iii) More Able to support greater mass // heavier load Grips efficiently 1 1 1 3 3 Mark 2

QUESTION 8 No Answer Scheme Mark

(a) (b)

Concave mirror 1. Object between F and pole of mirror 2. Light parallel to principal axis reflected to F 3. Light through C reflect back original path 4. Extend the lines to back of mirror and draw a virtual image Concave

1 4

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

(c)(i)

To focus light Big size

(ii)

To collect and reflect more light At focal point of the mirror

(iii)

Light/energy will focus after light reflected Z

(iv) 12QUESTION 9 No a(i) Answer Scheme Real image is an image which can be formed / projected on a screen. object distance in 9.1 is shorter than 9.2 Size of image formed in 9.1 is bigger than in 9.2 a(ii) Image distance in 9.1 is smaller /shorter The shorter the object distance, the bigger the size of the image formed When the object distance is shorter, the magnification scale is bigger. 5 Mark 1

b

4

P

No 1. 2. 3. 4.

Answer Scheme Object is placed between F and P Parallel light ray from top of object to mirror and reflected to F Light ray from top to mirror and reflected back to C Extrapolation of both rays and its intersection behind the mirror and an upright image is drawn. suggestion Use higher power bulb The filament of the bulb is at the focus point of the concave mirror More curvature lens between f and 2f Increase the distance / further away the screen Explanation Higher intensity of light / more light produced. The light ray focuses to one point. Increase the intensity. To produce real and enlarge / bigger images. Larger image produced

Mark

d

10

QUESTION 10 No Answer Scheme Mark

10

(a)

Monochromatic light: light of one frequency / wavelength / colour In figure 10.1(a), distance between the double slit and screen, D is smaller In figure 10.1(b), distance between two successive bright fringes, x is smaller In figure 10.1(b), the number of fringes is bigger / more fringes In figure 10.1(b), the width of fringes is smaller / narrower When the distance between the double slit and screen, D increases, the distance between two successive fringes, x increases. Microwaves are transmitted by the radar the radar transmits the signal towards the aeroplane it detects the reflected signal from the aeroplane t seconds later. calculate the distance of aeroplane from the radar,s by using formula s = vt/2, where v is the speed of microwaves in air.

1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 4

(b)

(c)

No

Answer Scheme

Answer Scheme

Modification Shape of the boat is streamline Material used is strong Uses ultrasonic waves Put fish in a polisterine box containing ice Made of fiber glass / less dense material

Explanation To reduce the water resistance / drag Can withstands high water pressure

Have high energy / sounds can travel at further distance Ice has larger latent heat / ice can absorb a large quantity of heat from fish as it melts / fish can be kept at a low temperature for an extended period of time The boat is lighter 10 TOTAL 20

QUESTION 11 No Answer Scheme Mark

11(a)

Volume = area x height 1st : pressure of air is inversely proportional to the volume of air 2nd : the pressure inside the air bubbles is equal to the water pressure which is high at the bottom

1

(b)

3rd : so the volume of air bubbles is small. 4th : as air bubble goes up to the surface, the pressure decreases., so the volume of air bubbles increases. 1st : safety valve is needed 2nd : to releases extra steam so that the pressure is the cooker does not reach a dangerous stage

4

(c)

3rd : Thickness of the pot is high 4th : to withstand high pressure 5th : specific heat capacity of the pot is low

10

No

Answer Scheme

Mark

6th : heats up quickly and food will be cooked faster 7th : specific heat capacity of the handle is high 8th : heats up slowly and can be held with bare hands 9th : K is chosen 10th : Reasons: It has a safety valve, high thickness, low specific heat capacity of the pot, high specific heat capacity of the handle 1st : P1= 75 cm Hg, V1 = 10 cm 2nd : P2 = 75 + 3 = 78 cm Hg (d) 3rd : P1V1 = P2V2 4th : (75)(10) = (78) (V) 5th : V2 = 9.62 cm TOTAL 20 5

QUESTION 12

Exercise

No a b

c

Answer Scheme The force that gravitation exerts upon a body Stone is denser than water When the stone is immersed in the water , it experienced buoyant force, F The tension which is the reading of spring balance, T = W-F Archimedes Principle i. 4.4.kg ii. (44-36) = 8 N iii. F = Vg V = F/(g) = 8/(103 x 10) = 8x10-4 m3 Characteristics Denser material Large diameter of bulb Long hydrometer Glass hydrometer Explaination So the hydrometer stand up right Displaced more acid// stay floating To measure wide range of density of acid Does not react with acid

Mark 1 4

5

d

10

The best choice is U because it is denser material, large diameter of bulb, long hydrometer and glass hydrometer

SECTION III UNDERSTANDING (Paper 2 Section B and C)Question 1 [ Introduction to Physics ] 1. Consistency is the ability of the instrument to give the same readings close to each other when repeated measurement are done 2. each measurement with little deviation among readings/ draw diagram bulls eye target. 3. Accuracy is the ability of an instrument to give a measured reading to the actual reading. 4. The value determined is accurate if it is near to the actual value/ draw diagram bulls eye target. Question 2 [Forces and Motion] 1. 2. 3. 4. Fuel burns in the combustion chamber Hot gases expelled at high speed / high momentum A large downwards momentum is produced The rocket gains upwards momentum of equal magnitude.

Question 3 [Forces and Motion (i) Elasticity is the property of matter to return back to its original size or shape when the force that acting on it is removed (ii)1. There are two types of force; attraction and repulsive force between the particles of the solid.

2. 3. 4. 5.

When the solid is stretched, the molecules displaced away from each other Attractive forces are acting to oppose the stretching When the solid is compressed, the molecules displaced closer to each other Repulsive forces are acting to oppose the compression

Question 4 [Forces and Motion]

(ii)

The force forward = friction The resultant force is zero The object move with constant velocity

Question 5 [Forces and Pressure] 1. High altitude has low density of air 2. Air molecules has low temperature / low kinetic energy 3. Less collision of air molecules with surface 4. Rate of change of momentum decreases. Question 6 [Forces and Pressure] 1. When air is pumped out , pressure inside decrease. 2. Atmospheric pressure outside is higher 3. Difference in pressure produces a forceto lift the mirror 4. Force is greater than the weight of the mirror.

Question 7 [Forces and Pressure] (a) (i) Archimedes Principle states that buoyant force equal to the weight of fluid displaced. (a) (ii) 1. Volume of air displaced equal to volume of aballoon 2. Density of air decreased as a altitude increase 3. Weight of displaced air becomes smaller 4. At certain height weight of displaced air equal to weight of the balloon. Question 8 [Forces and Pressure] 1. Hydrometer displaces water. 2. Weight of water displaced equal to weight of hydrometer. 3. The denser the liquid is, the less volume of water displaced. 4. Hydrometer will float higher. Question 9 [Heat] (i) Thermal equilibrium occurs when the net transfer of heat between two objects in thermal contact is zero. (ii) 1. Thermometer is placed in the boiling water.

