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Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

1

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS

1.1 Understanding Physics

PHYSICS

Study of the natural phenomena and the

properties of matter.

Solid

Liquid

Gas

Mechanical Energy

Heat Energy

Light Energy

Wave Energy

Electrical Energy

Nuclear Energy

Chemical Energy

Relationship

with

matter

Properties of

Ener

Relationship

with

energy

Properties of

Matter

formsstates

Matter Energy

Mechanics

Properties

of matter

Heat

Light

Wave

in the fields

Electricity &

ElectromagnetismAtomic Physics

& Nuclear

Electronics

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Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

2

1.2 PHYSICAL QUANTITIES

Base quantity

1 A physical quantity is ..

2 Examples of scientific instruments :

3 A base quantity is a physical quantity which cannot be defined in terms of other physical

quantities.

4 Study the following picture and list the physical quantities that can be measured.

5 List of 5 basic physical quantities and their units.

Base quantity Symbol S.I. Unit Symbol for S.I. Unit

Length

Mass

Time

Current

Temperature

6 Two quantities that have also identified as basic quantity. There are :i) ..unit .. ii) . unit ..

The list of physical quantities :

1. .

2. .

3. .

4. .

5. .

6. .

7. .

8. .

batterybattery

any quantity that can be measured by a scientific instrument.

stopwatch, metre rule balance,thermometer,ammeteretc.

Height,

mass,

size,

age,

temperature,

current

Power,

Thermal energy

l meter m

m kilogram kg

t second s

I Amppere A

T Kelvin K

Light intensity candela Amount of substance mol

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Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

3

Standard Form1 Standard form = A x 10

n, 1 < A < 10 and n = integer

2 Standard form is used to ...

3 Some physical quantities have extremely small magnitudes. Write the following

quantities in standard form :

a. Radius of the earth = 6 370 000 m =.b. Mass of an electron = 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 911 kg =...

c. Size of a particle = 0.000 03 m =

b. Diameter of an atom = 0.000 000 072 m = ...

c. Wavelength of light = 0.000 000 55 m = ..

Prefixes

1. Prefixes are usually used to ...

2. It will be written

3. The list of prefixes :

4. Some physical quantities have extremely large magnitudes. These extremely large and

small values can be written in standard form or using standard prefixes. Write the

quantities in standard prefixes:

a. Frequency of radio wave = 91 000 000 Hz = .

b. Diameter of the earth = 12 800 000 m =

c. Distance between the moon and the earth = 383 000 000 m =

d. Mass of the earth = 6 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg =

Tera (T)

Giga (G)

Mega (M)

kilo (k)

mili (m)

micro ()

nano (n)

pico (p)

10

109

106

103

100

10-3

10-6

10-9

10-12

Hekto (ha)Deka (da)

desi (d)centi (s)

1010

1

10-1

10-2

Eg :

1 Tm = .

3.6 mA = .

How to change the unit ;

Eg :

1. Mega to nano

2. Tera to micro

3. piko to Mega

simplify the expression of very large and small numbers

6.37 x 106 m

1.673 x 10-27 kg

3.0 x 10-4 m

7.2 x 10-8m

5.5 x 10-7

represent a large physical quantity or extremely small quantity in S.Iunits.

before the unit as a multiplying factor.

1 x 1012 m

3.6 x 10-3A

1.33 MA = 1.33 x 106A

= 1.33 x 10 6-(-9) nA

= 1.33 x 10-15

nA1.23 Tm to unit m unit

1.23 Tm = 1.23 x 10 12m

= 1.23 x 10 12 (-6)m

= 1.23 x 10 18m

5456 pA to MA unit

5456 pA = 5.456 x 10 3 + (-12) pA

= 5.456 x 10 -9pA

= 5.456 x 10 -9 (6)MA

= 5.456 x 10 -15 MA

9.1 x 101MHz

12.8 Mm = 1.28 x 10 1 Mm

383 Mm = 3.83 x 102

Mm

6.0 x 1012

Tm

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Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

