m6 2010 kajian eksperimen

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KAJIAN EKSPERIMENOLEH

DR. JAMIL AHMAD

Penyelidikan yang dijalankan untuk menentukan kesan sesuatu olahan atau treatment. Penyelidik dengan sengaja dan sistematik memperkenalkan olahan atau treatment ke dalam sesuatu fenomena dan mengamati perubahan yang berlaku ke atas fenomena tersebut. Contohnya: Apakah kesan pemberian susu percuma kepada kecergasan murid-murid sekolah rendah? Biasanya digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis. Misalnya; Menguji hipotesis tentang perbandingan keberkesanan pengajaran secara tradisional dengan pengajaran menggunakan kaedah multimedia.

PEMBOLEHUBAH KAJIAN EKSPERIMEN 1. Pembolehubah Bersandar Pembolehubah yang menjadi kesan kepada olahan atau treatment. Pembolehubah bersandar ini bergantung kepada perlakuan atau perubahan pembolehubah lain. 2. Pembolehubah Tak Bersandar (Pembolehubah Bebas) Pembolehubah yang dimanipulasikan atau yang dikaji kesannya. 3. Pembolehubah Ekstranus/ Intervening/ Contaminating (Pembolehubah Pencemar) Pembolehubah yang kewujudannya boleh mempengaruhi atau mendatangkan kesan kepada pembolehubah bersandar dan juga pembolehubah tak bersandar. dalam penyelidikan eksperimen, penyelidik perlu mengawal kesan pembolehubah ekstranus daripada mempengaruhi pembolehubah bersandar dan juga pembolehubah tak bersandar.

If X, then YIf the program is given, then the outcome occurs

If not X, then not YIf the program is not given, then the outcome does not occurs

KESAHAN PENYELIDIKAN EKSPERIMEN Pemahaman tentang kesahan kajian eksperimen adalah penting bagi membolehkan kita mengawal kesan pembolehubah tak bersandar dan pembolehubah ekstranus.

Terdapat dua jenis kesahan penyelidikan eksperimen 1. Kesahan Dalaman 2. Kesahan Luaran

KESAHAN DALAMAN (Internal validity)Merujuk kepada sejauhmanakah kesan atau perubahan yang berlaku kepada pembolehubah bersandar disebabkan oleh olahan pembolehubah tak bersandar, bukan disebabkan oleh pembolehubah extranus.

Terdapat lapan faktor (jenis pembolehubah extranus) yang boleh mempengaruhi kesahan dalaman sesuatu kajian eksperimen (Campbell & Stanley 1963)

KESAHAN DALAMAN (Internal validity)1. Sejarah (History) Events that occur between the first and second measurement that are unrelated to the experiment but could affect the result Perubahan pada pembolehubah bersandar bukan sahaja terjadi disebabkan oleh pembolehubah tak bersandar tetapi juga disebabkan oleh berlakunya peristiwa, perkembangan atau pengalaman pendidikan responden. cth. Kehadiran peperiksaan SPM menyebabkan pelajar tingkatan 5 lebih mengulangkaji pelajaran berbanding pelajar tingkatan 4. Adanya kempen Cintai Bahasa Kita menyebabkan responden mengamalkan bahasa Malaysia dengan lebih tekun.

2. Kematangan (Maturation) Biological and psychological processes within the subject may change during the progress of the experiment which will affect their responses. The subject may perform better or worse on the posttest not because of the effect of X (treatment), but because the are older, more interested or less interested than when they took pretest.

3. Pra Ujian (Pretesting prosedures) Pretest may serve as a learning experience that will cause the subject to alter the responses on posttest, whether or not X (treatment) is applied.

4. Alat Ukur (Measuring Instrument) Changes in the testing instrument, human ratters, or interviewers can affect the obtained measurements. If posttest is more difficult than pretest, or a different person rates subjects on the rating scales, these factors rather than X (treatment) can cause the difference in the two scores.