2. Heat is transferred from boiling water to the thermometer 3. Thermal equilibrium between the thermometer and boiling is reached when the net rate of heat transfer is zero. 4. The thermometer and the boiling water are at the same temperature. Question 10 [Heat] 1. Molecules moving freely in random motion 2. When temperature increase, kinetic energy//velocity increase 3. Molecules strike the walls of pressure cooker more frequently The rate of change of momentum increase 4. Force exerted on the walls increase, pressure (P = F/A) increase Question 11 1. 2. 3. 4. Question 12 1. 2. 3. 4. [Heat] The specific heat capacity of the land is less than sea water. During daytime, the land warms up faster than the sea. Air above the land becomes hot and less dense, so it will rise up. The cooler air from sea moves to the land. [Light]

The air close to the surface is much colder than the air above it Light travels from denser to less dense medium Light rays refracted away from normal line and bend downward toward the surface/total internal reflection occur. The observer will see the image of the ship due to light travels in a straight line.

Question 13 [Light] 1. The parallel rays of the sun will pass through the a convex lens 2. After entering the lens, the light rays is focused at the principal focus of the lens 3. At the principal focus, the light ray is focused on one small area 4. Heat energy causes an increase in temperature, the paper starts to burn Question 14 [Waves] (i) Sonar is a reflected ultrasonic waves. (ultrasonic echoes) (ii) ultrasonic wave has a higher frequency waves , it has more energy so it can move further it do not produce noise (iii) 1. attach ultrasonic transmitter to a ship 2. use a microphone receiver to detect ultrasonic pulses 3. direct the ultrasonic pulses from the transmitter to the seabed 4. use microphone receiver to pick up the reflected pulses from the seabed 5. measure the time taken by the pulses to travel to the seabed and return 6. calculate the depth of the water using the formula

d

v x t 2

Question 15 [Waves] 1. The airplane engine produces noise which cause the air to vibrate 2. All particles in a material/matter/glass vibrate at its natural frequency 3. Due to resonance, the glass vibrate at a higher/maximum amplitude 4. Need strong glasses to withstand the effect of resonance/ the strong vibration/ high amplitude, so that it does not break easily. Question 16 [Electricity] 1. A parallel circuit can run several devices using the full voltage of the supply. 2. If one device fails, the others will continue running normally 3. If the device shorts, the other devices will receive no voltage, preventing overload damage. 4. A failure of one component does not lead to the failure of the other components.

5. More components may be added in parallel without the need for more voltage.

Question 17 [Electricity] 1. The two dry cells are connected in parallel 2. The effective e.m.f. remains the same 3. The effective internal resistance of the two cells is smaller 4. A larger current will flow through the bulb to make it brighter Question 18 [Electromagnetism] 1. When the switch is on, the soft iron core becomes electromagnet. End A becomes north pole. 2. End B becomes south pole 3. Magnet P repels from end A 4. Magnet Q attracts to end B Question 19 [Electromagnetism] 1. The (magnadur) magnets produce a magnetic field / diagram 2. The current in the wire produces a magnetic field / diagram 3. The two magnetic fields interact/combine to form a resultant / catapult field / diagram 4. Same direction of magnetic field produces stronger resultant magnetic field. Opposite direction cancel each other and produce weaker magnetic field.

S

N

Question 20 [Electromagnetism] 1. When too high current flow, magnetic field strength become very strong / wire expand 2. electromagnet pull the soft iron armature / pulled to the right by spring P. 3. release the catch, contact separate and current does not flow 4. When reset button is pressed, spring Q pulls the soft iron armature back to its original position Question 21 [Electromagnetism] (i) Ideal transformer is when the efficiency is 100% / power output equal to power input (ii) 1. When a.c. voltage is supplied to primary coil, (alternating current will flow) and the soft iron core is magnetized. 2. The magnet produced varies in magnitude and direction. 3. This causes a changing magnetic flux pass through the secondary coil. 4. An induced e.m.f. across the secondary coil is produced Question 22 [Electromagnetism] 1. Electric supply is continuous 2. Electric supply idepends on region, the region like city needs more electric supply than interior region. 3. Peak hour need more electric supply. 4. If one region black out, the source of electric supply can be taken from another region. 5. Reduce the cost. 6. Easy to manage and to repair * Choose any FOUR from the list.

Question 23 [Electronic] 1. Connect the dry cell terminal to the Y-input of CRO. 2. The Y-gain setting is recorded 3. The vertical displacement is measured = h. 4. Potential difference = ( Y-gain scale) x (Vertical displacement of direct current wave) Question 24 [Radioactivity] 1. Put the radioactive source opposite the detector 2. Detector is connected to the thickness indicator 3. Detector detect the reading of the changes in counts 4. Thickness is measured with the thickness indicator. If the reading of the detector is less than the specified value, the thickness of the paper is too tick/ vice versa Question 25 [Radioactivity] (a) Unstable isotopes which decay and emit radioactive particles / ray (b)1. Radioisotope is injected into the pipe 2. G-M tube as detector is used to find the leakage 3. Reading on detector increases when near a leakage Question 26 [Radioactivity] 1. Neutron bombarded a uranium nucleus and produced three neutral 2 The new neutron bombarded a new uranium nucleus 3. For every reaction, the neutrons produced will generate a chain reaction 4. Diagram of chain reaction

SECTION IV DECISION MAKING (Paper 2 Section A Question 8; Section C )Question 1 Characteristics Streamlined shape High strength of metal Wide base cross section area High volume of air space in the ship Structure U

Explanation To reduce water resistance To withstand high water pressure So that ship can float / prevent from overturn // ship more stable // ship not sink deeper Increase buoyant force Because it has streamlined ship, high strength of metal, wide base cross section area, high volume of air space in the ship.

Question 2 [Force and Pressure] Specification Reason Straight cut shape bottle Move faster/increase the speed The body is streamline shape Reduce air friction The angle of launching is 450 The rocket can achieve maximum distance The volume of water 1/3 of the bottle To produce optimum momentum/speed The rocket has functional fins Increase stability The best water rocket is T, because it has straight cut shape, body is streamline, angle of launching is 450 the volume of water is 1/3 of the bottle and the rocket has functional fins. Question3 [Force and Pressure] Specification With ABS

Reason To reduce jerking when it stopped immediately / can be controlled if direction changes / does not move side ways Wide tyres Better support / more stable / safer when turn Low mass Lighter, can move faster / low inertia Low seat height Lower centre of gravity / more stable C because it has ABS, wider tyres, low mass, low seat height. Question 4 Specification Reason High specific heat capacity The rate of temperature increased caused by friction is low High melting point Does not easily change in shape when the temperature is high Difficult to compress Pressure will be transmitted uniformly in all directions. Use ceramic Can withstand high temperature // less dust produced S because it has high specific heat capacity, high melting point, difficult to compress and use ceramic. Question 5 Specification Size of the tyre is large Fluids used in hydraulic system is liquid Large mass Large base area

