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  • DR. AHMAD RIADZ BIN MAZELI

    Unit Kesihatan Alam Sekitar

    Bahagian Kawalan Penyakit

    18 Julai 2012 1

    RADIOLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

    (RIA) and TRENDS IN ENVIRONMENTAL

    HEALTH

  • Tentative

    2

    1. Ringkasan RIA

    2. Jangkaan Dalam RIA

    3. Contoh Isu Semasa Berkaitan RIA

    i. Lynas

    ii. NPP

    4. Kesimpulan

  • 3

  • Di Malaysia, jika mendirikan kilang untuk memproses bijih dan galian mengandungi Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials

    (NORMs), RADIOLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (RIA) perlu dijalankan

    Laporan perlu diberikan kepada Lembaga Perlesenan Tenaga Atom [ATOMIC ENERGY LICENSING BOARD (AELB)] untuk dinilai dan kelulusan

    Kepakaran : Agensi Nuklear Malaysia & Juruperunding swasta

    4

  • Akta Perlesenan Tenaga Atom (Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 [Act 304] ) DEALING WITH RADIOACTIVE REQUIRES A VALID LICENSE

    Atomic Energy Licensing (Basic Safety Radiation Protection) Regulations 2010 DOSE CRITERIA

    LEM/TEK/30 SEM.2, September 1996 DESCRIBES RIA SCOPE

    5

  • 6

    NO ACT 304 & REGULATIONS REMARK

    1. Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)

    Section 12(1)(b) requirement of license Section 13 classification of licences Section 16 application of licence Section 17 license conditions Section 18 security for licences Section 22 cancelation or suspension of licence Section 23 renewal of licence Section 25 protection of workers Section 26 29 disposal of radioactive waste Section 30 transportation of radioactive waste Section 40 penalty

    2. Radiation Protection (Licensing) Regulations 1986

    Regulation 4 (3), 4 (4) Class A (Miling) Regulation 7 Class D (transport) Regulation 8 Class E (import/ekxport) Regulation 10 Class G (disposal/store/decommissioni) Regulation 12 general condition obtain a licence Regulation 13 (2) application of licence (letter of intense) Regulation 14(1) & 14(3) amend or renewal of licence Regulation 15 (1) application fee and licence fee Regulation 23 information required for application to site, construct and operate (RIA) Regulation 24 information required for application to site, construct and operate a waste treatment facility

  • Class A (Miling) to site, to construct or to operate a miling

    installation

    Atomic Enegry Licensing Act 1984

    Radiation safety

    Environmental Quality Act 1974

    - Occupational & Safety Act

    1994,

    - Factory & Machinery Act

    1967,

    Petroleum Act 1984

    Environmental Impact Assessment

    Registraion of Safety Health Officer (SHO) /

    factory & machinery/ usage of pressure vessel / boiler

    Department of Environmental

    (DOE)

    Depasrtment of Safety and Health

    (DOSH)

    AELB

    Ministry of Housing and Local Authority

    - Local Government Act 1976 - Fire Services Act 1988 - Street, Drainage, and Building Act 1974 - Town and Country Planning Act 1976

    Local government authority / fire services / town planning

    MIDA Rare earth miling license Industrial & International

    Trade

    7

  • 8

    CLASS OF LICENSE

    RADIOACTIVE

    MATERIAL

    CLASS A

    NUCLEAR

    MATERIAL

    CLASS

    B IRRIDIATING APPARATUS

    CLASS C

    TRANSPORTA

    TION

    CLASS D

    IMPORT/

    EXPORT

    CLASS E

    NUCLEAR

    NSTALLATION

    CLASS F

    DISPOSAL/

    STORAGE OF

    RADIOACTIVE/NU

    CLEAR MATERIAL

    BEFORE DISPOSE

    CLASS G

    OTHERS

    CLASS H

    ACTIVITY

    -Import

    -Export

    ACTIVITY -Purchase

    -Sell

    -Trade in

    -Transfer

    -Import

    -Export

    -Possess

    -Own

    -Use

    -Store

    -Handle

    ACTIVITY -Manufacture

    -Trade in

    -Produce

    -Process

    -Purchase

    -Own

    -Possess

    -Transfer

    -Handle

    -Sell

    -Store

    -Import

    -Export

    ACTIVITY -Same as

    Class A but

    For

    Nuclear

    Material

    ACTIVITY -Transport

    ACTIVITY -Same as

    Class A

    ACTIVITY -Dispose

    -Store before

    disposal

    ACTIVITY -Training

    etc

  • Menentukan sejauh mana impak radiologikal semasa Tempoh Pengoperasian sesuatu kilang / aktiviti kepada alam sekitar, orang awam dan alam sekitar