4

Derived quantities

1 A derived quantity is .

2 Determine the derived unit for the following derived quantities.

Derivedquantity

Formula Derived unit Name ofderived unit

area area = length x width m x m = m2

volume volume = length x width x height m x m x m = m3

densityvolume

massensityd 3

3mkg

m

kg

velocitytime

ntdisplacemeelocityv 1sm

s

m

momentum momentum = mass x velocity kg m s-1

Accelerationtime

velocityinchangeonaccelerati

2

11-1

sm

ssms

sm

Force force = mass x acceleration kg m s-2

Newton (N)

pressurearea

forcepressure

weight weight = mass x gravitational acceleration

work work = force x displacement

powertime

workpower

kinetic energy2velocitymassK.E

2

1

potentialenergy

P.E = mass x gravitational acceleration x height Kg ms-2 Joule (J)

charge charge = current x time Ampere second(As)

Coulomb (C)

voltagecharge

workvoltage J C-1 Volt (v)

resistancecurrent

voltageresistance v A-1 Ohm ()

Note that the physical quantities such as width, thickness, height, distance, displacement,perimeter, radius and diameter are equivalent to length.

kg m s- / m kg m- s- (Nm-2)

kg ms -2 Newton (N)

N m Joule (J)

J s -1 Watt (W)

Kg ms-2 Joule (J)

a physical quantity which combines several basic quantities

through multiplication, division or both

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Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

5

1.3 SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIES

1 Scalar quantities are

Examples :

2 Vector quantities are...

Examples :

3 Study the following description of events carefully and then decide which events require

magnitude, direction or both to specify them.

Description of events Magnitude Direction

1. The temperature in the room is 25 0C

2. The location of Ayer Hitam is 60 km to the

north-west of Johor Bahru

3. The power of the electric bulb is 80 W

4. A car is travelling at 80 km h-1 from Johor Bahruto Kuala Lumpur

1.4 MEASUREMENTS

Using Appropriate Instruments to Measure

1 There are various types of.

2 We must know how to choose the appropriate instrument to ..

3 Examples of instrument and its measuring ability.

Measuring instrument Range of measurement Smallest scale division

Measuring tape

Meter rule

Vernier caliper

Micrometer screw gauge

Quantity which has only magnitude or size

Mass, Length, Speed, volume

Quantity which has magnitude or size and direction.

Velocity, Force, Displacement, Acceleration

measuring instrument with different measuring capabilities.

measure a particular quantity.

Up to a few meters 0.1 cm

1 m 0.1 cm (0.01 m)

10 cm 0.01 cm

less than 2 cm (20 mm) 0.001 cm (0.01 mm)

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Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

6

4 Sample of measuring instruments :

4.1 Ammeter : ..

4.2Measuring cylinder : ....................

4.3Ruler :

wrong right wrong

10 11 12 13 14 15 Reading = cm

4.4Vernier calliper

A venier calliper is used to measure :

a. b. .

c. d. .

A vernier calliper gives readings to an accuracy of .... cm.

Length of vernier scale = cm

Vernier scale is divided into 10 divisions

Length of the divisions = . cm

0 1

0 5 10

Main scale in cm

Vernier scale

pointer mirror pointer mirror

Pointers image is behind the pointer

1 2 30 4

Pointers image can be seen

Right position of eye (eye are in a line perpendicular to the plane

of the scale)

wrong position of eye

wrong position of eye

water

cm 0 1 2 3 4

inside jawsVernier scale

outside jaws

Main scale

is use to determine the volume of liquid.

is use to determine the length

small object depth of a hole

external diameter of a cylinder or pipe internal diameter of a pipe or tube

0.01cm

The differenct between the main scale and vernier

scale is = . cm

0.9

0.09

0.01 cm

is use to measure electric current

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Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

7

The diagram below shows a vernier calliper with reading.

Vernier calliper reading = . cm

4.5 Micrometer screw gauge.

A micrometer screw gauge is used to measure :

a.

b. .

c.