Reason Prevent backhoe from sinking into soft ground Not easy compress compared to the gases // high power Avoid backhoe from moving Ensure that the backhoe will not collide

SULIT

21

Centre of gravity is low More stable The most suitable backhoe is M. Large tyre, fluids use in hydraulic system is liquid, large mass, large base area and the centre of gravity is low. Question 6 [Force and Pressure] Specification Reason A shape of cross section which is upper side is To produce the speed of airflow above the wings higher Than the bottom//aerofoil to be higher than the speed of air below Large area of the wing The larger the lift force Low density of the wing material Less weight// produce more upward force The higher the difference in speed of air The higher the difference in pressure P was chosen because shape of aerofoil,large area of the wing, Low density of the wing and the higher the difference in speed of air Question 7[Force and Pressure] Reason Produced bigger buoyant force / displaced more Volume of the balloon is bigger volume of air Material used for balloon is nylon Stronger / does not break easily Lighter / low mass / increase the time impact / Material used for basket is rattan reduce impulsive force Reduce the density of air / reduce the mass of air Temperature of air inside the balloon is higher in the balloon / increase upward resultant force / can carry more load The best chosen is K because volume of the balloon is bigger, material used for balloon is nylon, material used for basket is rattan and temperature of air inside the balloon is higher Question 8[Heat] Specification Specification

Reason It will not easily change into gas when absorb heat High boiling point from the engine It will not freeze during cold weather // can flow at Low viscously low temperature It can absorb a big quality of heat with small rise in High specific heat capacity temperature The metal parts of the engine will not corrode A low ability to react with metals easily K because of its high boiling point, low viscosity, high specific heat capacity and low ability to react with metals.

Question 9 [light] Specification Type of objective lens is convex lens Focal length of the objective lens is big D < f0 + fe Reason To converge the light and produce real image To get higher magnification power To get virtual and magnified image More light can be captured, the image formed is Diameter of the objective lens is large brighter Lens S because lens used is convex lens, focal length of the objective lens is big, D D < f 0 + fe and diameter of the objective lens is large.

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Question10 [Electricity] Specification Reason Thin diameter High resistance Coil wire Increase length / resistance Parallel arrangement If one panel not function, others still function High melting point Withstand high temperature G, because thin diameter, coil wire, parallel arrangement and high melting point. Question 11 Characteristics Curved shape Soft iron Explanation Produce radial magnetic field Easily to magnetized and demagnetized Can detect small current // more sensitive // can Soft spring measured small current Uniform deflection // force produced directly Linear scale proportional to current. T is chosen because curved shape, soft iron, soft spring and linear scale.

Question 12 Specification Reason Low resistivity to reduce heat loss in the cables Low density The cables will be lighter Low rate of oxidation Not easily rust / corrode Low rate of thermal expansion The cables will not expand under hot weather Cable Q because it has low resistivity, low density, low rate of oxidation, low rate of thermal expansion.

Question 13 Specification Low density of the coil Reason Lighter // less mass The rate of change of magnetic field, more High frequency of rotation current induced Use 4 diodes Full wave rectification to get a d.c Heat capacitor in the circuit To smooth the direct current obtained Circuit I because it has low density coil, high frequency of rotation, consist 4 diodes and has capacitor in the circuit

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Question 14 Specification Reason When it is doped, the conductivity of the The valency of the intrinsic semiconductor is 4 semiconductor increases Valency of 3 is used to produce hole as majority charge carrier (P type) and valency of 5 is used to The valency of the doping substance are 3 or 5 produce electron as majority charge carrier (N type) Can maintain the crystallize structure of the Size of the atom of the doping substance is almost substance / give good effect in the doping same as the size of the substance process Substance T because the valency of the intrinsic semiconductor is 4, the valency of the doping substance are 3 or 5 and the size of the doping substance is almost the same as the size of the substance. The type of pure semiconductor is silicon because it has greater power handling (not easy overheated.

Question 15 [radioactive] Specification Gamma Long half life Solid Reason Has high penetrating power Long lasting Easy to handle Does not ionize healthy cells / does not cause cell Low ionizing power mutation K is chosen because it radiated gamma ray, the half life is long, the state of matter is solid and has low ionizing power. uestion 16 [Radioactive] Specification Reason Type of ray is Alpha Stronger ionizing power Long half life Long lasting State of matter is solid Easy to handle / does not spill or evaporate Logic gate: NOT To inverse input L is chosen because type or ray is alpha, long half life, solid and use logic gate NOT

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SECTION V CONCEPTUALIZATION (Paper 2 Section A Question 5/6; Section B )

Question 1 [Force and Pressure] 1. Density of sphere A is less than B 2. Weight A is less than B 3. The weight of water displaced by A is less than B 4. The larger the weight of sphere, the bigger the weight of water displaced 5. Weight of water displaced = upthrust // When the weight of water displaced increase, upthrust increase Question 2 [Force and Pressure] (a) Density is mass per unit volume (b) i Level of the boat is higher in the sea than in the river. ii Water displaced in the sea is less than in the river. iii Density of sea water is higher than river water. (c) i The lower the density of water, the greater the volume of water displaced.

ii Weight of the boat = Weight of the water displaced(d) Archimedes principle

Question 3 [Heat] (a)(i) The temperature of air increase The volume of air increase (ii) (b)(i) (ii) (iii) The mass of air constant When the temperature increase the volume of air increase Charles Law Temperature increases, kinetic energy increases The rate of collision between molecules and wall increases/ pressure increases To keep the pressure constant, volume increases/expand Question 4 [Waves] (a) (b) Length between the two crest / trough / consecutive wave front (i) Wavelength in Diagram 4.2 is greater than 4.1 (ii) Wavelength remains constant after passing through the gap (c) Curvature of the wave pattern in Diagram 4.2 is greater (d) The greater the wavelength, the more circular the wave pattern (e) Diffraction

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Question 5 [Electromagnetism] (a) Diagram 5.1 has less number of turns compare to Diagram 5.2 Deflection of pointer in Diagram 5.1 is smaller than Diagram 5.2 (b) P = North Q = South (c) The larger the number of turns, the higher the induced current produced (d) Faradays Law (e) Increase the speed of the relative motion between the coil and the magnet // Use a stronger magnet (f) Direct Current Generator (D.C. Dynamo) //Alternating Current Generator (A.C. Dynamo) // Moving coil microphone // Transformer

Question 6 [Force and Motion] (a) The energy an object has because of its position. (b) Load in Diagram 6.1 is higher than in Diagram 6.2. Gravitational potential energy in Diagram 6.1 is higher Work done in Diagram 6.1 is greater The higher the position of the load, the greater the work done The greater the work done, the greater the gravitational potential energy // Work done = gravitational potential energy

