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PINGAT EMAS Di IENA, Nuremberg German Oktober 2004 - Prof Radzali Othman dan kumpulan penyelidiknya sekali lagi mengharumkan nama USM dan pusat pengajian apabila hasil penyelidikan beliau bersama kumpulan penyelidik dari Pusat Pengajian Sains Pergigian melalui penyelidikan mereka "REKAGRAF - Reformulated Calcium Phosphate for Human Tissue Transplantation (Synthetic Bone) mendapat pengiktirafan dunia dengan merangkul pingat emas dalam pameran antarabangsa untuk idea, rekacipta dan barangan baru (International Trade Fair - Ideas- Inventions-New Products (IENA 2004) di Nuremberg German pada 28 - 31 Oktober lalu. Prof Radzali dan ahli kumpulannya berjaya menghasilkan tulang sintetik yang selamat dan mudah digunakan berasaskan bahan yang murah untuk menggantikan tulang berpenyakit yang dihidapi manusia dan haiwan. Kejayaan ini membuktikan produk tempatan mampu bersaing sehingga ke peringkat global adalah amat dibanggakan. Syabas dan tahniah dari semua warga PPKBSM. Semoga kecemerlangan ini menjadi pendorong kepada semua untuk merealisasikan hasrat universiti untuk terus gemilang hingga ke peringkat antarabangsa seterusnya mengharumkan nama univesiti dan negara. MAMIP- 2004: Pasca Siswazah: Pemangkin Penyelidikan Dan Inovasi 7-8 Oktober 2004 - Kolokium Penyelidikan Pasca Siswazah (MAMIP 2004) kali kedua telah berjaya diadakan di Hotel Vistana, Pulau Pinang. Kolokium ini telah dianjurkan oleh Pusat Pengajian Kejuruteraan Bahan & Sumber Mineral (PPKBSM) dengan kerjasama Kelab Ijazah Tinggi PPKBSM sebagai kesinambungan kejayaan kolokium pertama penyelidikan pasca siswazah yang telah diadakan pada tahun 2000 di samping sebagai salah satu aktiviti sambutan ulang tahun ke-35 penubuhan USM dan ke-20 penubuhan PPKBSM. Majlis perasmian telah disempurnakan oleh Timbalan Naib Cancelor Hal Ehwal Akademik USM, Dato' Profesor Dr. Syed Ahmad Hussein. Dalam ucapan perasmiannya, beliau telah menekankan pentingnya penglibatan golongan pelajar pasca siswazah di dalam kemajuan sesebuah negara dan ia amat berkait rapat dengan peningkatan dalam bidang penyelidikan selaras dengan tema yang dipilih iaitu Pasca Siswazah: Pemangkin Penyelidikan dan Inovasi. ENJINIER Buletin Pusat Pengajian Kejuruteraan Bahan dan Sumber Mineral Bulletin for the School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering Universiti Sains Malaysia JIL. 06 BIL. 02 No. ISSN: 1511-5275 http://www.usm.my Dis 2004 Gambar kenangan para peserta MAMIP 2004 bersama TNC Hal Ehwal Akademik Dato' Profesor Dr. Syed Ahmad Hussein

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Page 1: MAMIP- 2004: Pasca Siswazah: Pemangkin Penyelidikan Dan ... · sukaneka dan sesi malam persembahan. Sesi sukaneka berlangsung pada jam 2.30 petang di Kompleks Sukan di mana Staf diletakkan

PINGAT EMAS DiIENA, Nuremberg

German

Oktober 2004 - Prof Radzali Othmandan kumpulan penyelidiknya sekali lagimengharumkan nama USM dan pusatpengajian apabila hasil penyelidikanbeliau bersama kumpulan penyelidik dariPusat Pengajian Sains Pergigian melaluipenyelidikan mereka "REKAGRAF -Reformulated Calcium Phosphate forHuman Tissue Transplantation (SyntheticBone) mendapat pengiktirafan duniadengan merangkul pingat emas dalampameran antarabangsa untuk idea,rekacipta dan barangan baru(International Trade Fair - Ideas-Inventions-New Products (IENA 2004) diNuremberg German pada 28 - 31 Oktoberlalu.

Prof Radzali dan ahli kumpulannyaberjaya menghasilkan tulang sintetikyang selamat dan mudah digunakanberasaskan bahan yang murah untukmenggantikan tulang berpenyakit yang

dihidapi manusia dan haiwan. Kejayaanini membuktikan produk tempatanmampu bersaing sehingga ke peringkatglobal adalah amat dibanggakan.Syabas dan tahniah dari semua wargaPPKBSM. Semoga kecemerlangan inimenjadi pendorong kepada semua untukmerealisasikan hasrat universiti untukterus gemilang hingga ke peringkatantarabangsa seterusnyamengharumkan nama univesiti dannegara.

MAMIP- 2004: PascaSiswazah: Pemangkin

Penyelidikan DanInovasi

7-8 Oktober 2004 - KolokiumPenyelidikan Pasca Siswazah (MAMIP2004) kali kedua telah berjaya diadakandi Hotel Vistana, Pulau Pinang. Kolokiumini telah dianjurkan oleh Pusat PengajianKejuruteraan Bahan & Sumber Mineral(PPKBSM) dengan kerjasama KelabIjazah Tinggi PPKBSM sebagaikesinambungan kejayaan kolokiumpertama penyelidikan pasca siswazahyang telah diadakan pada tahun 2000 disamping sebagai salah satu aktivitisambutan ulang tahun ke-35 penubuhanUSM dan ke-20 penubuhan PPKBSM.Majlis perasmian telah disempurnakanoleh Timbalan Naib Cancelor Hal EhwalAkademik USM, Dato' Profesor Dr. SyedAhmad Hussein. Dalam ucapanperasmiannya, beliau telah menekankanpentingnya penglibatan golongan pelajarpasca siswazah di dalam kemajuansesebuah negara dan ia amat berkaitrapat dengan peningkatan dalam bidangpenyelidikan selaras dengan tema yangdipilih iaitu Pasca Siswazah: PemangkinPenyelidikan dan Inovasi.

ENJINIERBuletin Pusat Pengajian Kejuruteraan Bahan dan Sumber Mineral

Bulletin for the School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering Universiti Sains Malaysia

JIL. 06 BIL. 02 No. ISSN: 1511-5275 http://www.usm.my Dis 2004

Gambar kenangan para peserta MAMIP 2004 bersama TNC Hal Ehwal Akademik Dato'Profesor Dr. Syed Ahmad Hussein

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Kolokium ini telah berjaya menarik hampir100 orang peserta di dalam dan luarnegara. Lebih 100 kertas kerja telahdibentangkan meliputi bidangkejuruteraan bahan, sumber mineral danpolimer. Tiga pembentang ucaptamatelah dijemput iaitu Dr. Talib Ria Jaafardari SIRIM AMREC dengan kertas ker-janya bertajuk; Friction Materials forBraking Application, Ir. Selamat Alimandari Institut Kejuruteraan MineralMalaysia dengan kertas kerja bertajukMinerals and Sustainable Development-Cinsideration for Malaysian Needs danProf. M. Nasir daripada Universiti IndustriSelangor (UNISEL) dengan kertas kerjabertajuk Research and Development andCommercialization. Upacara penutuptelah dilakukan oleh Prof. Madya Dr.Azizan Aziz selaku Timbalan DekanPenyelidikan Dan Pasca Siswazah PPKBSMdan juga selaku penasihat MAMIP 2004.Apa yang diharapkan melalui penganjurankolokium ini telah memberikan ruangkepada para pelajar ijazah tinggi PPKBSMkhususnya bukan sahaja dari aspekpenganjuran malahan yang lebih utamaialah aspek penulisan dan pembentangankertas kerja teknikal.

Bengkel PerlindunganKatodik

27-28 September 2004 - PusatPengajian ini dengan kerjasama Instituteof Materials Malaysia (IMM) NorthenRegion telah mengadakan satu lagibengkel bertajuk Perlindungan Katodik:Prinsip, rekabentuk dan pemeriksaanyang telah diadakan di bilik seminarPPKBSM. Bengkel yang dipengerusikanoleh Prof. Madya Dr. Ahmad fauzi MohdNor ini melibatkan enam orangpembentang kertas kerja yang terdiridaripada Prof. Madya Dr. Luay BakirHussien, Dr. Hazizan Md Akil, Dr.Nurulakmal Mohd Sharif, Dr. Sunara

Purwadaria, En. Ahmad Badri Ismail danEn. Kang K. Ang daripada IMM. Sesi amalitelah dikendalikan oleh Dr. Sunara danProf. Dr. Zainal Arifin Ahmad. Bengkel inimelibatkan hampir 30 orang pesertadaripada pelbagai egensi termasuk pusatpengajian ini sendiri. Matlamat bengkel inidiadakan adalah untuk mendedahkanpemahaman yang mendalam terhadapprinsip-prinsip asas dalam perlindungankatodik, aplikasi dan faktor-faktor yangmembataskan penggunaannya. Bengkelini juga turut mendedahkan pelbagaiteknik yang menyeluruh dan terperinciberkaitan rekabentuk perlindungankatodik dan kaedah pemeriksaan yangdigunakan. Keseluruhan penyampaiandalam bengkel ini amat menarik minatpara peserta dan bagi pihak jawatankuasa bengkel turut berterima kasih diatas penglibatan yang menggalakkandaripada semua pihak.

Lawatan daripadaUniversiti Prince of

Songkhla

7-8 Oktober 2004 - Pusat pengajiansekali lagi berbesar hati menerimakunjungan daripada tenaga pengajarUniversiti Prince of Songkhla. Lawatanselama 2 hari ini dipenuhi dengan aktivitiperbincangan dalam usaha mewujudkankerjasama antara PPKBSM danUniversiti Prince of Songkhla.

Sepanjang lawatan, mereka telah dibawa melawat sekitar makmal PPKBSMdan berbincang bersama tenaga pengajardalam jurusan masing-masing. Hasilperbincangan telah menunjukkan satupersetujuan positif di mana PPKBSMakan membuat satu lawatan balas keUniversiti Prince of Songkhla seterusnyamenandatangi perjanjian persefahaman(Memorandum of Outstanding - MoU)untuk bekerjasama pada masa akandatang.

