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Caribbean History School Based Assessment

Candidate Name: Martin RobinsonSubject: Caribbean HistoryName of School: Eltham High SchoolCentre #:Candidate #:Territory: JamaicaTeachers Name: Mrs. DoctorYear of Examination: 2016

AcknowledgementFirst of all I would like to thank god for giving me the strength and helping me to obtain the information I need to complete this S.B.A. Also, I would like to thank my parent for helping me to put in the hard work into this assignment. Secondly I would like to thank my fellow schoolmates for encouraging me to do this at the best of my ability and sitting with me each day to ensure that I complete my S.B.A correctly. Last, I would also like to thank my teacher for giving me the opportunity to select this topic which I have learnt many a lot during my research.


Emancipation Of Slavery


THEMEThe Emancipation of SlaveryQUESTIONCan it be proven that as a result of the influence of the pressure groups and abolitionists/humanitarians slavery was abolished?

RATIONAleThe reason the researcher chose this topic is because of his curiosity towards finding out if the Pressured groups and humanitarians are really the ones who brought an end to slavery. Even though the maroons were the first set of freed slaves they werent the ones who brought an end to slavery. The pressured groups and humanitarians helped with the emancipation of the slave trade but this assignment is to conclude if they are the ones who brought a complete end to the abolition of slavery. It was said by Dr. Eric Williams it challenges one-hundred years of British imperial historiography by making the controversial argument that the causes of abolition and emancipation were economic, not humanitarian. According to CXC History Workbook chapter 5, for over three hundred years vested interests kept both slavery and the slave trade going regardless of the evils entailed. In the course of the 18th Century, however, Christians in Europe became increasingly conscious of all the evils which arose from slavery and the slave trade. Some became convinced that it was their Christians duty to set the Negros slaves free. Slaves had a passionate desire for freedom but did the humanitarians and pressure groups fetch it for them? This is the main question the researcher is curious towards finding out but this question will be answered in this assignment. Therefore I will expound on what are Pressured groups and humanitarians, also to enhance your knowledge about the emancipation of slavery. As you read along you will ascertain whether the pressure groups and humanitarians brought emancipation to slavery.

PRESSURED GROUPSDefine Pressured groups - Pressured groups are groups that influenced the freedom of the enslaved.THE BEGINNING OF PRESSURE GROUPS IN THE CARIBBEANIn the 17th - 18th century a number of groups were formed which supported the emancipation of slavery. They were known as Pressured groups, most of them were religious in nature these included:QuakersAccording to Brian Dyde, Robert Greenwood and Shirley Hamber, the Quakers acted as a pressure group in the movement for the abolition of slavery. Until 1755 Quakers could legally own slaves, but it was against the principle of many to do so. In 1755 they were forbidden to do so by rules of their society, and they were required to use all of the force to bring about abolition.The Clapham Sect, or The SaintsThe Church of England was the established church of Britain and her colonies. In Britain it was associated with the landowning gentry and the Tory party, and in the West Indies it was the church of the planters. In both Britain and the West Indies, it kept aloof from the abolition movement.In the 18th century an evangelical movement grew up within the Church of England. The members wanted less emphasis on salvation through good works and morality. One group in this movement known as The Clapham sect, or The Saint, because they worshipped at the church of the Reverend John Venn in Clapham in south London between 1792 and 1813. Among them were William Wilberforce, Granville Sharp, Thomas Clarkson, James Ramsay, James Stephen and Zachary Macaulay, all famous names in abolition. Three of these men had considerable first-hand experience of the evils of slavery. Ramsay had been a clergyman in St. Kitts for nineteen years, Stephen a lawyer in St. Kitts for ten years and Zachary Macaulay the under-manager on a Jamaican sugar estate for four years. They gave practical, supporting evidence to the other members of the sect, especially those in Parliament, who had considerable influence in public affairs. In Parliament the contribution of the Saints to abolition was great, and they complemented the Quakers who had done so much to arouse public opinion in the same cause. Another group was the industrialist but they were not really seen as pressure group because they did not necessarily want slavery to end but they wanted their crops to be sold. They didnt want slavery to end because they saw it as inhumane.Non-Conformist MissionariesAccording to Nadine C. Atkinson, the Christian denominations which broke away from the Anglican Churchs mode and methods of worship were known as Non-Conformist Missionaries. They included the Baptists, Wesleyans, Quakers, Presbyterians and Methodists. By 1831 several denominations were working in the British West Indies. They all came to the West Indies as missionaries seeking to bring the gospel to the slave populations. They faced great persecution by th planters who recognized that their message of equality and brotherly love was essentially undermining the slave society and the basis of slavery.