Example :

0 5 10

0 1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0 1

Main scale =.

Vernier scale =..

Find the division ofvernier scale which is

coincides with any partof the main scale

One complete turn of the thimble

(50 division) moves the spindle by0.50 mm.

Division of thimble= ..

= ..A accuracy of micrometer

screw gauge = ..

Sleeve scale :

Thimble scale : .

Sleeve scale :

Thimble scale : .

0.15

objects that are small in size

diameter of a wire

diameter of small spheres such as ball bearings

0.5 50

0.01 mm 4.5 mm

0.01 mm 0.22 mm

4.62 mm

2.0 mm

0.22 mm

2.22 mm

0.2 cm

0.06 cm

0.26 cm

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Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

8

4.6 Some others measuring instruments :

..

. ..

appropriate instruments.

Exercise: Vernier Callipers And Micrometer Screw Gauge

1. Write down the readings shown by the following

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

0 5 10

0 1

0 5 1

6 7

0 5 10

7 8

0 5 10

4 5A B

QP

Analogue stopwatch digital stopwatch thermometer miliammeter

Measuring tape measuring cylinder beaker

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Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

9

2. (a) The following diagram shows the scale of a vernier calliper when the jaws are closed.

Zero error = 0.02 cm

(b). The following diagram shows the scale of the same vernier calliper when there are

40 pieces of cardboard between the jaws.

3. Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges.

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

4. (a) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

Zero error = 0.02.. mm Zero error = 0.03.. mm

0 5 10

5 6

0 5 10

0 1

35

400 5

30

0 5 1035

0 0

45

5

0

0

20

250

15

200 5

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Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

10

(b) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

5. Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges.

(a) (b)

6. (a) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

Zero error = -0.02 mm Zero error = 0.03.. mm

(b) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

5

0

0 5

15

20

Zero error = 0.03mm Reading shown = 6.67..mm

0 0

45

5

0

0

5

0

0 5

15

20

35

400 5

30

0 5 1035

20

250

15

200 5

Zero error = 0.03.mmReading shown = .6.67..mm

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Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

11

Accuracy and consistency in measurements.

1. Accuracy :

2. Consistency :

3. Sensitivity :

..

.. ..

Hands-on activity 1.2 on page 2 of the practical book to determine the sensitivity of

some measuring instruments.

Errors in measurements

1. All measurements are values

2. In other word, it is a matter of

3. This is because

4. Two main types of errors:

4.1

Occurs due to :

a)

b)

c)

Examples :

a)

b)

c)

target

target

The ability of an instrument to measure nearest to the actual value

The ability of an instrument to measure consistently with little or no relativedeviation among readings.The ability of an instrument to detect a small change in the quantity measured.

consistent but inaccurate consistent and accurate inaccurate and not consistent

Accuratebut not consistent inaccurate but consistent inaccurate but not consistent

of approximation only.

how close the measurement is to the actual value.

error exist in all measurements.

Systematic errors

a weakness of the instrument

the difference between reaction time of the brain and the action.

zero error is when the pointer is not at zero when not in use.

Range of the measuring instrument absolute error .

Reaction time of the brain.

Initial reading is not at the zero scale zero error

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Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

12

Absolute error :

.

.

Example :

Parallax error :

Zero error : ...

Positive zero error negative zero error

Positive zero error

Zero error =

0 1 cm

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Zero error =

0 1 cm

Zero error of screw meter gauge

Horizontal

reference

Horizontal

reference3 divisions above

horizontal reference2 divisions belowhorizontal reference

Zero error = +0.02 mm Zero error =0.03 mm

Refer to the smallest reading that can be measured by an instrument.

If, the smallest reading = 0.1 cmThen, Absolute error = 0.1 / 2 = 0.05 cm

It occurs because the position of the eye is not perpendicular to the scale ofthe instrument.

wrongright position of the eye (no error)

wrong

+0.03 cm 0.04 cm

where the pointer is not at zero when not in use

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Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

13

4.2 ..