Ir. Dr. Mior Termizi Mohd Yusof

Prof. Zainal Arifin Ahmad

Encik Samayamutthirian Palaniandy

Encik Mohd Nazri Idris

Peserta bengkel Perlindungan Katodik 2004 bergambar kenangan di hadapan bangunan Pusat Pengajian Kejuruteraan Bahan dan Sumber Mineral

Prof. Hanafi Ismail(Ketua Pengarang)

Dr. Azura A. Rashid

Penolong Pengarang

Sidang Pengarang

Mohd Al Amin Muhamad Nor

Yeoh Cheow Keat

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Hari Warga StafKampus

Kejuruteraan

November 2004 - Hari warga stafkejuruteraan muncul lagi dengan tema'Keranamu Kejuruteraan' yang diadakanpada 26 November 2004. Hari warga stafini dibahagikan kepada dua sesi iaitu sesisukaneka dan sesi malam persembahan.Sesi sukaneka berlangsung pada jam2.30 petang di Kompleks Sukan di manaStaf diletakkan di bawah 9 kontigen yangdiketuai oleh Dekan atau Ketua Jabatanmasing-masing dan bertanding bagimerebut gelaran juara bagi perlbagaiacara sukaneka seperti Formula One,Sepatu Lipan, Lompat Jalur dansebagainya. Manakala sesi malampersembahan pula berlangsung di DewanUtama mulai jam 8.00 malam.Bertemakan 'Malam Senandung Aidil Fitri'membawa penonton menyaksikanpersembahan menarik oleh staftermasuk nyanyian solo. Sambil menjamuselera dan menyaksikan acarapersembahan, para penonton berpeluangmembawa pulang hadiah-hadiah menarikbagi acara cabutan bertuah.

Sempena hari warga staf ini, wargaPPKBSM ingin mengucapkan tahniahdan syabas kepada kontigen PPKBSMyang telah berjaya meraih tempat keduabagi kategori pasukan terbaik dan rakan-rakan yang memenangi acara sukaneka.Acara tahunan ini dapat mengeratkansilaturrahim antara kita dengankemeriahan yang dirasai untukmemenangi acara sukaneka dankerjasama erat dalam menghias khemahwalaupun kontigen PPKBSM tewaskepada kontigen PPKEE yang berjayamuncul sebagai pemenang khemahterbaik.

Jutaan terimakasih dan penghargaan

turut bersama menjayakan hari WargaKampus Kejuruteraan terutama kepadasemua ahli dalam Jawatankuasa HiasanDewan yang diketuai oleh Dr.MariattiJa'afar dan Jawatankuasa Persembahanyang diketuai oleh Dr.Zulkifli MohamadAriff. Kehadiran dan sokongan daripadasemua amat dihargai dan perluditeruskan pada masa akan datang.Acara tahunan ini adalah untuk meraikanstaf yang ada di samping menjalinhubungan erat sesama kita dalammerealisasikan hasrat universiti untukmewujudkan Kampus Sejahtera dapatditeruskan pada masa-masa akandatang.

Bengkel PerancanganStretegik RM-9

PPKBSM

Disember 2004 - Satu bengkelmenjana pelan Rancangan Malaysia ke-9(RM-9) telah diadakan di Hotel seriMalaysia, Kulim Kedah pada 4-5 Disember2004. Bengkel ini dihadiri oleh semua stafakademik PPKBSM bagi perbincangan danmemberi idea dalam perancangan untukRancangan Malaysia ke-9 PPKBSM.Komitmen dan tanggungjawab yangtinggi telah ditunjukkan oleh semuadalam perbincangan agenda utama iaitumerealisasikan hasrat Pusat Pengajianuntuk muncul sebagai sebuah PusatPengajian yang tersohor di peringkatglobal.

Bengkel ini merupakan salah satuusaha pusat pengajian untuk menjalinkankerjasama erat antara rakan sekerja diluar persekitaran universiti dalammerealisasikan hasrat pusat pengajianuntuk mencapai pelbagai misi. Pelbagaiisu menarik telah dibincangkanterutamanya isu penerbitan bagi setiapstaf akademik dan pelbagai isu

hasil semangat berpasukan yang tinggidan kerjasama erat antara semua.Semoga komitmen berpasukan yangditunjukkan akan diteruskan pada masaakan datang dalam usaha bersama untukpenambahbaikan PPKBSM tercinta.

Lawatan akademikKelab Ijazah Tinggi kePPKK dan InventQjaya

Ogos 2004 - Seramai 40 ahli KelabIjazah Tinggi PPKBSM telah mengadakanlawatan sambil belajar ke Pusat PengajianKejuruteraan Kimia (PPKK), USM padapertengahan tahun 2004 yang lalu.Rombongan ini telah disambut oleh kelabijazah tinggi Kejuruteraan Kimia dan telahdiberikan taklimat ringkas berkenaanprogram ijazah tinggi yang ditawarkan dipusat pengajian berkenaan. Rombonganini juga telah dibawa melawat di sekitarpusat pengajian termasuk makmalanalitikal dan makmal kawalan proses.Ahli rombongan turut diberikan taklimatberkenaan kemudahan-kemudahanmakmal yang disediakan dan beberapaaspek kawalan instrumentasi sertakaedah-kaedah analisis yang digunakansecara meluas di dalam industri.Kunjungan ini dapat memberikanbeberapa pendedahan penting danpertukaran maklumat antara sesama parapelajar ijazah tinggi.

Manakala rombongan kedua kelabIjazah Tinggi PPKBSM turut melakukansatu lagi lawatan akademik keInventQjaya pada bulan Ogos 2004dengan disertai seramai 42 ahli dan turutdiiringi Prof. Madya Dr. Azizan Aziz yangjuga merangkap sebagai Timbalan DekanPenyelidikan dan Pasca Siswazah.InventQjaya adalah sebuah pusatpenyelidikan terkini yang baru ditubuhkansekitar tahun 2003 dan beroperasi diCyber Jaya. Rombongan ini telah dibawamelawat ke makmal penyelidikan fotonik,pengangkutan termaju, teknologi nano,bahan termaju dan elektrokimia.Rombongan ini juga telah diperkenalkandengan hasil kajian yang akandikomersialkan iaitu 'Metal Fuel'. Produkini merupakan bateri inovasi baru yangdapat menggantikan penggunaan baterikonvensional sedia ada. Antarapenyelidikan lain yang telah dan masihgiat dijalankan termasuklah 'Firstelectrical hybrid metal fuelled car' yangtelah pun dapat dihasilkan prototaipnyaserta 'Eco-friendly solution for renewableelectricity for coastal home'. Setelahberakhirnya sessi lawatan, rombonganjuga telah dibawa kepada sessi perbin-cangan dua hala meliputi kerjasamadalam bidang penyelidikan serta peluang-peluang pekerjaan yang dapat ditawarkan

Kontigen PPKBSM bergambar kenangan di hari warga staf 2004

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Campus MerdekaWalk 04

Ogos 2004 - Kampus Kejuruteraantelah menjadi tuan rumah 'CampusMerdeka Walk 04' peringkat Universitipada 26 Ogos 2004 jam 5.00 petang diKompleks Sukan. 'Campus Merdeka Walk'adalah acara tahunan USM yang diadakanbersempena dengan Sambutan HariKemerdekaan Negara pada 31 Ogos2004. Aktiviti ini telah disertai olehTimbalan Ketua Menteri Pulau Pinang,Dato' Haji Abdul Rashid Abdullah,Pegawai-pegawai Utama Universiti sertalebih daripada 1,000 orang terdiridaripada staf dan pelajar.

Kontigen PPKBSM merupakan kontigenpaling ramai penyertaan pada hari'Campus Merdeka Walk' ini. Hampirkesemua staf PPKBSM bersama semuapelajar pasca siswazah dan tahun satuserta pelajar tahun 2,3 dan 4 yang tidakterlibat dalam kontigen pakaianberuniform dan desasiswa turun padangmemeriahkan acara 'Campus MerdekaWalk' ini. Kontigen PPKBSM memeriahkansuasana dengan membawa 3 kainrentang bertemakan kemerdekaan sum-bangan staf PPKBSM, pelajar pascasiswazah dan pelajar siswazah.

Acara 'Campus Merdeka Walk' bermuladengan nyanyian lagu Negara Ku, NegeriPulau Pinang, Menara Ilmu dan JalurGemilang diikuti dengan senamrobik. Parapeserta yang diletakkan di bawahkontigen di bawah pusat pengajianmasing-masing bergerak berjalan kaki di

dalam kawasan kampus dengan diiringioleh lagu-lagu patriotik. Aktiviti ini diakhiridengan jamuan makan yang disediakanoleh Pusat Islam, Kampus Kejuruteraan.Sekalung penghargaan kepada semuawarga PPKBSM yang turun padangmemeriahkan sambutan kemerdekaanyang julung kali diadakan di kampus kita.

1 Perak, 2 Gangsa diExpo Sains danTeknologi 2004

Ogos 2004 - Pensyarah PPKBSM sekalilagi mencatatkan kejayaan yangdibanggakan dalam Ekspo Sains danTeknologi 2004 yang berlangsung diPWTC. Kita berjaya meraih satu pingatperak melalui hasil penyelidikan 'FlexiTechCeramic' oleh Prof. Dr. Zainal Arifin Ahmaddan kumpulan penyelidiknya manakaladua pingat gangsa diperolehi melalui hasilpenyelidikan 'Production of light andstrong structures from recycled materialoleh Prof Madya Dr Luay Bakir Hussaindan kumpulan penyelidiknya dan hasilpenyelidikan 'DURAGLASS (DurableDurian and Rambutan Glasses) oleh Prof.Radzali Othman dan kumpulanpenyelidiknya. Jumlah pingat ini adalahsebahagian daripada keseluruhan yangpingat yang dimenangi oleh kampuskejuruteraan Universiti Sains Malaysia dipameran tersebut iaitu 3 pingat emas, 6pingat perak dan 8 pingat gangsa. Syabasdan tahniah dari semua warga PPKBSM.

Sidang Pengarang Enjinier menjemputsemua staf, pelajar-pelajar dan graduan PPKBSM memberi sumbangan rencana dan pandanganmereka kepada:

Sidang Pengarang Enjinier,Pusat Pengajian Kejuruteraan Bahandan Sumber Mineral,Kampus Kejuruteraan,Universiti Sains Malaysia,14300 Nibong Tebal.