Humanitarians/abolitionistsABOLITIONISTS- According to The Caribbean History Pocket Encyclopedia (by Nadine C. Atkinson) abolitionists is a varied group of agitators who fought for the abolition of the slave trade and later on the abolition of slavery. They were also called the Anti-Slavery Society.Humanitarians are health inspectors who were similar to Pressured groups. These humanitarians include Granville Sharp, James Ramsay, James Stephen, Zachary Macaulay, Thomas fowell Clarkson, William Wilberforce and Thomas Buxton. They believed that slavery was morally wrong and that the enslaved were to be treated as human beings. Even though the Humanitarians and pressured groups were fighting to bring an end to slavery persons were also fighting against them. There was one group in particular who brought competition to them, this group was The West India Interest, the strength of the movement against slavery took them suddenly by surprise. As late as 1783, they were chiefly concerned with the resumption of trade between with the West Indian colonies and the newly independent United States, and won concessions from the government to partially reopen this trade. In the same year Lord North, the ex-Prime-Minister, said it would be impossible to abolish the slave trade for it was a trade which had in some measure become necessary to every nation in Europe. When the West India Interest realized the threat presented by the abolitionist and the pressured groups they made slavery their chief concern and managed to defer abolition until 107. They began with a campaign of serious counter-propaganda in 1792. Its members organized their own opposition in Parliament and printed their own pamphlets for circulation. They found it difficult to attack Wilberforce, as he was such a respected figure, and concentrate their attack on people like Reverend James Ramsay who had just published an essay on The Treatment and Conversion of African Slavery in the Sugar Colonies. They spread tales, accusing Ramsay of depravity in St. Kitts, and poured scorn on his part in the abolitionist campaign. By the beginning of the 19th century, though, they realized that the battle was lost in the House of Commons. After that they relied on the House of Lords to delay the inevitable for as long as possible. (By Dyde, Greenwood, Hamber 2003)A motif of the British anti-slavery society

ARGUMENTS TO SUPPORT SLAVERY The Europeans taught that the Africans werent ready for socialization. They taught that blacks were inferior and whites were superior. Whites saw themselves as superior (wealthy).


The humanitarians taught that slavery was morally wrong. Slavery was inhumane and everyone was equal. Every man/woman was born free. Slavery led to a Mona culture society which was dangerous to the economy. The profits of plantation owners were not reinvested in the local economy but spent abroad.

THE ABOLITION MOVEMENT IN THE BRITISH WEST INDIES 1769-1832The abolition movement began during the period of the 17th century in the British West Indies. In 1769 it was calculated that there were about 15,000 slaves living in Britain valued at around 700,000 pounds. These slaves were brought to Britain by their masters from the Caribbean. One such slave was a Jamaican known as James Somerset. His master was Charles Stewart. Somerset had been ill-treated by his master. When he had recovered, his master claimed him back. So in 1771 Granville Sharp took Somersets case to court. The case was heard by Lord Mansfield, Lord Chief Justice of England. On June 22, 1772 the Mansfield Judgment was handed down. It stated that slavery was illegal in Britain. All slaves living in Britain were freed with immediate effect. This victory motivated Granville Sharp and the other abolitionists to press for abolition throughout the British Caribbean, but this was too big