Question 7 [Force and Motion] 1. Mass of the coin is greater than the leaf 2. 3. 4. 5. Both objects reach the ground at the same time The falling position of both objects is the same Gravitational acceleration is the same Gravitational acceleration does not depend on mass

Question 8 [Force and Pressure] 1. Reading of spring balance in the oil/Diagram 8(c) is greater than in the water/Diagram 8(b) 2. Weight lost in the water/Diagram 8(b)is greater than in oil/Diagram 8(c) // vise versa 3. Density of water is greater than density of oil 4. The greater the density of liquid, the greater the weight lost 5. The greater the density of liquid, the greater the buoyant force

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Question 9 [Force and Pressure] 1. Density of air in Diagram 9(a) is higher than in Diagram 9(b)// vice versa 2. 3. 4. The number of load in Diagram 9(a) is greater than in Diagram 9(b)// vice versa The height of the balloons in both Diagram 9(a) and Diagram 9(b) are equal When the density of the air increase, the buoyant force increase

5. As the density of the air increase, the weight of the load carried increased// . As the density of the air decrease, the weight of the load carried also decreased

Question 10 [Force and Pressure]

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The mass of the fish is the same The volume of the fishing net immersed in the water is the least in Diagram 10.3 and the largest in Diagram 10.1 When the weight of water displaced is smaller, the force needed is greater Buoyant force is equal to weight of water displaced The greater the weight of water displaced, the greater the buoyant force

Question 11 [Light] 1. Density of glass block in Diagram 11(a) is smaller than density of glass block in Diagram 11(b) 2. Refractive index of glass block in Diagram 11(a) is smaller 3. Angle of refraction in Diagram 11(a) is greater than angle of refraction in Diagram 11(b) 4. The higher the density, the smaller the angle of refraction 5. The higher the refractive index, the smaller the angle of refraction.

Question 12 [Light] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Lens K is thicker than lens J Light ray refracted more in lens K than lens J. Focal length of lens K is shorter than lens J. The thicker the lens, the greater the light refracted The thicker the lens, the shorter the focal length

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Question 13 [Light] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Distance between the double-slit and screen, D, i n Diagram 13.1(a) is smaller Distance between two successive bright fringes, x, in Diagram 13.1(b), is smaller The number of fringes in Diagram 13.1(b) is bigger The width of fringes in Diagram 13.1(b) is smaller When the distance between the double-slit and screen, D, increases, the distance between two successive fringes, x, increases

Question 14 [Waves] 1 . Number of oscillations in Diagram 14(a) is greater than in Diagram 14(b) 2. The amplitude of the wave in Diagram 14(a) is the same as in Diagram 14(b)

3 . The diameter of guitar string in Diagram 14(a) is smaller than diameter of the string in Diagram 14(b) 4. 5. When the diameter of the string increases , the frequency of the wave decreases The higher the frequency , the higher is the pitch// As the frequency of the sound decreases, the pitch of the sound also decreases

Question 15 [Electricity]

1. Diagram 15.1 connected in series and Diagram 15.2 connected in parallel2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The reading of ammeter in Diagram 15.2 is greater than in Diagram 15.1 The reading of voltmeter is the same The effective resistance in Diagram 15.2 is smaller than in Diagram 15.1 When the effective resistance increases, the current flow decreases. When the circuit is in parallel connection, the effective resistance is smaller

Question 16 [Electromagnetism] 1. The N-pole in Diagram 16(a) moved into the solenoid, the N-pole of the magnet in Diagram 16 (b) moved away from the solenoid. 2. The galvanometer pointer in Diagram 16(a) deflects to the right, the galvanometer pointer in Diagram 16(b) deflects to the left. 3. When N-pole is moved into the coil, the top of the coil is a N-pole, and tends to repel the magnet 4. When the N-pole is moved away from the coil, the top of the coil is a S-pole, and thus attracting the receding N-pole. 5. Lenzs Law which states that the direction of the induced electromotive force acts in such a way as to oppose the action which produces it

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Question 17 [Electronic] 1 2. 3. 4. 5. The bulb in Diagram 17.2 does not light up while the bulb in Diagram 17.1 lights up In diagram 17.2 the negative terminal of the cell is connected to the anode. When the anode of the diode is connected to the positive terminal of a cell, the bulb lights up When the diode is in forward bias connection, the current flow Diode allows current to flow in one direction only

Question 18 [Radioactivity] (ii). Difference: Nuclear fission involves the fission of heavy nucleus. Nuclear fusion involves the combination of light nuclei Similarities: Decrease/loss of mass after the process occurs. Neutrons are produced. E = mc2 // loss of mass/ mass defect directly proportional to the energy released .

Question 19 [Radioactivity] 1. Exponential graph 2. The time taken for the activity to become half of its initial value is constant 3. The time taken for the activity of P to be half of its initial value is constant //5 hrs 4. The time taken for the activity of Q to be half of its initial value is constant //100 s 5. Half-life

VI PROBLEM SOLVING [QUALITATIVE] (Paper 2 Section A: Question 7; Section B Question 9/10 ) QUESTION 1Suggestion Thermometer is made from transparent glass that is strong The capillary tube is made narrow and thin The shape of the thermometer is round/streamline The liquid has low freezing point Thin glass bulbs wall Reason It is not easily broken It is more sensitive It has a magnifying effect It can measure very low temperature/ not freeze at low temperature Absorb / transfer heat faster

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QUESTION 2Suggestion Aerodynamic shape / stream line/ torpedo Low density material // Strong material// high boiling point Has liquid oxygen Retro rocket /Has several stages that can slip/strip off Increase the size of combustion chamber Reason Reduce air resistance Lighter // Does not break easily// does not melt easily Boosting combustion // supply oxygen for combustion To decrease mass More space for the fuel to be burnt

QUESTION 3Suggestion Strong material Low density Streamline javelin The athlete runs with high speed /has to increase his speed/acceleration Throw at an angle of 45o / Throw with a great force Reason Do not break easily Small mass / lighter //o increase the acceleration To reduce air resistance To increase kinetic energy/energy/force/ momentum To get maximum horizontal distance of throwing

QUESTION 4Suggestion Shape of the shuttle conical shape /oval /diagram / aerodynamic Material used for shuttle feather / small mass/ low density Material used for base of the shuttle cork/ small mass/ low density Material used for the string of the racquet strong/ low elasticity High tension Explanation Allow for better / fast air flow//produce more lift force // reduce air resistance Light// high velocity/ acceleration //further distance travelled//reduce inertia // smaller mass Light// high velocity/ acceleration //further distance travelled//reduce inertia // smaller mass Not easily broken //withstand high force Short time impact// high impulsive force

