note for motor learning

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Note for Motor Learning Attention Dimensi Tumpuan: 1. Keluasan Tumpuan a. berkait rapat dengan bilangan stimulus yang diberikan tumpuan atau yang difokus oleh seseorang individu pada sesuatu masa dari sempit kepada luas.

Contoh: penjaga gol perlu meluaskan tumpuannya dengan menilai pergerakan lawan.

2. Arah Tumpuan a. merujuk kepada tahap dimana individu mengarahkan tumpuannya sama ada ke dalaman(perasaan & pemikiran) atau luaran (tindakan terhadap sitimulus).

Contoh: penjaga gol tadi perlu mengatasi perasaan takut dan bimbang untuk membuat keputusan yang tepat.

Attention dan Prestasi Sukan

1. Keluasan Tumpuan berkait rapat dengan bilangan stimulus yang diberikan tumpuan @ yang difokus oleh seseorang individu pada sesuatu masa ia berkisar dari sempit kepada luas 2. Arah Tumpuan merujuk kepada tahap di mana individu mengarahkan tumpuannya sama ada ke dalam @ keluar dalaman arah tumpuan kepada perasaan serta pemikiran luaran beri tumpuan yang terdapat di persekitaran @ di luar dirinya Keluasan dan Stail Tumpuan: Luas luaran Luas dalaman Sempit luaran Sempit dalaman Masalah berkaitan dengan tumpuan 1. Terlalu memikirkan @ memberikan tumpuan kepada apa yang telah berlaku 2. Terlalu memikirkan tentang apa yang akan berlaku 3. Memberikan tumpuan kepada terlalu banyak kiu di persekitaran. 4. Terlalu menumpukan perhatian kepada mekanik @ proses pergerakan sesuatu kemahiran yang telah dikuasai dengan baik

5. Gugup jika tertekan 6. Kepenatan / keletihan 7. Gangguan luaran Faktor menyumbang kepada kehilangan tumpuan kepentingan pertandingan itu sendiri saat kritikal dalam sesuatu perlawanan penilaian ke atas pemain yang dilakukan Cara atasi masalah tumpuan bicara kendiri yang positif (positive self-talk) mengunakan perkataan @ kiu untuk memfokuskan tumpuan berlatih dengan gangguan (simulasi) mewujudkan serta mengekalkan rutin memfokuskan terhadap peranan masa kini

Diskrit (motor learning)Diskrit jelas mula dan akhirannya Contoh : membaling bola, memetik sius, masuk clutch kereta, menaip - boleh dihasilkan dalam satu siri. Contoh : tekan clutch. Masuk kunci, ON, masuk gear satu, tekan minyak, kereta bergerak. Sama dengan main piano, memukul dalam baseball, servis dalam tenis, memanah. Berterusan tidak jelas mula dan akhirnya. Maklumbalas sensori : informasi yang seseorang itu terima dari derianya semasa atau selepas melakukan sesuatu pergerakan. Contoh : bila membaling sebiji bola pada satu sasaran, kita dapat merumuskan bagaimana balingan itu dilakukan, kemana bola itu pergi, bagaimana bunyi dihasilkan apabila mengena sasaran. Persoalannya, bilakah maklumkan balas itu dapat digunakan dalam mengawal perlakuan. Sekianya maklumbalas dapat diguakan untuk mengubah tindakan semasa perlakuan, ini dikenali sebagai lingkaran tertutup (closed loop) Cth. : servis dalam tenis, military press dalam angkat berat. Sebaliknya apabila maklumbalas tidak digunakan utnuk mengubah tindakan, Cuma perlu diingat dan digunakan kemudian nanti, ini dikenali sebagailingkaran terbuka (open loop) Cth. : kemahiran yang pantas, apabila keputusan telah dibuat tentang bagaimana dan bila untuk bertindak balas, pelaku mesti bertindak balas dengan cepat, pantas. Memukul dalam softball tiada masa untuk adjust apabila telah buat keputusan untuk menghayun atau memukul. Kalau miss, maklumbalas yang ada akan diguakan untuk perlakuan seterusnya.

KR informasi mengenai tindakbalas yang diperolehi dari sumber luar, seperti jurualatih, pengajar atau video. KP informasi mengenai perlakuan yang telah dilakukan. Keputusan untuk melatih sesuatu kemahiran motor itu sama ada secara menyeluruh (whole) atau bahagian-bahagian (parts) bergantung kepada sejauh mana kompleks dan pengurusan sesuatu kemahiran itu. Contoh : Megajar servis dalam tenis. - grips - stance - backswing - ball toss - forward swing - ball contact - follow through = semua sekali ada 7 bahagian. Ia boleh diajar satu persatu atau semuanya sekali. Atau boleh digabung beberapa bahagian.