Occurs due to

a)

b)

c)

Example :

a) ..

b) ..

.....................................................................................................................

1.5 SCIENCETIFIC INVESTIGATION

Steps Explanation

1Making

observation

Gather all available information about the object orphenomenon to be studied.Using the five senses, sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell.

2Drawing

inferencesA conclusion from an observation or phenomena using informationthat already exist.

3

Identifying

and controllingvariables

Variables are factors or physical quantities which change inthe course of a scientific investigation.

There are three variables :i. Manipulated variables physical quantity which changes

according to the aim of the experiment.ii. Responding variables physicals quantity which is the

result of the changed by manipulated variable.iii. Fixed variables physicals quantities which are kept

constant during the experiment.

4 Formulating ahypothesis

5Conducting

experiments

Random error

carelessness in making the measurement.

parallex error , incorrect positioning of the eye when taking the readings.

sudden change of ambient factors such as temperature or air circulation.

Readings are close to the actual value but they are not consistent.

Can be minimized by consistently repeating the measurement at different places in

an identical manner.

Statement of relationship between the manipulated variable andthe responding variable those we would expect.

Hypothesis can either be true or false.

i. Conduct an experiment includes the compilation andinterpretation of data.

ii. Making a conclusion regarding the validity of the hypothesis.

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Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

14

Plan and report an experiment

Situation : A few children are playing on a different length of swing in aplayground. It is found that the time of oscillation for each swing is different.

Steps Example : refer to the situation above

1 Inference

2 Hypothesis

3 Aim

4 Variables

5 List of

apparatus and

materials

Retort stand, metal bob, thread, stopwatch, protractor, metre

rule,

6 Arrangement of

the apparatus

7 Procedures

The period of the oscillation depends on the length of the

pendulum.When the length of the pendulum increases, the period of theoscillation increases.

Investigate the relationship between length and period of asimple pendulum.

Manipulated variable : the length of the pendulum.Responding variable : PeriodFixed variable : the mass of the pendulum and thedisplacement.

l

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure above.2. Measure the length of the pendulum,l = 60.0 cm by using a meter

rule.3. Give the pendulum bob a small displacement 300.Time of

10 oscillations is measured by using a stop watch.4. Repeat the timing for another 10 oscillations. Calculate the

average time.

Period = t10 oscillations10

5. Repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 using l = 50.0 cm, 40.0 cm, 30.0 cmand 20.0 cm

Retort standrotractor

l

bob

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Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

15

8 Tabulate the

data

9

10

11

12

Analyse the

data

Discussion

Conclusion

Precautionsstep

T / s

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

Graf of period, T vs

pendulums length, l

11..558811..550011..331111..119900..9999

1155..881155..001133..111111..9999..99

1155..771155..001133..111111..9999..99

1155..881155..001133..111111..9999..99

6600..005500..004400..003300..002200..00

PPeerriioodd// ss((TT ==tt1100//1100))AAvveerraaggee2211

LLeennggtthh,,ll//

ccmm

Time for 10 oscillations / s

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 l / cm

Precautions :1. Oscillation time is measured when the pendulum attained a

steady state.2. Time for 10 oscillations is repeated twice to increase accuracy.3. Discussion (refer to given questions)

The period increases when the length of the pendulum increases.Hypothesis accepted.

1. avoid from strong wing blowing2. use small amplitude3. time taken at the equilibrium position

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Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

16

Reinforcement Chapter 1

Part A :Objective Question

1. Which of the following is a base SI

quantity?

A Weight B Energy

C Velocity D Mass

2. Which of the following is a derived

quantity?A Length B Mass

C Temperature D Voltage

3. Which of the following is not a basicunit?

A Newton B kilogram

C ampere D second

4. Which of the following quantitiescannot be derived?

A Electric current B PowerC Momentum D Force

5. Which of the following quantities is

not derived from the basic physical

quantity of length?