The Enjinier Editorial Board invites allstaff, students and graduates of theSchool of Materials and MineralResources Engineering to contributearticles and views to: (Articles must benot more than 3 A4 pages font 12 single spacing)

Enjinier Editorial Board,School of Materials and MineralResources Engineering, EngineeringCampus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal.

Tales out of school

A professor at a university had a verysimple policy on grading.

"I don't fail students, " he announcedin the first class of the semester,which always brought a roar of jubila-tion.

The cheers quickly stopped when hecontinued: "But I do not pass any,either.

Students pass and fail themselves."

Ucapan Tahniah ...

di atas perlantikan sebagai Profesorkepada:

Prof. Dr. Hj. Zainal Arifin Ahmad

dan perlantikan sebagai Pensyarah Kanan / Penolong Pendaftar kanan:

Ir. Dr. Mior Termizi Mohd YusofDr. Azhar Abu Bakar

Dr. Azlan ArifinDr. Ahmad Marzio Mohd YusofEn. Mokhtar Al Fakari Anurbek

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Kejayaan Lain 2004

Seluruh warga PPKBSM inginmengucapkan setinggi tahniah dansyabas terhadap Prof. Zainal Arifin MohdIshak atas kejayaan beliau mendapatanugerah Georg Forster Research-Alexander von Humboldt FoundationGermany dan Prof. Hanafi Ismail di ataskejayaan beliau yang menerima anugerahSaintis Cemerlang 2004 - KementerianPengajian Tinggi Malaysia. Kejayaancemerlang kedua professor ini akan men-jadi contoh kepada semua warga PPKBSuntuk lebih maju di masa hadapan.

Sekalung tahniah juga diucapkankepada Prof Madya Dr Khairun Azizi danrakan-rakan atas kejayaan mereka yangmenerima anugerah dalam 'MalaysianConstruction Industry Excellence Awards2004 bagi kategori penyelidikan dan pem-bangunan (R & D) untuk produk mereka"HIQSA: High quality shape aggregates".

AUN/SEED-Net Field-Wise Seminar IV

2-3 Ogos 2004 - Pusat Pengajiankejuruteraan Bahan Dan Sumber Mineralsekali lagi telah berjaya mengadakan satulagi AUN/SEED-Net Field-Wise Seminar IV,yang bertajuk 'Processing-PropertiesRelationship in Biomaterials'. Seminar initelah berlangsung selama dua hari diSunway Hotel Georgetown, Pulau Pinangdan sepenuhnya telah ditaja olehAUN/SEED-Net dan Japan InternationalCooperation Agency (JICA). Seminar iniyang telah dipengerusikan oleh ProfesorRadzali Othman, turut dihadiri oleh sebe-las orang wakil daripada sebelas institusi-institusi pengajian tinggi di sekitarASEAN.

Sehubungan dengan itu tiga orangspeaker iaitu Profesor Hiroo Iwata,Profesor Mitsuo Niinomi dan ProfesorRadzali Othman telah dijemput untukmembentangkan kertas kerja masing-

masing. Antara objektif seminar kaliini adalah untuk berkongsi pengalamandan kerja-kerja penyelidikan antarapeserta institusi-institusi terbabitterhadap aplikasi kejuruteraan bahan dansumber mineral. Seminar ini jugabertujuan untuk menyediakan peluang-peluang kerjasamaantara peserta-peserta institusi pengajianyang terlibat di dalam penggunaan bahantermaju dan untuk menyusun semularangka-rangka perlaksanaan termasukaktiviti-aktiviti penyelidikan bersamadalam sesuatu bidang. Sehubungandengan itu seminar kali ini jugadiharapkan dapat menguatkan lagi jalinankerjasama antara peserta-peserta institusipengajian dengan Japanese SupportingUniversities (JSU) di sampingmengenalpasti skop penyelidikan untukpelajar-pelajar ijazah daripada institusipengajian yang terlibat. Dalammenjayakan aktiviti ini, pihakjawatankuasa yang terlibat turutmengucapkan setinggi-tinggipenghargaan kepada semua pihak yangtelah menjayakan seminar ini.

KEJURUTERAAN BAHAN

Tahun 1Sasikumar a/l ArumugamYeo Chiew Hwee

Tahun 2Khoor Siang TianLiew Kein FeeOng Yee Wei

Tahun 3Ho Kar FeiLim Ling ChingLim Shwu ChooLim Soo WahLoo Siaw ChoonLum Sek YewNg Mei ChanOng Ghee Mei

Tahun AkhirCho Cheong ChangChua Boon KweanFoong Yuan MeiKong Chia WeiLee Jian HueiMok Boon YongSoo Siew SuanTay Poh LeongTee Dee InVegneswary a/p Ramalingam Wong Yoke Pei

KEJURUTERAAN POLIMER

Tahun 1Lim Wei Chin

Tahun 2Ho Kar WeiLim Cheng SeeTay Min Min

Tahun 3Foo Pei MingLam Seow FongOng Soo ShinTay Lee Hwa

Tahun AkhirTIADA

KEJURUTERAAN SUMBERMINERAL

Tahun 1TIADA

Tahun 2TIADA

Tahun 3Dg. Harba Aini Abd. HalimHariyanto Salleh

Tahun AkhirEe Xun HongKhoo Wei WeiLee Siew WeeOh May Ling

SIJIL DEKAN PUSAT PENGAJIAN KEJURUTERAAN BAHAN DAN SUMBER MINERAL

SEMESTER 1 SIDANG 2004/2005

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Profesor Kunjungan kePPKBSM

Jun 2004 - Pusat pengajian telahmenerima Prof. Dr. P.Pramanik daripadaWest Bengal India yang dilantik sebagaiprofesor kunjungan di INFORMM telahditempatkan di PPKBSM bermula 28 Jun2004 selama setahun. Prof. Pramanikyang mempunyai kepakaran dalambidang bahan terutamanya bidangteknologi nano ditempatkan di PPKBSMuntuk membantu dalam bidangpenyelidikan yang berkaitan. Semogakehadiran dan kepakaran beliau diPPKBSM akan memberi manfaat kepadakita untuk terus maju terutamanya dalambidang penyelidikan yang berkaitandengan teknologi nano yang mendapatperhatian semua pihak pada masa kini.

MIMATES: PameranPusat Pengajian di

Konvokesyen USM 2004

Ogos 2004 - Persatuan MIMATES dengan20 orang anggotanya telah berjayamembuat pameran semasa majliskonvokesyen USM 2004 berlangsung yangantara lain bertujuan memperkenalkanPusat Pengajian Kejuruteraan Bahan DanSumber Mineral (PPKBSM) kepadamasyarakat umum. Tempat pameranyang disertai oleh keseluruhan pusatpengajian ini telah diadakan di dewankulian X dan berhampiran dengan tapakkonvokesyen. Keseluruhan mereka yangterlibat dalam pameran ini adalah terdiridaripada pelajar-pelajar di semuaperingkat tahun pengajian dan diketuaioleh pengarah projek Mohd Rohaidi Yusof,pelajar tahun tiga kejuruteraan bahan.Semasa pemeran ini berlangsungsambutan orang ramai terhadap pameranpusat pengajian PPKBSM amatmenggalakkan. Persatuan ini juga telahberjaya memperkenalkan tujuan pusatpengajian ini ditubuhkan termasuk bidangkerjaya yang boleh diperolehi bagiseseorang graduan daripada pusat pen-gajian ini. Antara bahan-bahan pameranyang turut diperkenalkan termasuklahpenggunaan alat-alat letupan (blasting),produk-produk simen dan mineral yangterdapat di Malaysia, bahan-bahan

seramik, barangan polimer, mesinpengaduk bahan polimer dan lain-lainbarangan berkaitan pusat pengajian ini.Para pengunjung turut diberikancenderahati sebagai kenang-kenangandaripada pusat pengajian. Bagi pihakpusat pengajian, pameran ini amatpenting dan bermakna dalam usahamemperluaskan lagi martabat pusatpengajian dan USM sendiri.

Lawatan Prof. Mutohdaripada Universiti

Nagaoka

Oktober 2004 - Pusat pengajian berbesarhati menerima kunjungan daripada ProfMutoh dari Universiti Nagaoka pada 23Oktober 2004. Lawatan beliau adalahuntuk membentangkan secara umumberkenaan penyelidikan yang dilakukan dimakmal beliau dan berbincang mengenaitopik penyelidikan yang boleh dilakukansecara usahsama antara pusat pengajiandan Universiti Nagaoka.

Agenda utama lawatan beliau adalahuntuk membincangkan penubuhan'Centre of Excellence COE workshop'bagi kejuruteraan bahan dalam aspekpendidikan dan penyelidikan yang akandiadakan pada Ogos 2005 di manaPPKBSM telah dipilih sebagai penganjurbersama dengan Universiti Nagaokauntuk bengkel COE yang ketiga yangakan diadakan di Pulau Pinang. Semogakerjasama ini akan membawa manfaatkepada pusat pengajian dan usahasamaini akan berterusan pada masa akandatang.

Pameran PosterLatihan Industri

Julai 2004 - Seramai 123 pelajar tahun 3daripada kejuruteraan bahan dan sumbermineral yang menamatkan latihan industriselama 10 minggu telah mengadakanposter latihan industri pada 7 Julai 04 didewan utama, kampus Kejuruteraan.Acara ini merupakan acara tahunan pusatpengajian bagi memberikan pendedahankepada pelajar tahun 3 untuk berkongsiinput yang diperolehi sepanjang tempohlatihan industri bersama pelajar yang lain.

Pameran poster latihan industri inimewajibkan semua pelajar memberimenerangan dalam bahasa inggeris dansetiap pelajar dinilai oleh pensyarah yangterlibat. Untuk aktiviti ini, semuapensyarah adalah terlibat dalam mene-muramah peserta dan menilai setiapposter yang dipamerkan dan sesi soaljawab yang diadakan. Acara kemuncaksepanjang pameran poster ini adalah

penganugerahan bagi 10 poster terbaik.Pada kali ini poster terbaik dimenangioleh saudari Tee De In daripadakejuruteraan bahan yang menjalankanlatihan industri di syarikat PhilipsSemiconductor. Syabas dan tahniahkepada semua pelajar yang terlibat danjutaan terima kasih kepada semuapensyarah yang turun padangmemeriahkan pameran poster ini.