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QUESTION 5Suggestion 1 2 Balloon should be large size Balloon material is made of light weight material like nylon Balloon material should also have a high melting point. The part of the balloon (the skirt) near the burner must be fire resistant /coated with fire resistant material The burner burns (liquefied) propane/gas A large fan is needed initially The basket must be made off light and flexible/safe material (e.g. rattan or cane woven) Best times to launch the balloon are early morning and late afternoon when the air is cooler Reason To create sufficient buoyant force due to greater weight of surrounding air displaced. The total weight of the balloon is less than the buoyant force//reduce weight It will not disintegrate when exposed to hot air

3

4

So that it doesnt catch fire easily

5 6

Warms up the air in the balloon To blow enough air into the balloon Prolong the collision time between basket and ground// reduce impulsive force when basket hits the ground

7

9

Cool air is denser, providing more buoyant forc

QUESTION 6Suggestion Specific heat capacity of the wok is low Thermal conductivity of the wok is high Melting point of wok is high Specific heat capacity of the oil is low Boiling point of oil is high Reason Heat up faster / temperature increase faster Can conduct heat faster Can withstand high temperature Heat up faster Will not change to vapour easily // cooking at higher temperature

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QUESTION 7Suggestion Put ice in the cointainer Add a little water to the ice Container has high specific heat capacity White container Insulator // low density Reason Ice absorbs heat out from the packet drinks. Heat transfer is faster through the heat conduction. Heat up slower. Does not absorb heat Avoid absorb heat from outside into the container // lighter

QUESTION 8Modification Concave mirror Reason Sunlight ray will converge / focus to the tank // absorb more heat Reflect more light /focus light at shorter distance// reduce energy lost Absorb more heat The temperature rise up faster Receive/collect more light

Radius of curvature is smaller Black Low specific heat capacity Bigger size

QUESTION 9Suggestion Convex mirror Large diameter strong Less thickness At the sharp corner Reason The image formed is virtual, upright an diminished Wider field view Withstand change in weather / does not break easily Avoid multiple image formed / clearer image Can reflect the light from opposite direction

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QUESTION 10Suggestion Frequency of signal is low The location of transmitter higher the number of transmitter is more / many The strength of signal is higher The distance between two transmitter is closer Reason Longer wavelength/ diffraction easier no blocking / capture more signal increase the strength of signal/ increase energy of signal / reduce energy lost during transmission have more energy / can move further increase the strength of signal/ increase energy of signal

QUESTION 11Suggestion Attach switch for each lamp Connect the metal fitting lamp to the earth wire/cable Parallel Using only 240 V light bulb Step down transformer / adapter Reason To allows each lamp to be switched on and off independently To flows electron (extra) to earth to avoid lethal shock Voltage across both bulbs is 240 V / if one bulb blows another bulb can still function. To ensure the bulbs light up with normal brightness Reduce the voltage from 240 V to 12 V.

QUESTION 12Suggestion Soft spring Small density Curve in shape of the magnet copper coil Place the seismometer in direct contact with the earth Reason Give a greater sensitivity/ can detect small changes Small mass / light Radial magnetic field, create uniform strength of magnetic field around the coil To reduce energy loss / Low resistance material of the coil to convert very small motions of the earth into electrical signals

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QUESTION 13Suggestion OR gate Thermistor At R1 and R2 Replace the lamp or at the collector circuit Relay switch Reason The gate's output is ON if either one sensor is ON Resistance decrease when temperature increase Base voltage increase, when the temperature increase. Base current flows, collector current flows. Alarm will triggered. It converts the electrical signal into sound energy/ Alarm triggered when collector current flow. To switch on the alarm which is use a greater voltage

QUESTION 14Component Filament Cathode Control Grid Function To heat up the cathode Emits electrons Controls the number of electrons// control the brightness of the image on the screen Focuses the electrons into a beam To accelerate electrons to towards the screen To deflect the electron beam vertically To deflect the electron beam Horizontally

Focusing anode Accelerating anode Y-plates X-plates

QUESTION 15Suggestion Use forcep/robot Wear a mask/goggle Use a lead box/container with thick concrete Keep the exposure time as short as possible Wear a film bandage Put radiation symbol on the storage box Wear coat lined with lead Reason The distance between the source and the body is far The radiation does not penetrate our eyes To prevent radiation leakage to surroundings The body is not exposed to the radiation for a long time To detect the amount of radiation exposed To inform the users of dangerous contents of the box To protect the body from the radiation

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SECTION VII PROBLEM SOLVING [QUANTITATIVE] (Paper 2 Section C Question 11/12 )

1.

(i) impulse = mv mu = 1.5 ( -35-40) = 112.5 kg ms-1 (ii) Impulsive force = mv-mu t = 140.625 N

2.

(i) 900 N (ii) F 900 N = 1000 (2) F = 2 900 N

3.

(i) v = 18 x1000 = 5 ms-1 60 x 60 a =v u t =5 0 10 = 0.5 ms-2 (ii) F = ma = ( 202) (0.5) = 101 N

4.

(i)Spring constant P , k =F x = 0.5 Ncm-1 x Spring constant Q, k = F 12 cm

=

6N 12 cm

=

3N

= 0.75 N cm-1

5.

(i)

Buoyant force = weight of the boat V g = 250 (10) V = 0.25 m-3 (ii) Weight of the boat + weight of the load = buoyant force 2500 + WL = 1000 (4) (10)

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WL= 40 000 2500 = 3 7500 N Mass of load = 3 750 kg

6.

(i) F = 500 x 40 = 20 000 N (ii) Resultant force = 20 000 800 (10) = 12000 N

(iii) F = ma a = 12 000 800 =15 ms-2

7.

(i) F1 = F2 A1 A2 F2 = 6N ( 1.2) 0.2 = 36 N (ii) V1 = V2 A1h1 = A2h2 h2 = 1.2 (0.2) 1.2 = 0.2 cm

8.

(i) F = Vg = 1020 (2)(10) = 20 400 N (ii) Buoyant Force = weight of the boat + weight of the box 20 400 N = 15 000 + W W = 5 400N

9.

(i) Mass,m =V = 800 x 0.004 = 3.2 kg (ii) Pt = mc 2 500 (t) = 3.2 (2 000) (130) t = 332.8 s

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10.

(i) 1/f = 1/u+1/v 1/-15 = 1/20 + 1/v v = - 8.6 cm (ii) Magnification = v/u = 8.6 / 20 = 0.43 (iii) virtual, upright and diminished

11.

(i) 1/f = 1/v + 1/u 1/5 = +1/v v = -3.33 cm (ii) m = v/u =3.33/2 = 1.67 times

2 2

12.

(i)

sin = 0.75 = 48.6o (ii)

1 1 1 1 1

= 41.8 oC

(iii)

sin b = 0.9642 b = 74.6o = 15.4o

13.

(i) 4 cm (ii) 5 Hz (iii) 20 cm s-1

2 1 2

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14.

