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    PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN STPM 2010

    Anjuran

    PERSIDANGAN KEBANGSAAN PENGETUA-PENGETUA

    SEKOLAH MENENGAH MALAYSIA (PKPSM) KEDAH

    MARKING SCHEME

    BIOLOGY (964)

    PAPER 2

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    Answer

    Paper 2 Section A

    1 (a) A: Golgi apparatus/Golgi body - 1

    D: rough endoplasmic reticulum/rough ER - 1

    E : mitochondrion - 1

    (b) (i) Fluid mosaic model//Singers model//Singer and Nicholson model - 1

    (ii) Phospholipid (bilayer) - 1

    (c) 1 Regulates the fluidity of the plasma membrane - 1

    2 Regulates the movement of phospholipid in different temperature//

    Helps to stabilise the membrane structure - 1

    3 Regulates the movement of hydrophobic molecules or/ polar molecules

    across the plasma membrane - 1

    Max 2m

    (d) (i) Centrioles/Centriole - 1

    (ii) 1 Organise the formation of spindle fibres during cell division - 1

    2 To produce basal bodies in which the flagella and cilli develop - 1

    Total 10 marks

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    2 (a) (i) glycolysis - 1

    (ii) Stage A : cytoplasm/cytosol - 1

    Stage B : matrix of mitochondrion/mitochondrial matrix - 1

    Stage C : inner membrane of mitochondrion/

    mitochondrial inner membrane - 1

    (b) oxaloacetate - 1

    4C - 1

    (c) (i) Electron transport chain/ETC/Electron transport system/Stage C - 1

    (ii) Oxygen acts as the last/final acceptor of hydrogen atom in electrontransport chain - 1

    (d) Stage A : 4 molecules of ATP - 1

    Stage B : 2 molecules of ATP - 1

    Total 10 marks

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    4 (a) (i) 1 the entire process by which holozoic obtain their energy and

    nutrient - 1

    2 through feeding on complex, solid organic food material - 1

    (ii) 1 Earthworm/ centipedes/ millipedes/ woodlice - 1

    2 Detritivores specialise in feeding on decaying organic matter and

    digesting it internally - 1

    (b) Columnar epithelium - 1

    (c) (i) Z : goblet cell - 1

    X: mucus - 1

    A: microvilli - 1

    (ii) 1 Mucus /X acts as a lubricant (facilitate the movement of food

    along the alimentary canal)//

    Mucus /X forms a protective lining, (protecting the cells of

    alimentary canal e.g. stomach cells against digestion by

    protease and acid) - 1

    2 Microvilli/ A increase the surface area for absorption

    of nutrients. - 1

    Total 10 marks

    Answer

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    Paper 2 Section B

    5 1. - HIV binds to a receptor at the surface of helper T cells//CD4

    lymphocytes 1

    2. - lipoprotein membrane of HIV fuses with lipoproteinmembrane of helper T cells 1

    3. - viral RNA and reverse transcriptase enzyme enters the helper

    T cells//once inside the host cell, the viral enzyme uses the

    RNA as a template 1

    4. - DNA produced then inserted into a host

    chromosome//incorporates with the DNA of the host cells 1

    5. - transcription process yields copies of viral RNA 1

    6. - some transcripts are translated into viral proteins 1

    7. - others get enclosed as hereditary material in the proteins when

    new virus particles are put together 1

    8. - the particles bud off from the hosts cells plasma

    membrane//exocytosis and are released to start a new round of

    infection 1

    9. - with each round, more macrophages, antigen-presenting cell,

    and helper T-cells are killed 1

    10. - the host immune system produces antibodies in response to

    HIV antigenic proteins 1

    11. - helper T and cytotoxic T cells also are produced 1

    12. - gradually, the immune system destroys about half of these

    virus cells and replaces half of the helper T cells lost in the

    battle 1

    13. - huge reservoir of HIV and masses of infected T cells

    accumulate in lymph nodes 1

    14. - as the battle proceeds, the number of virus particles in the

    general circulation rises 1

    15. - the body produces fewer and fewer helper T cells to replace

    the ones it lost 1

    16. - by time, the erosion of helper T cell count cause to lose its

    capacity to mount effective immune responses//eventually the

    immune system collapses 1

    Max 15 marks

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    6 (a) Functions of placenta :

    1. - allows exchange of substances or materials between the

    foetus and the mother 1

    2. - nourish the development of foetus by transferring essential

    materials from mothers blood 1

    3. - excretes metabolic waste from the foetal blood 1

    4. - transfers certain maternal antibodies to provide the foetus

    with passive natural immunity 1

    5. - acts as barrier for the foetus against certain pathogen and

    their toxins except the HIV virus 1

    6. - shields the foetus from harmful substances of the mothers

    blood 1

    7. - permits the maternal and foetal blood systems to function

    at different pressures 1

    8. - produces hormones to prevent mothers ovulation and

    menstruation 1

    Max : 6 marks

    Functions of the amnion :

    9. - secretes amniotic fluid to fill the amniotic cavity that acts

    as a water cushion to help maintain the suitable

    temperature for the foetus 1

    10. - encloses the amniotic fluid to protect the foetus from

    mechanical shock 1

    11. - expands as the embryo increases in size, allows space for

    foetal growth 1

    12. - protects against fluid loss from the foetus due to

    dehydration and against tissue adhesion 1

    13. - amnion is suspended and allows the movement of foetus

    without hindrance 1

    Max : 4 marks

    (10 marks)

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    (b) 1. - pathogens and their toxins can reach the still developing

    foetus 1

    2. - drugs taken by mother can reach the foetus causing damage

    to the unborn child 1

    3. - hormones present in the maternal blood can adversely

    affect the development of foetus 1

    4. - drugs like nicotine and alcohol may lead to mental and

    physical retardation in the baby 1

    5. - maternal circulation has a blood pressure that is too high

    for the foetus to handle 1

    6. - since the foetus carries paternal genes, it will produces

    foreign antigens to mother if their blood group is

    incompatible 1

    7. - if incompatible blood types mix, they will clot 1

    8. - this leads to blockage of vital organs, possibly resulting in

    death 1

    9. - if the maternal antibodies leak to the foetus, it will lead to a

    breakdown in the foetal antigens that should be a source of

    protection to the foetus 1

    Max: 5 marks

    Total : 15 marks

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    7 (a) Difficulties and problems encountered when measuring growth:

    1. - method//parameter : length//height 1*

    2. - does not take into account growth in other directions,which may be considerable 1

    3. - does not consider allometric growth// different growth rates

    of body parts 1

    4. - method//parameter : volume 1*

    5. - difficult to measure if the organism is irregular shape

    (dependent on p4) 1

    6. - method//parameter : fresh mass 1*

    7. - does not measure true growth//provide inconsistent reading

    due to fluctuations in water content (dependent on p6) 1

    8. - method//parameter : dry mass 1*

    9. - organism will be killed during drying, 1

    10. - thus the method cannot be used to monitor growth of an

    organism over a period of time 1

    11. - the sample must be large enough to obtain representativereflection of growth 1

    12. - therefore many organisms must be killed 1

    13. - fat accumulation//increase in fat content is not considered

    as growth because it is reversible 1

    14. - problem of irregular growth due to fluctuations in diet or

    environment 1

    Max : 8 marks(4* + 4)

    depende

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