    9

  • Pengenalan kepada projek/aktiviti

    Situasi sinaran semasa

    Keadaan geografi tapak projek/aktiviti Hidrologi

    Geologi

    Meteorologi

    Keadaan projek/aktiviti setara yang sedia ada di Malaysia / negara berkenaan

    Kajian RIA proses, aktiviti, paras sinaran jangkaan

    Kesan kanser kepada manusia matematik 10

  • Sumber : Resrad 6.5, Argonne National Laboratory, US Department of Energy

  • 12

  • 100 % RADON & THORON GAS ARE DISCHARGED THROUGH STACK

    NO POLYETHYLENE LINER UNDERNEARTH THE WLP TEMPORARY STORAGE FACILITY

    LEACHED RADIONUCLIDES MIGRATED TO THE GROUND WATER WITH NO DILUTION

    A DRINKING WATER WELL IS BUILT ADJACENT TO THE STORAGE FACILITY (IN FACT, THE AREA IS NON-ACCESSIBLE TO PUBLIC)

    13

  • Physical parameter (e.g. size, depth, density, porosity, diffusion coefficient)

    Hydrological parameter (e.g. conductivity, water table depth)

    Geochemical parameter (e.g. distribution coefficient, leach rate)

    Meteorological parameter (e.g. precipitation, wind speed)

    Usage and consumption parameter (e.g. inhalation, ingestion, occupancy)

    14

  • 15

  • 16

    Subsidiary of Lynas Corporation Limited

    (Australia) Lanthanide concentrate

    80,000 tpa

    20-50 consignments of

    containers per year

    Gebeng Industrial

    Estate

  • 17

    Europe, Canada

    USA, Japan

  • 18

  • CONCENTRATE

    SEPARATION

    PRODUCT FINISHING

    Lanthanide

    Products

    Lanthanide

    Concentrate

    MINE + CRUSH

    SULFURIC ACID

    CRACKING &

    LEACHING

    Lanthanide Ore

    Residue (IOM)

    Mt Weld, Australia

    Advanced Materials

    Plant, Malaysia

    Sulfuric Acid

    Hydrochloric Acid

    Sodium Hydroxide

    Soda Ash

    Magnesium Oxide

    Hydrated Lime

    Waste Gas Treatment

    FGD (Residue)

    Neutralisation NUF (Residue)

    WLP (Residue)

    LYNAS: PROCESS FLOW SHEET

    The main processes involved in the LYNAS Advance Material Plant (LAMP) include:

    Lanthanide Concentrate Handling

    Lanthanide Concentrate Cracking

    Leaching

    Upstream Extraction

    Downstream Extraction

    Product Finishing

    19

  • 20

    Lanthanide Concentrates

    Lynas Plant, Malaysia

    Lanthanide Products

    Solid Residue

    NUF from water treatment

    FGD from gas treatment

    WLP Containing low-level

    natural radionuclide, 0.165% Th

    + 0.0022 % U

    Containing low-level natural

    radionuclide, 0.16% Th +

    0.0029 % U

    NUF (Neutralized Underflow Residue) , FGD (Flue Gas Desulphonation Residue) , WLP Residue (Water Leach & Purification Residue)

  • 21 NUF (Neutralized Underflow Residue) FGD (Flue Gas Desulphonation Residue) WLP (Water Leach & Purification Residue)

  • For FGD and NUF materials:

    o residue will be discharged directly into trucks parked beneath the filter press.

    o residue transfer to cells thru a loaded truck pulls away from beneath the filter press which then travel the FGD and NUF storage.

    the WLP Residue:

    o will be discharged into one dedicated truck and transfer to the WLP residue cell

    o the loaded truck will travel to the WLP residue cell along the designated truck routes

    o once within the residue cell, a rubber-tyre front-end loader (FEL) will spread, traffic compact, and contour the residue.

    Residue will need to be stored until processing and sale of materials becomes commercially viable.

    WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN

    22

  • the study covers:

    o the radiological safety assessment of exposure scenarios;

    o the critical pathways;

    o the critical radionuclides; and

    o the critical groups identified covering both internal & external exposure

    situations.

    The estimated average total doses received:

    o workers the highest dose of 5.62 mSv/yr;

    o members of the public - 0.002 mSv/y.

    wastes generated from the process:

    o WLP - appears to be slightly enhanced NORM (0.165%)

    o assessment thru RESRAD model software code:

    during the operational period - proved the expected doses to workers

    and MOP are within and not exceeding the ADL.

    SAFETY ASSESSMENT: RADIOLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (RIA) (1)

    23

  • RIA concluded and recommended:

    o the operation of the plant would not caused any radiological

    risk to the workers and members of the public living in the

    surrounding areas of the site as reported in previous RIA study

    to be given due consideration by the AELB.

    SAFETY ASSESSMENT: RADIOLOGICAL IMPACT

    ASSESSMENT (RIA) (2)

    24

  • The WLP contains NORM 0.165 % Thorium distributed in 99.835% of non-radioactive materials

    Th

    Th

    Th

    Th

    Th Th

    Th

    Th

    WLP Th

    Th

    La

    La

    La

    La

    Th Th

    Th Th

  • ARA