asymmetric policy sebagai inovasi untuk akselerasi pembangunan perbatasan negara

Click here to load reader

Post on 22-Jan-2017

741 views

Category:

Government & Nonprofit

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Disampaikan pada Workshop NasionalKupas Tuntas Kebijakan Asimetris di Perbatasan Negara, diselenggarakan olehKementerian PPN/Bappenas

    JAKARTA. 10 AGUSTUS 2016

    PEDULIINOVATIFINTEGRITAS PROFESIONAL

  • the universe is asymmetric

    Louis Pasteur

  • Asymmetric Human Body

  • Asymmetric Universe

  • Konsep Symmetry & Asymmetry

    Symmetry: the level of conformity and commonality in the relations of each separate political unit of the system to both the system as a whole

    and to the other component units.

    (Ronald L. Watts, Asymmetrical Decentralization: Functional or Dysfunctional,

    Indian Journal of Federal Studies, No. 1/2004).

    Asymmetric (Fiscal) Decentralization: different fiscal arrangementsbetween the central government and different groups of, or individual,

    lower level governments, may be justified from an economic efficiency

    perspective.

    (Teresa Garcia- Mil and Therese J. McGuire, Fiscal Decentralization in Spain: An Asymmetric Transition to Democracy, 2004).

  • Asymmetric Governance Worldwide

    RUSIA (Jorge Martinez-Vasques, 2002)

    INDIA (Govinda Rao and Nirvikar Singh, 2004)

    JERMAN (Arthur Benz, 1999)

    BELGIA (WilfriedSwenden, 2002)

    CANADA (EdelgardMahant, 2006)

    THAILAND (KanokpanLao-Aray, 2002)

  • Great Britain

    although there are some pressures for

    further changes, a system of asymmetric

    devolution appears to be the only

    constitutional structure capable of

    enjoying public support throughout Great

    Britain.

    (John Curtice, A Stronger or Weaker Union? Public Reactions to Asymmetric Devolution in the United Kingdom, in Publius:

    The Journal of Federalism, Vol. 32 No. 3, 2006)

  • Macedonia

    how a sustainable local development

    might be achieved while different local

    areas have different economic,

    administrative, technical, personal

    capacities and requirements. The answer

    might be found in the model of asymmetric

    decentralization .

    (Aleksandra Maksimovska Veljanovski, The Model of the Asymmetric Fiscal Decentralisation in the Theory and the Case

    of Republic of Macedonia)

  • Kosovo

    The so-called asymmetrical

    decentralization has been considered as a

    key and a highly political issue for the

    resolution of the final status of Kosovo

    since the launching of the Kosovos final

    status talks in early 2006.

    (Roland Gjoni. 2007, Decentralization as a Conflict Transformation Tool: The Challenge in Kosovo, Paper

    presented for the Institute of Federalism University of Fribourg)

  • Japan

    Degree of decentralization will be given based on 2 indicators: population AND economic base (employment center).

    3 category of Cities:o Designated Cities: population of 500,000 or more.o Core Cities or Chukaku-shi: population 300,000-500,000

    and land areas of over 100 sq km.o Special Case Cities or Tokurei-shi: population over 200,000.

    Asymmetric Decentralization: the bigger the size of population and the economic base of a city, the bigger authority will be transferred by central govt.

    Eg: Designated cities are authorized to administer the same level of governmental jurisdiction as prefectures.

  • France

    La Corse (Corsica) memperoleh desentralisasi yang lebih luas dibanding 21 Region lainnya.

    Dari latar sejarah, Corsica adalah wilayah mandiri berbentuk republik. Pada masa pra-sejarah, Corsica sempat dibawah kolonisasi Yunani kuno. Selanjutnya, ketika Corsica diduduki Roma, Corsica berubah menjadi provinsi dibawah Roma.

    Setelah keruntuhan Roma, Corsica diperebutkan oleh Republik Pisa dan Republik Genoa. Genoa menguasai Corsica pada 1347-1729, sempat diintervensi oleh Perancis pada tahun 1553, kemudian muncul gerakan kemerdekaan, yang akhirnya lahirlah Republik Corsica tahun 1755 dibawah Pasquale Paoli.

    1764, Corsica dibeli secara rahasia oleh France dari Republik Genoa. Dan setelah perang sipil 1768-69, Corsica secara resmi menjadi bagian dari France pada 1770.

  • China

    2 special administrative regions: Hongkong & Macau.

    5 autonomous region: Guangxi, Inner Mongol, Ningxia, Xinjiang, and Xizang (Tibet).

    Tahun 1978 ditetapkan 4 kawasan ekonomi khusus, yakni Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Shantou & Xiamen.

    Kebijakan ini diikuti pemberian otonomi sangat luaskepada Guangdong & Fujian, misalnya untukmenyetujui investasi bernilai lebih dari USD 30 juta.

    Hingga 1984 telah ditetapkan 14 kota-kota pantai & beberapa kota di pedalaman (sepanjang DAS Yangtze & perbatasan dengan Russia) yg diberikan kewenanganluas serupa dengan kawasan ekonomi khusus(Montinola, Qian & Weingast, dalam Basuki, 2006).

  • Indonesia?

    Done !! Done !! Done !! Ongoing?

  • Conclusion (?)