In the study of human psychology, interference is a means of understanding how and why we forget certain things. Retroactive and proactive interference deal with how passage in time can affect forgetfulness.

1. Interference Theoryo

Interference theory separates memories into chronological order based on when they were made to understand how it is people have trouble recalling information.

Retroactive Interferenceo

Retroactive interference occurs when you are trying to recall something you committed to memory in the past and some similar thing you've learned since that time obstructs your ability to correctly call what you want to mind.

Proactive Interferenceo

Proactive interference occurs when you are trying to recall something you've memorized relatively recently and a separate, past memory muddles the one you wish to recollect.

Read more: Retroactive Vs. Proactive Interference | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/facts_7269925_retroactive-vs_-proactive-interference.html#ixzz1dfGFvUhi

Question Excerpt From Motor Learning Final ExamQ.1) Shooting a free throw in basketball is an example of an open motor skill.A.True B.False

Q.2)

If a motor skill requires the use of large musculature but does not require precision of movement for successful performance, then the skill would best be classified as a

A.Discrete motor skill B.Fine motor skill C.Gross motor skill D.Open motor skill

Q.3) What is the difference between motor ability and skill?A.Motor ability is a personal characteristic; skill is a task B.Motor ability is temporary; skill is enduring C.Not everyone has skill, but everyone has some motor ability D.Skill is temporary; motor ability is enduring E.They mean the same thing

Q.4) Research has demonstrated that reaction time (RT) and movement time (MT) areA.Independent motor abilities B.moderately related motor abilities C.highly related motor abilities D.none of these

Q.5)

Returning a serve in tennis is an example of which of the following types of motor skills?

A.Self-paced motor skill B.Stationary motor skill C.Closed motor skill D.Open motor skill

Which type of reaction time situation occurs when there are several signals but only Q.6) one response is to be made to one signal; and other signals are ignored and no response made?A.Simple RT B.Discrimination RT C.Choice RT D.Serial RT

Q.7) Reaction time is the interval of time between which two events?A.Warning signal and stimulus signal B.Stimulus signal and the completion of the response C.Stimulus signal and initiation of the response D.Warning signal and the initiation of the response

Q.8)

If you measure the distance achieved or the accuracy of a movement, you are measuring:

A.Performance production B.Duration C.Reaction time D.Variable time E.Performance outcome

Q.9) Measuring error helps indicate movement accuracy and alsoA.Possible causes of performance problems B.Reaction time C.Movement time D.Coordination E.Referee mistakes

Q.10) Which of these is a way to measure performance production?A.Absolute error B.Radar gun C.Stopwatch D.EMG E.fMRI

In lab 1 we used AE, VE and CE to measure performance in drawing 10cm lines Q.11) blindfolded. Which of the following would represent a subject who always drew their line short with a high error?A.High AE, Low CE, High VE B.Low AE, High CE, Low VE C.High AE, High CE, Low VE D.Low AE, Low CE, High VE

Q.12) The nerve fiber that transmits information from the neuron is known as theA.Axon B.Dendrite C.Synapse D.Myelin

Q.13) Parkinsons disease is the result of a dysfunction of which area of the brain?A.Basal ganglia B.Cerebellum C.Cerebral cortex D.Diencephalons

The area of the cortex that is commonly considered to be the location for the Q.14) transition between the perception of sensory information and the resulting action is theA.Sensory cortex B.Association cortex C.Motor cortex D.Sensorimotor complex

Q.15)

Which of the following areas of the cerebral cortex is primarily responsible for organizing movements before they are initiated?

A.Premotor area B.Parietal lobe C.Supplementary motor area D.Primary motor complex

Q.16) Which of the following is not a part of a motor unit?A.Muscle fiber B.Dendrite C.Interneuron D.Axon

E.Motorneuron

Q.17)

An important difference between the open- and closed-loop control systems is that the

A.open-loop system involves feedback; the closed-loop system does not. B.closed-loop system involves movement commands; the open-loop system doesn't C.open-loop system involves movement commands; the closed-loop system doesn't D.closed-loop system involves feedback; the open-loop system does not.

Q.18)

Which of the following types of motor control theories emphasizes the role of a memory representation in the control of coordinated action?

A.Dynamic pattern theories B.Motor program theories C.Chaos theories D.All of these

Q.19)

According to Schmidts motor program-based theory of motor control, which of the following would be controlled by the same generalized motor program (GMP)?

A.Using either hand to reach for and grasp an object B.Hitting a golf ball and hitting a pitched baseball C.Throwing a ball overhand and underhand D.Walking and running

Q.20)

A sensory neuropathy involving a limb provides a non-surgical technique for the investigation of deafferented humans.

A.True B.False

Q.21)

According to a dynamic pattern view of motor control, skilled action occurs on the basis of action units which

A.act according to motor program commands B.receive commands from a control executive C.self organize D.receive feedback as movement occurs

Al