(i) Np= Vp Ns Vs = 240 12 = 20 Ratio = 20 : 1 (ii) P = IV I = 60 /12 =5A (iii) 80 = Po x 100 Pi 80 = 60x 100 Ip (240) Ip = 0.3125A

15.

eV = me v2 1.6 x 10-19 (3 x 103) = (9.0 x 10-31) v2 v = 3.27 x 107 m s-1

(i) 16. (ii) (iii)

(i) 1

1/8

3T = 3 X 8 days = 24 days (ii) 32 days = 32/8 = 4 T 10 mg 5 mg 2.5 mg 1.25 mg

20 mg

or ()4 X 20 = 5/4 = 1.25 mg

SECTION VIII A Paper 3 Section AQuestion 1 a (i) (ii) (iii) (b) & (c)

Angle of incidence / i Angle of refraction / r // sin r Refractive index of the glass block

i

sin i

r

sin r

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15o 30o 45o 60o 75o

0.2588 0.5000 0.7071 0.8660 0.9659

11o 20o 29o 36o 41o

0.1908 0.3420 0.4848 0.5878 0.6561

(d) (e)

Draw graph sinr against sin i corecltly sin i is directly proportional to sin r

Question 2 QUESTION a) (i) d increases as t increase

ANSWER

MARK 1 1

Draw a dotted line at t = 0.4 s a) (ii)

(show on the graph)

d = 0.46 m

1 (answer + unit)

Draw a tangent line at t = 0.5s Draw a big triangle (shown on the graph) 5 b) (i) PQ Gradient, m = QR = 0.7 0.31 1 (shows the working) 1 b) (ii) 2m a = T = 0.5 (correct answer + unit; 2 to 4 1 d.p.) 1 (answer + unit)-2

1 1.64 - 0 1

=

4.2051 ms

-1

(2)( 4.2051)

1 (substitution)

c) (i)

Velocity = 16.8204 ms Velocity increases as time increase

c) (ii)

1

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QUESTION d)

ANSWER Avoid parallax error by making sure the eye is perpendicular to the scale of metre rule when measuring displacement TOTAL

MARK 1 12

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SECTION VIII B EXPERIMENT (Paper 3 Section B)Question1 [Force and Motion] No (a) (b) (c) Inference Hypothesis i. Aim ii. Variables The force affects the acceleration The greater the force, the greater the acceleration To investigate the relationship between the force and the acceleration Manipulated variable Responding variable Fixed variable iii. List of apparatus and materials : Force. F (weight of the load) : acceleration, a : Mass of the trolley, m Answer

A trolley, runway, ticker- timer, ticker-tape, power supply,metre rule and wooden block

States the workable arrangement of the apparatus

a.c power supply Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram.

Set up

States the method of controlling the manipulated variable Use load of F = 0.5 N to pull the trolley down the runway.

States the method of measuring the responding variable Switch on the power supply and release the trolley. Cut the ticker tape into 5-tick strips and a tape chart for the motion of the trolley is made.

Calculate the acceleration of the using a

v u t and record the data.

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No

Answer Repeat the experiment at least 4 times Repeat the experiment by using F = 1.0 N, 1.5 N, 2.0 N, 2.5, N and 3.0 N.

Tabulating of data Force, F/ N 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 acceleration , a /cms-2

State how data will be analysed Plot graph of acceleration against Force a/cms-2

F/N

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QUESTION 2 (FORCE AND MOTION) No (a) (b) (c) Answer Inference hypothesis i. Aim ii. Variables The mass affects the acceleration The greater the mass, the smaller the acceleration To investigate the relationship between the mass and the acceleration Manipulated variable Responding variable Fixed variable : mass. m : acceleration, a : Mass of the trolley, m

iii. List of apparatus and materials

A trolley, runway, ticker- timer, ticker-tape, power supply,metre rule and wooden block

States the workable arrangement of the apparatus

a.c power supply the apparatus as shown in the diagram. Use load of F = 0.5 N to pull the trolley down the runway.

Set up

States the method of controlling the manipulated variable Use trolley with the mass, m = 500 g

States the method of measuring the responding variable Switch on the power supply and release the trolley. Cut the ticker tape into 5-tick strips and a tape chart for the motion of the trolley is made.

Calculate the acceleration of the using a

v u t and record the data.

Repeat the experiment at least 4 times

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No

Answer Repeat the experiment by using m = 1000 g, 1500 g, 2000 g and 2500 g Tabulating of data Mass, m/ g 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 acceleration , a /cms-2

State how data will be analysed Plot graph of acceleration against Mass a/cms-2

m/g

Question3 [Force and Motion] No (a) (b) (c) Answer The speed affects the position of the driver when the car stops suddenly The greater the speed, the longer the distance to stop To investigate the relationship between the speed and the distance Manipulated variable speed) Responding variable Constant variable iii. List of apparatus and materials : the height , h (the more the height, the greater the

Inference Hypothesis i. Aim ii. Variables

: the distance, s : the mass, m

runway, load, trolley, ticker timer and ticker tape, power supply, metre rule.

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No Labeled diagram:

Answer

Inclined planeh

s

Measure the height, h =10.0 cm of the inclined plane from the surface. Let the trolley moves down the inclined plane. h Calculate the speed of the trolley, v from the ticker tape obtained. s Measure the forward distance of the load, s Repeat the experiment with h = 15.0 cm, 20.0 cm, 25.0 cm, 30.0 cm and 35.0 cm. height, h / cm 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 The graph(axis) of s against v or h is drawn TOTAL speed, v (cms-1) Forward distance, s (cm)

Question 4 [Force and Motion] No (a) (b) Answer The compression of the spring affects the vertical distance of the projectile The greater the compression of the spring, the greater the vertical distance of the projectile To investigate the relationship between the compression of the spring and the vertical distance of the projectile Manipulated variable Responding variable Fixed variable iii. List of apparatus and materials : compression of the spring. x : vertical distance of the projectile, a : Mass of the ping pong ball, m

Inference hypothesis

(c)

i. Aim ii. Variables

A spring, ping pong ball,metre rule

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No

Answer

States the workable arrangement of the apparatus

Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram. States the method of controlling the manipulated variable Compress the spring, x = 1.0 cm with the ping pong ball

States the method of measuring the responding variable Release the ping pong ball Measure the maximum distance of the ping pong ball, h using metre rule.

Repeat the experiment at least 4 times Repeat the experiment by using x = 1.5 cm, 2.0 cm, 2.5, cm and 3.0 cm.