UpacaraKonvokesyen USM

ke-33

Ogos 2004 - Pada upacarakonvokesyen USM ke-33, seramai 35graduan ijazah tinggi dan 148 graduanprasiswazah telah berjaya berijazahdaripada PPKBSM. Pada konvokesyen kaliini, USM mengeluarkan lebih daripada1,000 orang graduan ijazah tinggi danseramai 6,355 orang menerima ijazahmasing-masing dalam sembilan SidangKonvokesyen. Sidang Pertama yangberlangsung pada 4 Ogos 2004, jam 9.00pagi dipengerusikan oleh Canselor, SeriPaduka Baginda Raja Permaisuri AgongTuanku Fauziah binti Al-Marhum TengkuAbdul Rashid. Pada sidang ini NaibCanselor USM itu telah mengumumkanbahawa Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, 79,negarawan ulung yang memegangtampuk pemerintahan negara selama 22tahun merupakan penerima tunggalijazah kehormat USM pada tahun ini. USMmenganugerahkan Ijazah KehormatTertinggi Doktor Sains kepada beliausebagai mengenangkan jasa dansumbangan beliau dalam mempro-mosikan Sains dan Teknologi bukansahaja di dalam negara malah ke seluruhdunia.

PPKBSM pada upacara konvokesyenini telah berjaya mengeluarkan 3 graduan

doktor falsafah iaitu Dr Chow Wen Syang,Dr Razaina Mat Taib dan Dr ZulkifliMohamad Ariff yang kini menjadi tenagapengajar di pusat pengajian, 18 graduansarjana sains melalui mod penyelidikandan 14 garduan sarjana sains melaluimod campuran. PPKBSM juga telahberjaya mengeluarkan 93 graduansarjana kejuruteraan bahan dan 55graduan sarjana kejuruteraan sumbermineral. Diharapkan graduan-graduanyang dilahirkan oleh pusat pengajianmampu bersaing di peringkat globaldalam bidang pengkhususan masing-masing. Syabas dan tahniah kepadasemua graduan PPKBSM daripada wargaPPKBSM. Semoga hubungan erat antaragraduan yang telah dilahirkan dan pusatpengajian akan dapat diteruskan melaluialumni PPKBSM.

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High Temperature CuprateSuperconductor on NiO/Ni

Substrate

Zainovia Lockman and J. L. MacManusDriscoll1

1Department of Materials andMetallurgy, University of Cambridge,Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 2QZ,UK

High temperature superconductor(HTS) based on cuprate compounds (forexample YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO)) are well

known to have excellent superconductingproperties which has driven significantamount of research in this area since thediscovery in 1986. The advancement inthis field is technologically centered andapplications driven and up to date therehave been several state of the artsuperconducting devices and componentsthat have successfully been fabricated.An idealised main application forsuperconductors is of course to employthem in the transmission of commercialpower to cities as resistanceless wirecould save a lot of energy in deliveringelectrical powers to consumers. Indeed,it has been realised even though longlength production is still yet to bematerialised. For example in May of 2001some 150,000 residents of Copenhagen,Denmark, began receiving their electricitythrough HTS material. The HTS cable wasonly 30 meters long, but proved adequatefor testing purposes [1]. However, sinceHTS is really a low temperaturephenomenon (despite the name), areliable cryogenic system is required.Therefore, the savings in electrical lossescould compensate the investment for theadded complexity due to cooling to verylow temperature (liquid nitrogen boilingpoint, 77K is often used). Moreover, asmentioned, the cable industries havelimited success in producing long lengthsuperconductor cable due to thedifficulties in the fabrication process. Thishowever does not despair the industriesinvolved in HTS projects in finding otherpotential applications of superconductorsfor example by manipulating thecapability of this material to repelmagnetic field. A spectacular applicationof this phenomenon is the magneticlevitating train (Maglev). The Maglevtrain with speed up to 450km/hour hasbegun its operation in Shanghai, China inJanuary 2004. This has been one of themajor breakthroughs in the applicationfield of superconductor materials. Themovement of resistance-less electron in asuperconductor loop has created currentsof unprecedented intensities (millionsampere/cm2, copper wire carries around

thousand ampere/cm2), which in turngenerated exceptionally intense magneticfields. Applications such as MagneticResonance Imaging (MRI) has utilised thecapability of the 'supermagnet'. Thisdevice has now been widely used inhospitals.

Other equipments for the powerindustry, like transformers, generatorsand motors are now perfected to produceuseful consumer (civilian but mostlymilitary) products. These products oftenhave specific applications like shippropulsion, microwave generator, e-bomband magnetic field sensor (usingsuperconducting quantum interferencedevice (SQUID)) [1]. However, HTScompounds still present a particularlychallenging set of properties that makesthe realisation and reproducibility of highquality product is somehow problematic.Being ceramic, HTS is brittle hence thinfilm on flexible metallic substrate ispreferred and the cuprate oxides displayanisotropic conducting, meaning that theproduction of the superelectrons occursonly along the CuO2 planes (a-b axes).For this reason, the crystallographic align-ment of the crystals is the prerequisite indeveloping useful HTS devices. Thereforedespite of all of the fantastic applications,the exploration to the fabrication processof HTS ceramic superconductor stillremain active.

From late 1990s until now, researchfocus has been given to the fabricationprocesses of thin film YBCO which is asecond generation conductor that hasexcellent current carrying performanceeven when exposed to high magneticfields and high temperatures, unlike thefirst generation HTS in particular theBi-based compounds [2] [3]. Howeverone main problem is the must to growbiaxially oriented YBCO grains so thathigh critical current density (JC) can beconducted inter and intra grain withoutany loss [2]. To circumvent the problem,YBCO is often grown on a texturedsubstrate. The substrate acts as atemplate layer for the epitaxial growth ofthe superconducting film. The best YBCOfilm grown to date as determined by themeasure of the JC is epitaxially grown onseries of textured buffer layer on a socalled rolling-assisted-biaxially-texturedsubstrate (RABiTS), (100)<001> Ni andNi-alloys [4]. These multi layered systemis termed coated conductor and have eversince been accepted as a standard

industrial configuration for makingsuperconductor power devices. A typicalarchitecture normally with configurationof Ni/CeO2/YSZ/CeO2/YBCO/Ag is shownin Figure 1. The need of the buffer layeris mainly to prevent chemical reactionbetween YBCO with Ni as Ni can poisonYBCO lowering down the JC. Variousoxides with similar lattice parameters withYBCO have been chosen for buffer layermaterial for example CeO-, yttriumstabilized ZrO (YSZ) and MgO.

One problem with the Ni RABiTSsubstrate is that Ni is prone to oxidationespecially during the deposition processof the buffer layer. Precipitates of NiOformed at high temperature which oftenimpede the epitaxial growth of the bufferlayer material on this substrate. To avoidthis, buffer layer deposition is done inultra high vacuum chamber like thepulsed laser deposition (PLD) system,which is well known for being costly andcomplex. Simplification of the substrate-buffer layer architecture is crucial forhigher speed production. One approachfor simplification is first to develop atextured protective layer using the nativeoxide (NiO) on Ni substrate by a controloxidation process [5,6]. Once NiO isproduced, a protected, more versatilesubstrate is made for further deposition ofbuffer layer. A larger processing windowfor the buffer layer deposition is thenpossible and a more expensive vacuumapparatus would not be needed. Indeveloping this versatile NiO/Ni buffer-substrate configuration, it is useful tothoroughly investigate the oxidationbehaviour of Ni and Ni-alloys in order toform high quality oxide. Oxidation of Nihas been studied excessively for the past100 years but the development ofsmooth, crack-free and most importantlyepitaxial layer on a texturedpolycrystalline Ni is still in its early days.Since the NiO is to be used as the bufferlayer, the crystallographic orientation ofNiO is crucial. Only (100)<001> (cubeoriented) NiO is allowed to form on thesubstrate.

The formation of textured NiO onRABiTS via thermal oxidation has beentermed surface oxidation epitaxy (SOE).The term was coined by the pioneer ofthe process; Matsumoto et al [7] fromInternational SuperconductivityTechnology Centre (ISTEC) Laboratories,Japan in 1998. In late 1990s and in thebeginning of the new millennium, the

Metallic substrate (Ni)

Buffer layers

Superconductor

Stabilising layer

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quest for optimum condition for NiOgrowth had been very active with severalresearch groups across the world activelyinvolve in the SOE process. Onesuccessful work was the work done atImperial College London, where Lockmanet al has shown that the optimum tem-perature for the production of cube tex-tured NiO on pure Ni oxidation is +/-1250oC in flowing oxygen [6]. Detailedstudy of the oxidation process of Ni wasbeing carried out with a conclusion thatunder certain oxidation conditions, it ispossible to obtain cube oriented NiO onpure Ni [5,6]. Representative of thetexture data are shown in figure 2 (a) and(b). (a) shows the (111) Ni pole figureusing electron backscattered diffraction(EBSD) before oxidation and (b) is x-ray(111) NiO pole figure of the as-oxidised Ni(oxidation at 1250oC in O2). The four

poles of both samples indicate cubic typestructure hence NiO grown epitaxialy onNi. A representative surface morphologyof the oxide is shown in figure 2 (c) forlower magnification (optical microscope,OM) and 2 (d) for higher magnification(focus ion beam microscope (FIB)).Lower magnification image shows thesurface oxide contains region of flatsquares grains supporting thecrystallographic orientation of (100) typegrains. In (d) the flat regions werefocused, to show the regions containmicron-sized square pits which mightform due to the lateral growth of the(100) NiO.

In the same laboratory, the hightemperature superconductor group at

reported the deposition of a buffer layerof Nd2CuO4 (NCO) via a non-vacuumprocess of liquid phase epitaxy (LPE)method [8] [9] on these protected Nisubstrate. The YBCO was also coated onthe system to give decentsuperconducting values (see figure 3 forthe cross section images of the multi-layer configuration and the resistivityvalue of the YBCO made onNi/NiO/Nd2CuO2 substrate system).

This shows that non-vacuum system ispossible for HTS production providedNiO/Ni is first produced.