5. Perbezaan Pemilihan Subjek (Differential Selection of Subject) Selection bias may be introduced as a result of differences in the selection of subjects for the comparison groups. If the experimental and control groups are exposed to X (treatment), a method of teaching spelling and afterward a test given, the test results may reflect a pre-X difference in the two groups rather than the effect of X. Perhaps the experimental group could spell better than the control group before X was applied.

6. Mortaliti Ujikaji (Experimental mortality) If a particular type of subject drops out of one group after the experiment is underway, this differential loss may affect the finding of the investigation. Suppose that the subject in the experimental group who received the lowest pretest scores drop out after taking the test. The remainder of the experimental group may show a greater gain on posttest than the control group, not because of its exposure to the X (treatment) but because the low scoring subjects are missing.

7. Regresi Statistik (Statistical regression) In some educational research, groups are selected on the basis of the extreme scores. When this procedure is employed, the effect of what is called statistical regression may be mistaken for the effect of X (treatment). Statistical regression occurs in educational research due to extraneous factors unique to each experimental group. Regression means, simply, that the subjects scoring highest on a pre-test are likely to score relatively lower on a post-test; conversely, those scoring lowest on a pre-test are likely to score relatively higher on a post-test.

8. Interaksi Pemilihan Subjek Dengan Kematangan, Sejarah dll. Kombinasi reaktif antara faktor-faktor (Interaction of selection and maturation, selection and history, etc) When the experimental and control groups have the same T1 (pretest) some other differences between them, such as, intelligence or motivation rather than X (treatment) may cause one of them to get higher T2 (post-test) scores.

KESAHAN LUARAN (External validity)Merujuk kepada sejauhmanakah inferens boleh dibuat terhadap populasi berasaskan kepada dapatan eksperimen.(to what populations or setting can they be generalized) Empat faktor yang mempengaruhi Kesahan Luaran. 1. Kesan Reaktif PraUjian (Reactive or interaction effects of pretesting) 2. Kesan Interaksi Dari Pemilihan Yang Tidak Adil (Interaction effects of selection bias) 3. Kesan Reaktif Penyusunan Eksperimen (Reactive effects of experimental arrangements) 4. Gangguan Treatment Yang Pelbagai (Multiple treatment interference)

REKABENTUK EKSPERIMEN Three main categories1. PRE-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 2. TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 3. QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

PRE-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNThere are three general types of pre-experimental design 1. One-Shot Case Study (Rekabentuk Kajian Kes Sekali) Treatment X Posttest O

2. One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design (Rekabentuk Praujian Pasca Ujian Satu Kumpulan Pretest O1 Treatment X Posttest O2

3. The Static-Group Comparison (Rekabentuk Perbandingan Kumpulan Statistik) Treatment X Posttest O O or Treatment X1 X2 Posttest O O

TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNThere are three general types of true experimental design 1. Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design (Rekabentuk Kumpulan Kawalan Praujian-Pasca Ujian) Group Exp Control Pretest O1 O1 Treatment X Posttest O2 O2

2. Solomon Four Group Design (Rekabentuk Solomon Empat Kumpulan) Group Exp 1 Control 1 Exp 2 Control 2 Pretest O1 O1 Treatment X X Posttest O2 O2 O2 O2

TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN3. Posttest Only Control Group Design (Rekabentuk Kumpulan Kawalan Pasca Ujian Sahaja) Group Exp Control Pretest Treatment X Posttest O O

QUASI EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN1. Nonequavalent Control Group Design (Rekabentuk Kumpulan Kawalan Tidak Serupa) Group Exp Control Pretest O1 O1 Treatment X Posttest O2 O2

2. Time-Series Experimental Design (Rekabentuk Siri Masa) Pretest O1 O2 O3 O4 Treatment X O5 Posttest O7 O8

O6

QUASI EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN3. Rekabentuk Siri Masa Pelbagai Group Exp Control Pretest O1 O2 O3 O O1 O2 O3 Treatment X Posttest O5 O6 O7 O5 O6 O7

TERIMA KASIH