Tabulating of data Compression of the spring, x/ cm 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 vertical distance of the projectile , h /cm

State how data will be analysed

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No Plot graph of h against x h/cm

Answer

x/cm

Question 5 [Force and Pressure] No (a) Answer Inference State a suitable inference The pressure exerted on the surface depends on the area of contact. Hypothesis (b) (i) Aim State a relevant hypothesis When the area decrease, the pressure increases State the aim of experiment To investigate the relationship between the area of contact and pressure (depth of hole). (ii) Variables State the suitable manipulated variables and responding variable (Quantity that can be measured) Manipulated variable : Area of contact object. Responding variable : pressure exerted (depth of hole) State the constant variable Force applied (using 1 kg load) (iii) List of Apparatus and Materials State the complete list of apparatus and materials Vernier caliper, soft plasticine, ruler, Load 1 kg, the object with different surface area but same weight. Draw the functional arrangement of the apparatus

(c) ( i )

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No

Answer State the method to control the manipulated variable Measure the bottom area of the wooden block with vernier caliper/ruler, A 1 cm . Place the wooden block on the plasticine. Place the 1 kg load on the top of the wooden block. State the method to measure the responding variable Remove the load and wooden block. Measure the depth of hole using vernier caliper and record it. Repeat the experiment at least 4 times with the values Procedure 2 and Procedure 3 are repeated using A2,A3,A4,and A5 (Note : Based on SPM standard , at least five manipulated values required.) State how the data tabulated with the title MV and RV Area of contact/ cm A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 State how the data is analysed, plot a graph RV against MV Depth,x/mm2 2

Depth,x /mm

(v)

Area of contact,A/ cm

2

Question 6 [Force and Pressure] No Inference (a) (b) ypothesis State a suitable inference The pressure of liquid is depends on the depth State a relevant hypothesis The pressure of liquid increases as its depth increases. (c) (ii) Aim State the aim of experiment To investigate the relationship between the pressure and depth. (ii) Variables State the manipulated variable and the responding variable Manipulated : Depth, h Responding : The pressure of liquid, P (difference of length of the liquid in Answer

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No manometer, y)

Answer

State ONE variable that kept constant The density of liquid (iii) List of Apparatus and Materials Complete list of apparatus and materials Tall beaker, thistle funnel, manometer, metre rule Arrangement of apparatus :

State the method of controlling the manipulated variable 1. 2. Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram. Immerse the thistle funnel into the water until depth, h = 6.0 cm

State the method of measuring the responding variable 3. Measure the difference of length of the liquid in manometer, y by using ametre rule.

Repeat the experiment 4. Repeat the experiment using h = 8.0 cm, 10.0 cm, 12.0 cm and 14.0 cm. Tabulation of data: h, cm 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 difference of length of the liquid in manometer, y / cm

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No Analyse the data . y/ cm

Answer

Depth, h / cm

Question 7 [Heat] No Inference (a) State a suitable inference The type of fin affects the absorption of heat energy. Answer

(b)

Hypothesis

State a relevant hypothesis The smaller the specific heat capacity, the less the time taken to increase the temperature of the water in the tank

(c)

(i)

Aim

State the aim of experiment To investigate the relationship between the specific heat capacity and the time taken to increase the temperature

(ii) Variables

State the manipulated variable and the responding variable Manipulated : The specific heat capacity, c Responding : increase the temperature,

State ONE variable that kept constant time taken to increase the temperature, t Complete list of apparatus and materials 5 different material of 1 kg of metal block with different specific heat capacity, thermometer, ac power supply, heater, oil, felt, stop watch

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No Arrangement of apparatus :

Answer

State the method of controlling the manipulated variable 1. 2. Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram. Measure the initial temperature of the aluminium block, T1

State the method of measuring the responding variable 1. 2. 3. Switch on the power supply and simultaneously start the stop watch Switch off the power supply after 5 minutes and record the maximum temperature, T2 using the thermometer. Calculate the change in temperature, = T2 - T1

Repeat the experiment 4. Repeat the experiment using copper, glass, plumbum and steel blocks with different specific heat capacity.

Tabulation of data: solid block specific heat capacity, c (J kg o -1 C )-1

, C

o

aluminium copper glass plumbum steel Analyse the data . , Co

specific heat capacity, c (J kg

-1 o

C )

-1

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Question 8 [Heat] No Inference (a) State a suitable inference The rate of cooling of an object depends on its volume//mass. Answer

(b)

Hypothesis

State a relevant hypothesis The rate of cooling of water increases as its volume//mass decreases.

(c)

(ii)

Aim

State the aim of experiment To investigate the relationship between the rat e of cooling of water and its volume//mass.

(ii) Variables

State the manipulated variable and the responding variable Manipulated : volume //mass of water Responding : Rate of cooling

State ONE variable that kept constant Initial temperature / Final temperature

Complete list of apparatus and materials Beaker 250 cm , measuring cylinder, water, electric heater.stopwatch, thermometer, triple beam balance.3

Arrangement of apparatus :

State the method of controlling the manipulated variable 5. 6. 7. Apparatus is set as shown in the above figure. o Water is heated to 55 C. 3 50 g // 50 cm of water is placed in a 250 ml beaker with a thermometer immersed in the water.

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No

Answer

State the method of measuring the responding variable 8. The stopwatch is started when the temperature of the water is at 50 C. The o stopwatch is stopped when the temperature reaches 35 C. The time, t is recorded.o

Repeat the experiment at least 4 times 5. The experiment is repeated using mass of water...................// volumes of water 3 3 3 3 100 cm , 150 cm , 200 cm and 250 cm .

Tabulation of data: Mass, m (g) 50.0 100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0 Time, t (s)

Analyse the data . Time, t (s)

Mass, m (g) Total marks12

Question 9[HEAT] No (a) Answer Inference State a suitable inference The volume of gas depend on its temperature (b) Hypothesis State a relevant hypothesis .The volume of gas increases as its temperature increases (c) (iii) Aim State the aim of experiment To investigate the relationship between the volume of gas and its temperature.

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No (ii) Variables

Answer State the manipulated variable and the responding variable Manipulated : Temperature Responding : The volume of gas State ONE variable that kept constant Mass of gas

List of Apparatus and material

Complete list of apparatus and materials Capillary tube, thermometer, water, metre rule and sulphuric acid Arrangement of apparatus :

State the method of controlling the manipulated variable 9. Apparatus is set as shown in the above figure. 0 10. Water is heated to 30 C. State the method of measuring the responding variable 11. The vertical column of trapped air is measured by using metre rule.

Repeat the experiment at least 4 times 4. The experiment is repeated using the temperature 40 C, 50 C, 60 C and 70 C.0 0 0 0

Tabulation of data: Temperature, T ( C) 30 40 50 60 70 Analyse the data .o

Volume of gas, V (cm )

3

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No Volume of gas

Answer

Temperature Total 12

Question 10 [Light] No Inference State a suitable inference The image distance/size of image depends on the object distance Answer

(a)

Hypothesis

States a relevants hypothesis The longer the object distance, the smaller the image distance/size of image

(b)

Aim

State the aim of experiment To study the relationship between the object distance and the/image distance// the height of the image

(c )

(Variables

State the manipulated variable and the responding variable Manipulated variable Responding variable : Object distance, u : image distance, v // height of the image

State ONE variable that kept constant Fixed variable : The power of the lens.