Even though the prospect of makingdevices out of the second generation,YBCO HTS has shown rewarding success,the quest of finding a route wheresuperconductor can be made cheaper andeasier remains active. In this short articlewe have summarised one of the possibleroute in making useful superconductordevice. This is achieved by SOE of the Nisubstrate coupled with LPE process todeposit buffer later and the HTS film. Itis our hope that more research workscould be carried out on these materials assuperconductivity, without a doubt, is oneof the most outstanding discoveries in theworld of materials science. Who couldimagine before 1986 that a ceramic canconduct current with zero resistance?

References[1] www.superconductors.org[2] J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, AnnualReview Materials Science, vol. 28, (1998),pp. 421-462[3] D. K. Finnemore, K. E. Gray, M.P.Maley, D. O. Welch, D. K. Christen, D. M.

Kroger, Physica C, vol. 320, (1999),pp. 1-8 [4] ORNL superconducting TechnologyProgramme for Electric Power SystemAnnual Report FY 2000 and FY2002,http://www.ornl.gov/HTSC[5] Z Lockman, Surface Oxidation Epitaxyof Ni and Ni-alloys, Doctor of PhilosophyThesis, Imperial College London, 2003[6] Z. Lockman, X. Qi, A. Berenov, W.Goldacker, R. Nast, B. deBoer, B. Holzapfeland J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, Journal ofMaterials Research, vol. 18, no. 2, (2002),pp. 327-337[7] K. Matsumoto, S-B Kim, I.Hirabayashi, T. Watanabe, N.Uno and M.Ikeda, New Fabrication Methods of highJC YBCO Superconducting Films onFlexible Metallic Substrate, in Proceedingsof Advance in Superconductivity X, K.Osamura and I. Hirabayashi, Eds. Tokyo,Springer, Verlag, (1998), pp. 611-614[8] X. Qi, M. Soorie, Z. Lockman, J. L.MacManus-Driscoll, Journal of MaterialsResearch, (2002), vol. 17, no. 1, pp.104[9] X. Qi, M. Soorie, Z. Lockman and J. L.MacManus-Driscoll, Physica C, vol. 372-376, part 2, (2002), pp. 742-746

Solid State Nickel MetalHydride battery

Ahmad Azmin Mohamad and A.K. Arof1

1Physics Department, University ofMalaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur.

IntroductionNickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batterieshave become popular as a power sourcefor portable electronic equipments suchas computers, cellular phones and electricshavers. The capacity of a Ni-MH battery,approximately twice that of a standardnickel-cadmium battery mainly relies onthe characteristics of the hydrogen-absorbing alloy used for the battery'snegative electrode.

Mg2Ni alloy is one of the promisingmaterials to be used as negative electrodein Ni-MH battery [1]. The Theoreticaldischarge capacity of Mg2Ni (999 mA hg-

1), evaluated from the amount ofabsorbed hydrogen, is much greater thanthat of LaNi5 and ZrV2, which areconventional AB5 and AB2-type hydrogenstorage alloys, respectively [2,3].However, Mg2Ni alloy is easily oxidized,especially when it comes into contact withhighly corrosive electrolyte. Deteriorationof electrode performance due to corrosionof electrode components is a criticalproblem. This surface oxide layer isbelieved to inhibit the hydriding-dehydrid-ing reaction on the electrode, resulting inthe capacity decay [4,5]. To overcome

Figure 3. Cross section of LPE YBCO on Nd2CuO2/SOE NiO/Ni (a) General viewand (b)higher magnification image and (c) is the resistance versus temperature plotshowing TC ~ 90K

(a) (a) (c)

50µm

(d)

5µm

Figure 2. (a) (111) Ni EBSD pole figure for the as-made Ni RABiTS (b) (111) NiO x-ray pole figure of the optimum NiO layer and (c) the surface microstructure of theoptimum oxide (low magnification, optical microscope) and (d) higher magnificationimage of the surface microstructure (FIB).

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electrolyte can be utilized to replace theconventional potassium hydroxide (KOH)aqueous electrolyte used in Ni-MHbatteries.

In this work, the applicability of polymerelectrolyte based on polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) as solid electrolyte in Ni-MH cellwas studied. The polymer film wasprepared by the solution castingtechnique using potassium hydroxide asthe dopant and water as the solvent. Thecyclability of Ni-MH battery employing thispolymer film with Mg2Ni as negativeelectrode and Ni(OH)2 as positive

electrode was also studied.

2 Ni-MH Chemistry (M = Mg2Ni)

For a Ni-MH battery using Ni(OH)2 as thecathode, Mg2Ni-based hydrogen storagealloy as the anode and KOH as theelectrolyte, the charge-discharge reactioncan be summarized as follows:

- at the positive (cathode) electrode:

-at the negative (anode) electrode:

- at overall cell reaction:

Thus, Ni(OH)2 is oxidized to NiOOH at thepositive electrode during charging.Hydrogen which is formed at the surfaceof the negative electrode subsequentlydiffuses into the bulk of the Mg2Ni alloy to

form Mg2NiH4. The reaction proceeds inthe opposite direction during discharge.

The process of charging-discharging ofthese batteries involves the insertion ofions into both positive and negativeelectrodes. In Ni-MH batteries, thehydrogen ion shuttles between thepositive and the negative electrode, aslithium ions in lithium batteries.

3.0 Experimental3.1 Materials Preparation 3.1.1 Preparation and characterizationof polymer electrolytePVA with Mw of 67000, KOH and dionizedwater were used as starting materials forASPE preparation. The film was preparedby dissolving 1 g PVA in 10 ml deionizedwater. Different weight percentage ofKOH was dissolved in 10 ml of water in adifferent beaker. The two solutions werethen mixed and poured into petri dishesand left for slow drying to form films. Forfilms were then placed in a dessicator forabout a month for further drying.

The electrical conductivity of thepolymer films was measured at roomtemperature using a computer-interfaced

HIOKI 3531-01 LCR bridge in a frequencyrange from 42 Hz to 5 MHz

3.1.2 Preparation of electrode materialsIn this study, Mg2Ni alloy powders weresynthesised by mechanical alloying. Thestarting materials, pure Mg powders(99.9% purity) and Ni powders (99.9%purity) were mixed and placed in ahardened steel vessel with stainless steelballs of 20.0 mm diameter. Mechanicalalloying was carried out with a ball topowder ratio of 15:1, using a PASCAL 9VSball mill for 20 days at a milling speed of200 rpm. This material was later used asthe active material of negative electrodefor battery fabrication.

The negative electrode was prepared bymixing Mg2Ni alloy powder with graphitepowder in a weight ratio 5:1. 10% PVAsolution was used as binding agent. Thismixture was then pressed ontonickel-wire mesh.

For the positive electrode, Ni(OH)2 and10% PVA solution were used as the activematerial and binder respectively. Ni(OH)2was mixed with 10% PVA solution whichand then pressed onto nickel-wire mesh.

3.2 Battery design and assemblyThe battery was constructed by using aprismatic design, see Figure 1. Thebattery was prepared by assembling asquare-shaped metal hydride electrode(thickness: 1.00 mm, surface area: 15cm2) and a square-shaped nickel

electrode (thickness: 0.60 mm, surfacearea: 15 cm2), and solid polymerelectrolyte film (thickness: 0.004 mm) inmiddle. The assembly was put in amoisture proof casing, hot pressed andthen sealed.

The conductivity measurements wereperformed with a HIOKI 3531 LCR bridgethat had been interfaced with a computerin the frequency range 50 Hz-1 MHz. ABAS LG-50 Galvanostat was used toperform constant-current charge anddischarge of the battery.

4.0 Results and discussionFig. 2 shows the variation of conductivitywith the KOH content in the PVA basedpolymer films. The highest conductivity, in

the order of 10-4 S cm-1, was achievedupon addition of 40-wt% KOH to PVA.This film was used in the fabrication ofbattery with the configurationNi(OH)2/polymer electrolyte/Mg2Ni. The

battery was charged at current of 10.0mA for 1 h and discharged at 0.1 mA. Thecharge-discharge characteristics of thebattery are shown in Fig. 3. The plateaupotential of the battery is about 1.3 V andseems to be constant for about 9.5 hoursfor the 7th cycle. However large drop of

voltage was observed after 7th cycle. Thismay be due to large interfacial resistancebetween the electrodes and theelectrolyte [6-10].

5.0 ConclusionAn all-solid state Ni-MH battery has beensuccessfully developed using PVA basedsolid polymer electrolyte and Mg2Ni andNi(OH)2 as negative and positiveelectrode, respectively. Work is still beingcarried out to improve the performance ofthis type of battery.

6.0 References1. Lei Y.Q., Wu Y.M., Yang Q.M., Wu J. andWang Q.D., Z. Phys. Chem, 183 (1994)379.2. Lou J.L. and Cui N., J. Alloys Comp.,264 (1998) 299.3. Wang C.Y., Yao P., Bradhurst D.H., LiuH.K. and Dou S.X. J. Alloys Comp., 285(1999) 267.4. Reilly J.J., Adzic G.D., Johnson J.R.,Vogt T., Mukerjee S. and McBreen J., J.Alloys Comp, 293-295 (1999) 569.5. Cui N., He P. and Lou J.L.,Electrochimica Acta, 44 (1999) 3549.6. Vassal N., Salmon E. and FauvarqueJ.F., J. Electrochem Soc., 146 (1999) 20.7. Vassal N., Salmon E. and FauvarqueJ.F., Electrochimica Acta 45 (2000) 1527.8. Fauvarque J.F., Guinot S., Bouzir N.,Salmon E. and Penneneau J. F.Electrochimica Acta, 40 (1995) 2449.9. Guinot S., Salmon E., Penneneau J. F.and Fauvarque J.F., Electrochimica Acta,43 (1998) 1163.10. Kuriyama N., Sakai T., Miyamura H.,Kato A. and Ishikawa H., J. ElectrochemSoc., 137 (1990) 355.

Fig. 1: A schematic diagram of basicconstruction and assembled of solidstate Ni-MH cell.

1.00E-10

1.00E-09

1.00E-08

1.00E-07

1.00E-06

1.00E-05

1.00E-04

1.00E-03

1.00E-02

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

wt% KOH

Con

duct

ivity

/ S

cm-1

Fig. 2. Variation of conductivity with KOHweight percentage.