A Electric charge B Density

C Velocity D Volume

6. Initial velocity u, final velocity v,time tand another physical quantity kis related by the equation v - u = kt.The unit forkisA m s

-1B m

-1s

C m s-2

D m2 s-2

7. Which of the following has thesmallest magnitude?

A megametre B centimetreC kilometre D mikrometre

8. 4 328 000 000 mm in standard form is

A 4.328 x 10-9 m B 4.328 x 10-6 mC 4.328 x 106m D 4.328 x 10

9m

9. Which of the following measurements

is the longest?

A 1.2 x 10-5

cm B 120 x 10-4

dm

C 0.12 mm D 1.2 x 10-11 km

10. The diameter of a particle is 250 m.What is its diameter in cm?

A 2.5 x 10-2

B 2.5 x 10-4

C 2.5 x 10-6 D 2.5 x 10-8

11. Which of the following prefixes is

arranged in ascending order?A mili, senti, mikro, desi

B mikro, mili, senti, desiC mili, mikro, desi, senti

D desi, mikro, mili, senti

12. Velocity, density, force and energy are

A basic quantities

B scalar quantities

C derived quantities

D vector quantities

13. Which of the following shows thecorrect conversion of units?

A 24 mm3

=2.4 x 10-6

m3

B 300 mm3=3.0 x 10-7m3

C 800 mm3=8.0 x 10

-2m

3

D 1 000 mm3=1.0 x 10

-4m

3

14. Which of the following measurements

is the shortest ?A 3.45 x 10

3m

B 3.45 x 104 cmC 3.45 x 10

7mm

D 3.45 x 1012

m

waves at a frequency of 92.8 MHz inthe north region. What is the frequency

of the radio wave in Hz?A 9.28 x 10

4B 9.28 x 10

5

C 9.28 x 107 D 9.28 x 10

10

16. An object moves along a straight line

for time, t. The length of the line, s is

given by the equation 2

2

1gts . The

SI unit of g is

A m2 s2 B m s-2

C s-1

D s-2

m

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Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

17

Part B : Structure Question

1. A car moves with an average speed of 75 km h-1

from town P to town Q in 2 hours as

shown in Figure 1. By using this information, you may calculate the distance between the

two towns.

P Q

Figure 1

(a) (i) Based on the statements given, state two basic quantities and their respective

SI units.

(ii) State a derived quantity and its SI unit.

(b) Convert the value 1 . m to standard form.

5 x 10-3

(c) Complete Table 1 by writing the value of each given prefix.

Table 1

(d)Power is defined as the rate of change of work done. Derive the unit for power interms of its basic units.

(e)Calculate the volume of a wooden block with dimension of 7 cm, 5 cm breadth and 12cm height in m

3and convert its value in standard form.

Distance : m and time : s

Speed m s-1

= 0.2 x 10 m= 2.0 x 10

2m

10-9

10-6

106

109

Power =time

work=

time

ntdisplacemeForceUnit =

s

mkgms 2= kg m

2s

-3

Volume = (7 x 10-2

) (5 x 10-2

) (12 x 10-2

)= 420 x 10

-6

= 4.20 x 10-4

m3

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Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

18

2. Figure 2 shows an ammeter of 03 A range.

Figure 2

(a)(i) Name component X. ...

(ii) What is the function of X? .

(b)Table 2 shows three current readings obtained by three students.

Table 2

(i) Did all the students use the ammeter in Figure2? ...(ii) Explain your answer in (b)(i).

3. Figure 3 shows the meniscus of water in a measuring cylinder K, L, and M are three eye

positions while measuring the volume of the water.

(a) (i) Which of the eye positions is correct while

taking the reading of the volume of water?

.

Figure 3

(b) The water in the measuring cylinder is

replaced with 30 cm3of mercury.

(i) In Figure 4, draw the meniscus of the

mercury in the measuring cylinder. Figure 4

(ii) Explain why the shape of the meniscus of mercury is as drawn in (b)(i).

No

3rdreadings obtained by student 2 and 3 are out of the meter range.

L

The cohesive force is larger than the adhesive force

Mirror

To avoid parallax error