Complete list of apparatus and materials Convex lens, meter rule, screen, lens holder, object

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No

Answer

States the workable arrangement of the apparatus

States the method of controlling the manipulated variable The object distance is measured to be u = 20.0 cm. States the method of measuring the responding variable The image distance // the height of the image that formed on the screen is measured using the meter rule. Repeat the experiment at least 4 times The experiment is repeated by using different values of u = 25 cm, 30 cm, 35 cm, 40 cm dan 45 cm. Tabulating of data The object distance, u (cm) 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 State how data will be analysed Plot graph ofobject distance against the image distance // the height of image Graph of v against u The image distance // The height of image(cm) The image distance, v (cm)

The object distance, u (cm)

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Question11 [Waves] No 1 (a) Answer The color of monochromatic light affects the distance between two consecutive fringes The greater the wavelength, the greater the distance between two consecutive fringes To investigate the relationship between the force and the distance between two consecutive fringes Manipulated variable Responding variable Fixed variable : the wavelength, : the distance between two consecutive fringes : the distance between the source of monochromatic light to the screen, D

Inference

(b)

hypothesis

(c)

iv. Aim v. Variables

vi. List of apparatus and materials

A power supply, monochromatic light source of different colors, single slit, Youngs double slits, screen, meter rule States the workable arrangement of the apparatus

Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram.

States the method of controlling the manipulated variable Use red color of light with the wavelength, 1

States the method of measuring the responding variable Switch on the power supply and observe the alternately bright and dark fringes Measure the distance between 2 consecutive bright fringes, x and record the data

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No

Answer Repeat the experiment at least 4 times Repeat the experiment using 4 different colors with different wavelength, 2 , 3, 4 and 5 Tabulating of data wavelength, (m) 1 2 3 4 5 The distance between two consecutive fringes, x (cm)

State how data will be analysed Plot a graph of x against The distance between two consecutive fringes, x (cm)

Total 12 The wavelength, (m)

Question 12 [Waves] No 1 (a) (b) (c) Answer The displacement of the string affects the loudness The greater the displacement of the string, the greater the amplitude To investigate the relationship between the displacement of the string and the distance between two consecutive fringes Manipulated variable Responding variable Fixed variable : the displacement of the string, d : the amplitude, x : the tension of the string

Inference hypothesis Aim

Variables

A stretched string, a microphone, a CRO

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No

Answer

vii. List of apparatus and materials

States the workable arrangement of the apparatus

Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram. States the method of controlling the manipulated variable Use red color of light with the wavelength, 1 States the method of measuring the responding variable Switch on the power supply and observe the alternately bright and dark fringes Measure the distance between 2 consecutive bright fringes, x and record the data Repeat the experiment at least 4 times Repeat the experiment using 4 different colors with different wavelength, 2 , 3, 4 and 5 Tabulating of data displacement of the string 1 2 3 4 5 State how data will be analysed Plot a graph of x against The displacement of the string, x (cm) The distance between two consecutive fringes, x (cm)

Total 12 The wavelength, (m)

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Question 13 (Electric)No Inference (a) (b) hypothesis Aim Variables Answer Brightness/Current depends on the thickness/diameter/cross sectional area of the wire The current I increases when the diameter of the wire increase To investigate the relationship between current and the diameter of a wire

(c) (i)

Manipulated variable : diameter of the wire Responding variable : current viii. Fixed variable : the length of wire List of apparatus and materials Dry cells, voltmeter, ammeter, conductor wire, switch

(iii)

Procedure

A

(iv)

V

(v)

Use conductor wire with diameter of, d = 0.2mm. Record the reading of the ammeter and tabulate the data. Repeat the experiment using d = 0.4mm, 0.6mm, 0.8mm and 1.0mm

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No

Answer

(vi)

Diameter/mm 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 A

Current/A

Current/A

(vii)

Diameter/mm

TOTAL 12

No Inference hypothesis

Answer Inference : The heating effect of a conductor is affected by the current. Hypothesis : The larger the current, the higher the temperature of the water which is being heated Aim : Variable: To investigate the effect of current on heating

Aim

Variables

MV : current ,I RV : temperature , Constant Variable : volume of water , inertial temperature of water

List of apparatus and

Beaker, ammeter, immersion heater, thermometer, connecting wire, rheostat and stop watch

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No materials Arrangement of apparatus:

Answer

Procedure

Pour 200cm3 of water into the beaker and measure its temperature. Switch on the circuit and adjust the rheostat until the reading of ammeter is 1.0 A.

The stop watch is started. The final temperature is recorded after 2 minutes. Step repeated by adjusting the rheostat so that the ammeter readings are 2.0 A, 3.0 A, 4.0 A and 5.0 A. Tabulation of data Current, A Increase in temperature, C

Analysis of data. Sketch the graph of increase in temperature against current. TOTAL 12

Question 15 (Electromagnet)No 15(a) (b) Inference Hypothesis: Answer The number of dry cells affects the movement of the hammer The bigger the current flow , the stronger the electromagnet (the more the number of pins attracted)

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Aim :

To investigate the relationship between the electric current and the strength of the electromagetic Answer

No

No Variables

Answer Variables : Manipulated : electric current flow, I Responding :the number of pins attracted, n Constant Variable: Thenumber of turns of the coil

List of apparatus Arrangement of apparatus: (labeled diagram)

Solenoid, large iron nail, iron pins,ammeter , rheostat and power supply.

Control of Manipulated Variable :

Wind the insulated wire around the large iron nail with 50 coils . Switch on the circuit and adjust the rheostat until the current flow I = 0.5 A

Measurement of Responding Variable :

Bring the container filled with iron pins until it touches the solenoid Record the number of iron nails attracted by the solenoid, n Repeat the experiment with I = 1.0 A, 1.5 A, 2.0 A and 2.5 A with a constant number of turns. Tabulation of data Electric current, I (A) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Analysis of data. Sketch the graph of n against I TOTAL 12 No of nails attracted

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(b)

Answer Hypothesis: The bigger the current flow , the stronger the electromagnet (the more the number of pins attracted)

No

1 (c) Aim : To investigate the relationship between the electric current and the strength of the electromagnetic Variables : Manipulated : electric current flow, I Responding :the number of pins attracted, n Constant Variable: Thenumber of turns of the coil List of apparatus :Solenoid, large iron nail, iron pins,ammeter , rheostat and power supply. Arrangement of apparatus: (labeled diagram) 1 1 1 1

1

Control of Manipulated Variable : Wind the insulated wire around the large iron nail with 50 coils . Switch on the circuit and adjust the rheostat until the current flow I = 0.5 A Measurement of Responding Variable : Bring the container filled with iron pins until it touches the solenoid Record the number of iron nails attracted by the solenoid, n Repeat the experiment with I = 1.0 A, 1.5 A, 2.0 A and 2.5 A with a constant number of turns. Tabulation of data Electric current, I (A) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 1 No of nails attracted 1 1 1

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Analysis of data. Sketch the graph of n against I TOTAL 1 12

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