Ni(OH)2 + OH- ↔ NiOOH + H2O + e-

Mg2Ni + 4H2O + 4e- ↔ Mg2NiH4 + 4OH-

4Ni(OH)2 + Mg2Ni ↔ 4NiOOH + Mg2NiH4

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Mathematical Modellingand Simulation of MineralProcessing Processes

Syed Fuad Saiyid Hashim, Khairun AziziMohd Azizli, Hashim Hussin,Samayamutthirian [email protected]

IntroductionComminution is the most energy intensiveoperation in many industrialisedcountries. In mineral processingoperations, comminution consumed morethan 50% of the power consumption in aplant (Austin, 1984). It is considered tobe an inefficient process from the point ofview of energy utilisation and researchershave been trying for many decades todevelop accurate process models that canbe used to assist in achieving optimumenergy utilization with substantialeconomic benefits. This include theproduction of finer particles that hasbecome very important especially in thefield of cement manufacturing, industrialminerals and high-tech ceramics.

Computer simulation is now becoming avery powerful tool in the design andoptimization of mineral processing plants.Simulation technique allow the engineersand metallurgists to better control theirplants with the optimum operating condi-tions. The great power of simulation asoptimization, and indeed design, tool is itsability to explore many different scenariosquickly and efficiently. The technologywas well implemented in dry and wetgrinding circuit and has brought largeeconomic benefit.

Computer simulation is intimatelyassociated with mathematical modellingand realistic simulation relies heavily onthe availability of accurate and physicalmeaningful models. A model is anequation, or set of equations, that relatesresponses (independent variables) ofinterest to controllable independentvariables. Models have not been widelyused for mineral circuit design andoptimization purposes, even though they

have been discussed at length in thetechnical literature for the past 30 years.This may be due to doubts about theaccuracies of the models (inaccuracies inmodels can give ridiculous result) and thereticence of design engineers to use newand unfamiliar techniques. However theaccuracy with which size reduction andsize separation units can be modelled hasadvanced rapidly in recent years andsimulation is now proven and accuratetechnique for the design of circuit as wellas optimization of circuits containingcrushing and grinding circuits. Thesimulation procedure will followed on astep-by-step basis. This may seem tomake simulation appear to be long andlabored procedure but in fact theprocedure is ideal for the use ofcomputer based interactive graphicprograms. The use of simulation for opti-mization will be discussed in this paper byconsidering a specific problem, theoptimization of cement grinding circuits(Figure 1).

Optimization of Cement Grinding CircuitsUsing SimulationTwo-Compartment Ball Mill and SeparatorModelsa) Ball mill ModelThe perfect mixing ball mill modeldeveloped by Whiten (1976) has beenused widely in ball mill modelling. Themodel considers the mill to be perfectlymixed. The process can be described interms of transport through the mill andbreakage within the mill. As the mill isperfectly mixed, the mill content isrelated to mill product with dischargerate, di, for each size fraction.

The balance equation around each size fraction at steady state is

wherefi-is the mass flow rate of size fraction i inthe mill feed

ri-is the specific breakage rate of sizefraction iaij-is the mass fraction of the size j thatappear in size i after breakdi-is the specific discharge rate of sizefraction ipi-is the mass flow rate of size fraction i inmill discharge product

substitute the mill contents, si

Calibrating the model to a ball millinvolves the calculation of r/d for eachsize fraction from a set of actual feed andproduct measurements, subjected to areasonable form of the breakagedistribution function (Napier-Munn et al,1996)

b) Diaphragm and Air Separator modelThe efficiency curve developed by Lynchet al (1977) is used to model thediaphragm and the air separator. Thereare three parameters in the model:C - the proportion of particles subjected

to the classifying effect - a model parameter defining thesharpness of classification

d50c- the corrected cut size

where,EOF = fraction of feed to overflowC = fraction of material subjected to real

classification (bypass = 1-C)= reduced efficiency curve sharpness

parameter= reduced efficiency curves fish hookparameter

= parameter to preserve thedefinition d50C, ie d =d50C whenE=(1/2)Cx = d/d50Cd = sized50C = size of a particle in feed which hasequal probability of going to underflow or

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

Times / min

Vo

ltag

e /

V

Cycle 1 Cycle 4 Cycle 5 Cycle 6 Cycle 7

Fig.3.Charge-discharge characteristicsMg2Ni/PVA+KOH/Ni(OH)2electrochemical cells.

iii sdp = (1)

01

=−−+ ∑=

iiijj

i

jiji srpsraf

i

iii

j

jj

dprp

dpraf

i

j

iji +=+ ∑

=

][1

(2)

( ) ( )( )

−+

−⋅⋅⋅+=

⋅⋅

∗2

11αβα

αββ

ee

exCE

xOF

(3)

(4)

Air classifier

Sampling point

Fresh Feed

Coarse

Final Product

Air

Cyclone Clean

Air

Clean Air

Air

Filter Mill

Air swept

Mill Discharge Product

Filter

Clinker + Gypsum + Limestone

Clean air

Filter Return

Mill

(a)

(b) Figure 1: Typical cement grinding in (a) open circuit and (b) close circuit

α

α

β

β*

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overflowCalibration of efficiency curve modelinvolves the calculation of best-fit valuesof the parameters describing theefficiency curve, i.e. d50c, , C and ifrequired.

Data Evaluation, Modelling andSimulation StudiesIt could be seen from the size distributionfor all surveys that the size distributioninside the mill became finer along the millto the middle diaphragm (Figure 2 (a)). Itbecame slightly coarser just before thegrate, indicated by Points 3 and 4. Theslight change in size distribution believedto be due to material that was not fineenough to pass through the grate were'thrown back' or recycled for furthergrinding. For the second compartment,the same trends were observed.

From the result, the first compartmentwas modelled as two perfectly mixed ballmills in series, the last one being closecircuited by a screen. The secondcompartment can be modelled by oneperfectly mixed ball mill only, as describedby Benzer (2000).

Calibration or model fitting of modelswas then done to obtain the correctparameters. For modelling studies of thetwo compartment ball mill, calculation ofr/d values was necessary (refer equation3). The breakage distribution function forclinker was determined using drop weighttesters (Napier-Munn et al, 1996, Benzer et al, 2001). The calibration of the ballmill models were carried out bycalculating the best fit values of r/dfunction in equation 3, using feed andproduct size distributions andexperimentally determined breakagedistribution function. Calibrated modelsshows very good fit to the measured sizedistribution samples taken around andinside the mill (Figure 2(b))

Meanwhile, model fitting process fordiaphragm and air separator involved thecalculation of best fit values for theparameters describing the efficiencycurve (Napier-Munn et al, 1996; Benzer,2001). Results from this exercise alsoindicate a good outcome (Figure 4). All

calibrated model parameters are shown inTable 1. By using the model parametersgiven in Table 1 and adjusting them asnecessary, the size distribution of thecircuit product was simulated for differentcondition and the results were comparedwith the measured data. Simulation testcondition are shown in Table 2. Figure 3and 4 show the calculated and measuredproduct size distribution for bothsimulation conditions. It could be seen

that the difference between measuredand calculated values were very small andwithin acceptable limits. This means thatthe modelling approach can be a usefulquantitative indication of what may occurin clinker grinding mills. It is possibletherefore to study other operating condi-tions such as ball size, mill load and othercircuit configurations.

Conclusion

Simulation is an important design toolwhich is widely used in many branches ofengineering. It has been late in coming tomineral processing mainly because of thedifficulties in defining particlecharacteristics and process behaviour.Examples used in modelling andsimulation of cement grinding circuit was

found to give successful results. The per-fect mixing ball mill model and efficiencycurves model can accurately describe themill and air separator.

References

1) Austin, L.G., Klimpel,R.R., Luckie,P.T.,1984. Process Engineering of SizeReduction : Ball Milling. Society of MiningEngineers, New York, 561 pp.2) Benzer, H., 2000. MathematicalModelling of Clinker Grinding Process.PhD Thesis, University Of Hacettepe, Turkey.3) Benzer,H., Ergun,L.,Oner,M. andLynch,A.J., 2001. Simulation of open cir-cuit clinker grinding. Mineral Engineering, Vol 14, No7, pp 701-7104) Syed F.S.Hashim, 2004 Mathematicalmodelling of the two-compartment milland classification. PhD Thesis. Universityof Queensland5) Zhang, Y., 1992. Simulation ofComminution and Classiffication inCement Manufacture. PhD Thesis,University of Queensland.6) Lynch,A.J., 1977. Mineral Crushing and

First Compartment Second Compartment Ball Mill 1 Ball Mill 2 Ball Mill 3

Size (mm)

Ln (R/D) Ln (R/D) Middle Grate (Diaphragm) Size

(mm) Ln (R/D)

0.04 -1.75 -2.67 C 100 0.04 -1

0.1 -0.03552 -1.27 α 10 0.09 -0.009

2 2.61 3.23 β 1 0.3 2.5

15 4.76 2.78 d50c 0.8295 5 3

Air Separator C 88

α 5

β 0.0005

d50c 0.045

Table 1: The calibrated model parameters for the closed circuit mill

0

20

40

60

80

100

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

Size (mm)

Cum

ulativ

e Per

cent

Pass

ing (%

)

Point 1

Point 2Point 3Point 4

Point 5Point 6Point 7

Point 8Point 9Point 10

Point 11ProductFeed

0

20

40

60

80

100

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

Size (mm)

Cum

ulat

ive

% P

assi

ng

Measured Point 2

Measured Point 4

Measured Point 5

Measured Mill Discharge

Calculated Point 2

Calculated Point 4

Calculated Point 5

Calculated Mill Discharge

(a) (b)

Operating Conditions

Fitted Condition

Simulation 1

Simulation 2*

Feed Rates (TPH) 91 115.5 105.1

Feed size distribution (% Passing –6.7mm) 43.99 47.17 57.16

Work Index (kWh/ton) 17.6 18.2 17.9 * smaller ball size in the second compartment

Table 2: Fitted and simulated condition for close circuit

Figure 2: (a) Size distribution along the mill axes for both compartment for close circuit (b) Measured and calculated size distribution after model fitting/calibration

Page 14: MAMIP- 2004: Pasca Siswazah: Pemangkin Penyelidikan Dan ... · sukaneka dan sesi malam persembahan. Sesi sukaneka berlangsung pada jam 2.30 petang di Kompleks Sukan di mana Staf diletakkan