    Reviewing of literature on decentralization from many countries, leads to the conclusion that asymmetrical decentralization is more effective than symmetrical decentralization (James Katorobo, 2005).

    Adopting a model of asymmetrical autonomy could open a process of catch-up whereby regions with less demand parity with those that have more devolved responsibilities and competencies (Giordano and Roller, 2004: 2180, in Angustias Hombrado Martos, 2001).

    The most important organizational expressions of the principle of autonomy: from homogenous regionalism to asymmetric regionalism (Giancarlo Rolla).

  • Asymmetric Policy sbg Inovasi

    Asymmetric policy dan Inovasi memiliki karakter yang serupa, yaknicontextual, anti-mainstream, out-of-the-box, not business as usual !!

    Asymmetric policy dan Inovasi sama-sama mempunyai tujuanmemecahkan masalah serta menawarkan kemanfaatan baru bagistakeholder internal maupun internal.

    Salah satu teknik dalam Inovasi adalah Modifikasi. Esensi asymmetric policy adalah modifikasi terhadap pola symmetry.

    Jadi, asymmetric policy pada hakekatnya merupakan Inovasi sektorpublik.

  • Asymmetric Policy utk Perbatasan

    Secara alamiah, daerah perbatasan memiliki Urusan Rumah TanggaMaterial (materiele huishoudingen) yang membedakan dengan wilayahnon-perbatasan.

    Daerah-daerah yang memiliki karakteristik spesifik (seperti Perbatasan) semestinya tidak diberlakukan sistem Urusan Rumah Tangga Formil(konkurensi urusan), seperti pada Lampiran UU No. 23/2014.

    Asimmetric policy merupakan strategi politik dalam bentuk transfer wewenang/kekuasaan, strategi ekonomi melalui perimbangankeuangan & fiskal, serta strategi kultural untuk merealisasikan prinsipdiversity in unity atau unity in diversity.

    Menerapkan kebijakan yang simetris antara wilayah perbatasan denganwilayah lain adalah sebuah kebijakan yang ahistoris dan anakronistik.

  • Inovasi sbg Asymmetric Policy di Perbatasan

    Sekolah Tapal Batas Masalah: ketiadaan sekolah untuk

    anak2 TKI yang tinggal di kampperusahaan.

    Diinisiasi oleh masyarakat, danmemberi materi Calistung, pengajaran agama, danketerampilan.

    Sekolah Filial

    Masalah: kondisi geografis yang berat & kondisi infrastruktur yang parah shg tidak bisa mengaksessekolah di kecamatan.

  • Penguatan Asymmetric Policy di Perbatasan

    Asimetrisme dalam pembentukan DOB (pengecualian syaratteknis dan fisik, tipologisasi perangkat daerah);

    Asimetrisme dalam kewenangan (pinjaman, kerjasamaperdagangan internasional, diskresi pemberian skala perijinaninvestasi);

    Asimetrisme dalam pengelolaan sumber daya (kelonggaranformasi pegawai, keluasan hak atas retribusi dan sumberpendapatan lain).

  • Referensi

    Jorge Martinez-Vasques, 2002, Asymmetric Federalism in Russia: Cure or Poison, working paper 03-04, International Studies Program, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.

    M. Govinda Rao and Nirvikar Singh, 2004, Asymmetric Federalism in India, working paper #04-8, Santa Cruz Center for International Economics, University of California at Santa Cruz

    Arthur Benz, 1999, From Unitary to Asymmetric Federalism in Germany: Taking Stock after 50 Years, in Publius: The Journal of Federalism, Vol. 29 No. 4.

    Wilfried Swenden, 2002, Asymmetric Federalism and Coalition-Making in Belgium, in Publius: The Journal of Federalism, Vol. 32 No. 3.

    Teresa Garcia- Mil and Therese J. McGuire, 2004, Fiscal Decentralization in Spain: An Asymmetric Transition to Democracy.

    John Curtice, 2006, A Stronger or Weaker Union? Public Reactions to Asymmetric Devolution in the United Kingdom, in Publius: The Journal of Federalism, Vol. 32 No. 3.

    Roland Gjoni. 2007, Decentralization as a Conflict Transformation Tool: The Challenge in Kosovo, Paper for the Institute of Federalism University of Fribourg.

    Aleksandra Maksimovska Veljanovski, The Model of the Asymmetric Fiscal Decentralisation in the Theory and the Case of Republic of Macedonia.

    Edelgard Mahant, 2006, Reflections on Asymmetrical Federalism in Canada, Institut dEtudes Politiques de Rennes.

    James Katorobo, 2005, Decentralization and Local Autonomy for Participatory Democracy, 6th Global Forum on Reinventing Government Towards Participatory and Transparent Governance, Seoul.

    Kanokpan Lao-Aray, 2002, Effect of Decentralization Strategy on Macroeconomic Stability in Thailand, working paper series #17, Economics and Research Department, ADB.

    Angustias Hombrado Martos, 2001, Rethinking Autonomy Demands in Asymmetrically Devolved Countries, Paper presented at the 60th PSA Annual Conference, Edinburgh.

    Giancarlo Rolla, The Development of Asymmetric Regionalism and the Principle of Autonomy in the New Constitutional Systems: A Comparative