Grinding Circuits, Their Simulation,Optimization, Design and Control, ElsevierScientific Pub. Co.., Amsterdam 340p7) Napier-Munn, T.J., Morrell,S.,Morrison,R.D., Kojovic,T., 1996. MineralComminution Circuit - Their Operationand Optimisation. Julius KruttschnittMineral Research Centre, Brisbane, p 413

Foaming BehaviourDependence on Formulationof Cross Linked Low Density

Polyethylene Foams

Zulkifli M. Ariff and Geoffrey L. A. Sims1

1Manchester Materials Science CentreUniversity of Manchester and UMISTManchester, United Kingdom

INTRODUCTIONCross linked polyethylene foams havebeen of significant commercial interestsince the 1970's. Processing techniquesand formulations have been developed tomanufacture products that have excellentphysical and mechanical properties [1].Foam properties are usually dependent ondensity, the mechanical properties of thebase polymer and cellular structure whichinclude cell size, membrane thickness, cellshape and open cell content. Althoughdensity has been investigate morethoroughly than other parameters [2], cellsize also plays an important role onproperties of cellular polymers.

controlled by various parameters such astype of base polymer, blowing agentconcentration, cross linking level andprocessing conditions, which affect thecrystallinity, molecular orientation andrheological properties of the polymerphase [3]. This paper presents a study onLDPE foams produced by conventionaltwo stage heat and chill techniqueinvestigating interrelationship of crosslinking and blowing agent concentrationson densities, gel content andcrystallinities. These are discussed in rela-tion to the properties of resultant cellularmaterials.

EXPERIMENTAL

Raw materialsLow density polyethylene (LDPE),Stamylan 1908 manufactured by DSM wasused as the base ploymer. This is astandard high pressure LDPE grade ofdensity 920 kg/m3 and melt index of 7.5dg min-1 at 190oC. Cross linking wasaffected by PERKADOX BC 40K (40%dicumyl peroxide (DCP) on an inert claycarrier) manufactured by AKZOChemicals. The chemical blowing agent(BA) selected was a commerciallyavailable system for two stage compres-sion moulding, DP45/1, based onactivated azodicarbonamide (ADC)manufactured by Schering PolymerAdditives (subsequently Bayer AG).

Foam productionA variety of foam densities were producedcontaining 8 and 15 parts per hundredresin (phr) of blowing agent using a fixed

amount (1.0 phr) of DCP. Foams were alsoproduced by incorporating 0.5 to 2.0 phrof dicurnyl peroxide with a constant levelof blowing agent (8 phr) to assess varyinglevels of cross-linking.

Foams were prepared using two stagecompression moulding technique asfollows. Initial mixing of the formulationcomponents was carried out on anelectrically heated two roll mill withmaximum roll temperatures of 115oC tominimise premature cross linking. Tofurther protect against initiation ofcross-linking on the mill, the procedureinvolved thorough mixing of the polymerand blowing agent prior to the addition ofperoxide. After a short but adequatecutting and folding time to mix in theperoxide, the matrix was taken off the milland stored at room temperature forapproximately 24 hours. 80 grams ofmatrix (equivalent to approximately 103%of the mould volume) was placed in to a

preheated mould at 165oC for 20 minutesat 14000 kPa. During this period of time,complete cross linking and blowing agentdecomposition took place. The pressurewas then maintained whilst cooling the

mould down to 40oC (approximately 4minutes). Following pressure release, thepartial expanded moulding wasimmediately placed in a circulating hotoven at a predetermined temperature for20 minutes to gradually complete theexpansion.

Densities and Compression LoadDeflectionDensities and compression load deflectionprocedures were in accordance withASTM D3575 [4]. The determination ofdensity was made by measuring theweight and volume of regular shapedspecimens (i.e. 50 x 50 x 20 mm).

Compression load deflectionmeasurements were performed on anInstron universal testing machine fittedwith a compression cage deforming thesamples at a uniform rate of 10 mm/min.The stress required to producecompression strains up to 50% wasdetermined (where compressive stresswas given by the force per unit areabased on the original foam cross section).

Gel contentThe level of cross linking of base polymerwas determined in accordance with ASTMD2765 [5]. This was quoted as gelcontent which was obtained from residualinsoluble proportion of material after

refluxing foam samples in xylene at 140oCfor 24 hours.

CrystallinityCrystallinity was determined using aDuPont 2000 Thermal Analyser

0

20

40

60

80

100

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

Size (mm)

Cum

ulat

ive

% P

assi

ng

Mill Dish - Calculated

Mill Dish - Measured

Product - Calculated

Product - Measured

0

20

40

60

80

100

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

Size (mm)

Cum

ulat

ive

% P

assi

ng

Mill Dish - Calculated

Mill Dish - Measured

Product - Calculated

Product - Measured

(b) (a)

(a)

0

20

40

60

80

100

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

Size (mm)

Cum

ulativ

e %

Pas

sing

Measured Sep Feed

Measured Sep Cor

Measured Product

Calculated Sep Feed

Calculated Sep Cor

Calculated Product

(b) 0

20

40

60

80

100

0.001 0.01 0.1 1

Size (mm)

Effi

cien

cy to

coa

rse

fract

ion

(%)

Measured

Calculated

Figure 3: Measured and calculated size distribution for close circuit.(a) simulation condition 1 and (b) condition 2 )

Figure 4: (a) Measured and calculated size distribution around the air separator(b) measured and calculated efficiency curve

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differential scanning calorimeter (DSC).Degree of crystallinity was calculated bycomparing the melting enthalpy with thatof 100% crystalline polyethylene [6]using a value for the enthalpy of a singlePE crystallite of 286.8 J/g [7] in thefollowing manner:

In all cases, crystallinities weredetermined on samples that hadundergone identical milling, compressionmoulding and expansion treatments.

Foam cell structureSmall samples of foam were cut with arazor blade perpendicular to the risedirection from each foam block. Thesample was then mounted on a stub, goldcoated and micrographs were obtainedusing a Phillips SEM 505 scanningelectron microscope operating at a spotsize of 100mm and low beam energy atan accelerating voltage of 4 kV.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONTable 1 shows that within experimentalerror, gel content for all foams tested wasconstant for a given DCP concentration.Comparison with gel content resultsobtained for unblown polymer matrix (i.e.0 phr BA) indicated that BA concentrationhad no significant effect on the level ofcross linking in foamed samples at fixedDCP concentration. Obviously, resultsdisplay that gel content increases withincreasing DCP concentration which wasrelated to the increased cross linkingefficiency due to increase in radicalconcentration.

Results also show that withinexperimental error, crystallinity of foamswas not much affected by the increase inboth BA and DCP concentration. However,results hint that crystallinity maydecrease with increasing cross linking(i.e. higher DCP concentration) as hasbeen reported by other workers [8].

Results from table 2 show that theeffect of increasing BA concentration onthe density of foams whilst maintaining aconstant level of DCP. As expected, the

greater the amount of the blowing agent,the greater the gas volume availablewhich resulted in a decrease in foamdensity. This is also supported by thedifferent morphology of cellular structureobtained at different blowing capability(i.e. blowing agent concentration).Nevertheless, a higher amount of BA willdefinitely give rise to more gas liberationand larger foam cells due to an increasein expansion or blowing capability.However, smaller cells were found infoams expanded with higher amount ofBA. Figures 1 and 2 show that the cell

size obviously decreased with increasing BA concentration. Comparison of Figures1 and 2 indicates that at higher BAconcentrations, cell nucleation is favoredas a probable result of greater gassolubilisation during the cooling stage ofthe heat and chill process. It may also bethat BA ecomposition residue provideheterogeneous nucleation sites and cellgrowth is dinitiated at many morelocations within a specified area.Thissubsequently affects the mechanicalproperties of the foams where foams withlower density value (lower BAconcentration) tend to have lowercompression modulus and compressivestress at 50% strain.

Another factor that controls foamdensity is the cross linking level (i.e. DCPconcentration). Higher level ofcrosslinking resulted in greater restrictionto expansion, giving higher densities andsuperior mechanical properties (referTable 3). These results indicate thatincrease in density subsequently resultsin higher compression modulus andcompressive stress at 50% strain. Foamswith higher DCP concentration have cellwalls that are more restricted toextension. This was related to the meltstrength results of the polymer matrix(which discussed elsewhere [9]) where

Table 1: Effect of BA and DCP concentration on gel content d crvstallinitv

Table 2: Effect of BA concentration on density and mechanical properties (compression) at a fixed DCP concentration of 1.0 phr.

Figure 1: SEM micrograph of LDPEfoam expanded at 130oC (1.0 phr DCP,8 phr BA)

Figure 2: SEM micrograph of LDPE

foam expanded at 130oC (1.0 phr DCP,15 phr BA)

Table 3: Effect DCP concentration on density and mechanical properties (compres-

sion) at a fixed BA concentration of 8 phr. (Expansion temperature = 165oC)

Gel content / % Crystallinity / % DCP

concentration / phr

Blowing agent concentration

Blowing agent concentration

0 phr 8 phr 15 phr 0 phr 8 phr 15 phr

0.5 57.9 ± 2.8

57.3 ± 1.1

- 41.0 ± 1.5 43.6 ± 1.4 -

1.0 74.7 ± 2.4

74.2 ± 1.4

74.4 ± 13

43.7 ± 0.7 40.6 ± 1.6 43.9 ± 2.8

2.0 85.6 ± 1.5

85.1 ± 1.5

85:5 ± L5

39.5+1.0 - -

Blowing agent concentration /phr

Average density / kgm-3

Compression Modulus / kPa

Compressive stress at.

50% strain / kPa 8 72.7 ± 1.0 936 ± 102 180.5 ± 6.5 15 44.3 ± 0.3 332 ± 19 113.4 ± 14.2

DCP concentration /phr

Average density

/ kg m-3

Compression Modulus

/ kPa

Compressive stress at

50% strain / kPa 0.5 69.2 ± 0.6 884 ± 197 179.9 ± 6.1 1.0 72.7 ± 1.0 936 ± 102 180.5 ± 6.5

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compound with higher DCP levels havehigh stress levels and the meltextensibility deteriorates. This increase inexpansion resistance means that bubblescannot expand to the greatest volumeand this would suggest foams withsmaller cells and thicker walls asdisplayed by Figure 3 in comparison withFigure 1(i.e. with lower BAconcentration).

CONCLUSIONSFormulation of an expandable LDPEexhibits significant role in determining thephysical and mechanical properties of theresultant foams. Increase in foam densitycan be achieved by either increasingcross-linking level or decreasing BAconcentration. While the former stepaffected gel content and crystallinity, thelatter had no significant effect on gelcontent and crystallinity. When DCPconcentration is increased, gel contentdisplays an increment while crystallinitymay be reduced to some extent.

REFERENCES1) Puri, R.R. and Collington K.T. 1988.Cell. Polym., 7, 219-2312) Ferrigno, T. 1963. Rigid Plastic Foams,Reinhold, New York 3) Klempner D. and Frisch, K.C. 1991.Handbook of Polymeric Foams and FoamTechnology, Hanser, New York4) ASTM D3575, 1995. Standard Testmethods for Flexible Cellular MaterialsMade From Cross-linked Ethylene Plastics,ASTM, Philadelphia5) ASTM D2765, 1995. Standard TestMethods for Dtermination of Gel Contentand Swell Ratio of Cross-linked EthylenePlastics, ASTM, Philadelphia6) Mears, P. 1965. Polymer Structure andBulk Properties, Van Nostrand, London7) Brandrup, J. and Immergut, E.M. 1984.Polymer Handbook, 3rd Edn. WileyInterscience, New York8) Sims, G.L.A. and Khunniteekool, C.1996. Cell. Polym., 15, 14-299) Ariff, Z.M. 1998. Foaming BehaviourDependence of Base Polymer Parameters,MSc. Dissertation, UMIST

Prof. Zainal Arifin Mohd Ishak Georg Forster Research - Alexander von Humboldt foundation Germany

Prof. Hanafi Ismail Saintis Cemerlang 2004 Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia

Prof. Dr. Radzali Othman andhis team members

IENA 2004 (Gold)Reformulated Calcium Phosphate for Human

Tissue Transplantation (Synthetic Bone)

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Khairun AziziMohd Azizli and her teammembers

Malaysian Construction Industry Excellence Awards 2004

HIQSA: High Quality Shape AggregatesR & D Project of the Year Awards

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Luay BakirHussain and his team mem-bers

MOSTE 2004 (Bronze)Production of light and strong

structures from recycled MaterialsProf. Dr. Hj. Zainal ArifinAhmadProf. Dr. Radzali Othman Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmad FauziMohd Nor

Anugerah Khidmat Bakti EMSM 2004Electron Microscopy Society Malaysia

Prof. Dr. Hj. Zainal ArifinAhmad and his team members

MOSTE 2004 (Silver)FlexiTech Ceramic

Prof. Dr. Radzali Othman andhis team members

MOSTE 2004 (Bronze)DURAGLASS

(Durable Durian and Rambutan Glasses)

Awards Received by The Academic Staff 2004

New Academic Staff 2004

Dr. Chow Wen Shyang

Dr. Cheong Kuan Yew

Dr. Zainovia LockmanDr. Ahmad Azmin Mohamad

New Administration Staff 2004

Salinatin Binti Mohamad Saleh

Dr. Projjal Basu

Figure 3: SEM micrograph of LDPE foamexpanded at 165oC (2.0 phr DCP, 8 phr BA)

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Kemanakah Bangsaku?

Kemanakah bangsaku?Setelah 47 tahun merdeka

Mereka masih begini dan begitu

Kemanakah bangsaku?Bukan tidak berubah tetapi

perubahannyakecil untuk diperhitungkan dan

dibanggakanCuba lihat siapa empunya banglo besar,

kereta besar, supermarket besar…..

Banggakah bangsaku dibumi yang kaya ini?

Kemanakah bangsaku?Benarlah kata Tun Dr. Mahathir,

bangsaku mudah lupaMerdekakah mereka dibumi sendiri?

Kemanakah bangsaku?Ingat puisi Pak Lah

Aku cari mana dia Al GhazaliAku cari mana dia Al Shafie

Kita bongkar rahsia kitab suciCari pedoman

Kita bongkar rahsia sunnah nabiCari panduan

Setelah TSUNAMI (Tuhan Suruh UmatNabi Muhammad Insaf)Kemanakah bangsaku?

PROF P

Penyelidik Tajuk Geran Jumlah(RM)

Cik Khatijah Aisha YaacobDr. Sabar Derita HutagalungDr. Sutapa Roy RamananAssoc. Prof. Dr. RizalAstrawinata

The Development of Electron Transport AnalysisTechniques in Quantum Dots/Wires

(TOP DOWN IRPA)

1,945,240

Cik Khatijah Aisha YaacobDr. Sabar Derita Hutagalung

Study on the effect of Dopant Atom to CoSi2 LayerSubjected to temperature Increase

(SHORT TERM USM)

9,453

En. Mohd Nazri IdrisProf. Dr. Radzali Othman

Prof. Madya Azizan Aziz

Penghasilan dan Kajian Sifat-sifat terhadap bahankaca Seramik Berliang

(SHORT TERM USM)

Synthesis of Nanostructured TiALB MechanicalAlloying for Aerospace Structure Application

(SHORT TERM USM)

10,452

9,714

Dr. Azura Abdul RashidProf. Hanafi Ismail

An investigation of effect of ageing on mechanicalproperties of elastomer

(SHORT TERM USM)

8,760

Senarai Geran Penyelidikanyang Diperolehi pada Tahun 2004

INTERNATIONAL GRANT1. “Low CTE Substrate to improve solder joint reliability” (INTEL Grant). Dr. Mariatti Jaafar,

Dr. Hazizan Md. Akil & Dr. Nasir (60,000)2. “Nano Structural Electrode Tips for Spot Welding Application” (AUN-SeedNet Grant). Prof.

Madya Dr. Luay Bakir Hussain & En. Ahmad Badri Ismail (6,779.20)3. “Preparation and Properties of Polymer Clay Nano Composite” (AUN-SeedNet Grant).

Prof. Dr. Hanafi Ismail (6,779.20)

CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT BOARD GRANT1. “Ceramic Foam Core Sandwich Composite for Structural Development”. Prof. Dr.

Zainal Arifin Ahmad & Dr. Hazizan Md. Akil (452,000)

GERAN YAYASAN FELDA1. “A study of adsorption of cuvetive materials in film of natural rubber latex”. Assoc. Prof.

Dr. Baharin Azahari (189,000)

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Production of light andstrong structures fromrecycled Materials

Associate Prof. Dr Luay Bakir HussainDr Hazizan AkilMr. Sharul Ami Zainal AbidinMr.Issa A. Ali. HakimMr. Mohd Rafian

A new continuous production conceptfor low cost honeycomb core materialsfrom a single corrugated recycled,wrought aluminum sheets and recycledpapers has been developed. The low pro-duction costs will open new markets forhoneycomb materials for many industrialapplications starting from Rocket, ArtificialSatellite, and other products in the aero-space field, Service Cart, Galley, and otherairborne equipment, Flap Panel of aircraftwing, Infrared Stove and other electricalappliance, Shock-absorber for car crashtest, structural Panels, Airflow MeasuringStations to Cockpit structure frame ofsolar car,...etc. Corrugate rolling die wasdesign using AutoCAD software andfabricated in house to corrugate variouswidth of wrought and directly recycledaluminum beverage cans. The adhesive isapplied to the nodes of corrugatedaluminum sheets and then the sheets arestacked and cured to produce thehoneycomb core structure.

Recycled papers are shredded and thenblended to fill the honeycomb cells forthermal insulation; sound damping andstrength purposes are applied.

Face sheets made of thin aluminum;glass fiber epoxy and recycled papersepoxy are fixed onto top and bottom ofhoneycomb core.

The produced panels were tested andthe results were excellent in theapplication of bending strength,compression strength, impact strength,thermal insulation and sound

depending on frequency and amplitude ofthe sound manufactures who adopt thisproject do need to implement radicalchanges but however, can easily expand itfor varieties of applications and obtain theobvious benefits. 1) Lower cost of operation2) Greater throughput at little or no

increased cost3) Consistently good, creative products4) Reduce pollution by using waste

materials

Rubbery Water-basedThermoset Foam

Dr. Azhar Abu Bakar

IntroductionImprovement in foaming, production

techniques and properties ofthermosetting foams have contributed totheir prominence as materials for widerange of applications. The matrix of thisfoam is based on cross-linked polymers sothat, like the bulk plastics from which theyare derived, they have generally goodresistance to solvents and most chemical.Although some show limited plastic flowat elevated temperature, thermosetfoams do not usually exhibit a meltingrange and can often be used at highertemperature than thermoplastic foams. Inthe production of thermoset foams,foaming takes place at the same time asthe polymer is built up by the reaction ofliquid starting materials.

ProcessThe rubbery water-based thermoset foamwas produced from ordinary thermosetresin (epoxy), curing agent (polyamide)and stabilizer. However, somemodifications were made to the system interm of processing and ingredients used.By changing the process and ingredients

(rubbery and white in colour) withoutadding any rubber and it feel like rubberand not like ordinary thermoset foam,which is either very elastic or rigid andusually yellowish in colour. A series ofrubbery foam with different propertiescan be produced by just changing the for-mulation accordingly (process control isvery easy) for example by changing theratio of epoxy and curing agent or bychanging the water content. Using thismethod can also produce semi-rigid andrigid foam. So, each type of foam willhave different properties and can be usedfor different application.

AdvantagesThe most important thing in this newsystem is the use of water as the mediumin producing the foam. This can eliminatethe use of corrosive and expensivesolvent and hence, protect theenvironment (environmental friendly).Furthermore, only simple machines areused in producing this rubbery foam suchas stirrer, homogenizer, oven and metal orplastic mould. Time to produce this typeof foam also is very short.

By producing this rubbery water basedthermoset foam, we can exploit thespecial properties of thermoset resin(in this case epoxy resin) such as thermalstability, chemical and flame resistant butstill have the properties like rubber orthermoplastic foams.

Possible ApplicationThis rubbery water based thermoset foamcan be used in many applications such asfor insulation in automotive industries oras core material in the production ofcomposite sandwich panels for specialapplications. Since the properties of thisrubbery foam can be controlled by justchanging the formulation and processing,foams for different applications can easilybe produced.