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    Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

    1

    CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS

    1.1 Understanding Physics

    PHYSICS

    Study of the natural phenomena and the

    properties of matter.

    Solid

    Liquid

    Gas

    Mechanical Energy

    Heat Energy

    Light Energy

    Wave Energy

    Electrical Energy

    Nuclear Energy

    Chemical Energy

    Relationship

    with

    matter

    Properties of

    Ener

    Relationship

    with

    energy

    Properties of

    Matter

    formsstates

    Matter Energy

    Mechanics

    Properties

    of matter

    Heat

    Light

    Wave

    in the fields

    Electricity &

    ElectromagnetismAtomic Physics

    & Nuclear

    Electronics

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    Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

    2

    1.2 PHYSICAL QUANTITIES

    Base quantity

    1 A physical quantity is ..

    2 Examples of scientific instruments :

    3 A base quantity is a physical quantity which cannot be defined in terms of other physical

    quantities.

    4 Study the following picture and list the physical quantities that can be measured.

    5 List of 5 basic physical quantities and their units.

    Base quantity Symbol S.I. Unit Symbol for S.I. Unit

    Length

    Mass

    Time

    Current

    Temperature

    6 Two quantities that have also identified as basic quantity. There are :i) ..unit .. ii) . unit ..

    The list of physical quantities :

    1. .

    2. .

    3. .

    4. .

    5. .

    6. .

    7. .

    8. .

    batterybattery

    any quantity that can be measured by a scientific instrument.

    stopwatch, metre rule balance,thermometer,ammeteretc.

    Height,

    mass,

    size,

    age,

    temperature,

    current

    Power,

    Thermal energy

    l meter m

    m kilogram kg

    t second s

    I Amppere A

    T Kelvin K

    Light intensity candela Amount of substance mol

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    Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

    3

    Standard Form1 Standard form = A x 10

    n, 1 < A < 10 and n = integer

    2 Standard form is used to ...

    3 Some physical quantities have extremely small magnitudes. Write the following

    quantities in standard form :

    a. Radius of the earth = 6 370 000 m =.b. Mass of an electron = 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 911 kg =...

    c. Size of a particle = 0.000 03 m =

    b. Diameter of an atom = 0.000 000 072 m = ...

    c. Wavelength of light = 0.000 000 55 m = ..

    Prefixes

    1. Prefixes are usually used to ...

    2. It will be written

    3. The list of prefixes :

    4. Some physical quantities have extremely large magnitudes. These extremely large and

    small values can be written in standard form or using standard prefixes. Write the

    quantities in standard prefixes:

    a. Frequency of radio wave = 91 000 000 Hz = .

    b. Diameter of the earth = 12 800 000 m =

    c. Distance between the moon and the earth = 383 000 000 m =

    d. Mass of the earth = 6 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg =

    Tera (T)

    Giga (G)

    Mega (M)

    kilo (k)

    mili (m)

    micro ()

    nano (n)

    pico (p)

    10

    109

    106

    103

    100

    10-3

    10-6

    10-9

    10-12

    Hekto (ha)Deka (da)

    desi (d)centi (s)

    1010

    1

    10-1

    10-2

    Eg :

    1 Tm = .

    3.6 mA = .

    How to change the unit ;

    Eg :

    1. Mega to nano

    2. Tera to micro

    3. piko to Mega

    simplify the expression of very large and small numbers

    6.37 x 106 m

    1.673 x 10-27 kg

    3.0 x 10-4 m

    7.2 x 10-8m

    5.5 x 10-7

    represent a large physical quantity or extremely small quantity in S.Iunits.

    before the unit as a multiplying factor.

    1 x 1012 m

    3.6 x 10-3A

    1.33 MA = 1.33 x 106A

    = 1.33 x 10 6-(-9) nA

    = 1.33 x 10-15

    nA1.23 Tm to unit m unit

    1.23 Tm = 1.23 x 10 12m

    = 1.23 x 10 12 (-6)m

    = 1.23 x 10 18m

    5456 pA to MA unit

    5456 pA = 5.456 x 10 3 + (-12) pA

    = 5.456 x 10 -9pA

    = 5.456 x 10 -9 (6)MA

    = 5.456 x 10 -15 MA

    9.1 x 101MHz

    12.8 Mm = 1.28 x 10 1 Mm

    383 Mm = 3.83 x 102

    Mm

    6.0 x 1012

    Tm

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    Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

    4

    Derived quantities

    1 A derived quantity is .

    2 Determine the derived unit for the following derived quantities.

    Derivedquantity

    Formula Derived unit Name ofderived unit

    area area = length x width m x m = m2

    volume volume = length x width x height m x m x m = m3

    densityvolume

    massensityd 3

    3mkg

    m

    kg

    velocitytime

    ntdisplacemeelocityv 1sm

    s

    m

    momentum momentum = mass x velocity kg m s-1

    Accelerationtime

    velocityinchangeonaccelerati

    2

    11-1

    sm

    ssms

    sm

    Force force = mass x acceleration kg m s-2

    Newton (N)

    pressurearea

    forcepressure

    weight weight = mass x gravitational acceleration

    work work = force x displacement

    powertime

    workpower

    kinetic energy2velocitymassK.E

    2

    1

    potentialenergy

    P.E = mass x gravitational acceleration x height Kg ms-2 Joule (J)

    charge charge = current x time Ampere second(As)

    Coulomb (C)

    voltagecharge

    workvoltage J C-1 Volt (v)

    resistancecurrent

    voltageresistance v A-1 Ohm ()

    Note that the physical quantities such as width, thickness, height, distance, displacement,perimeter, radius and diameter are equivalent to length.

    kg m s- / m kg m- s- (Nm-2)

    kg ms -2 Newton (N)

    N m Joule (J)

    J s -1 Watt (W)

    Kg ms-2 Joule (J)

    a physical quantity which combines several basic quantities

    through multiplication, division or both

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    Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

    5

    1.3 SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIES

    1 Scalar quantities are

    Examples :

    2 Vector quantities are...

    Examples :

    3 Study the following description of events carefully and then decide which events require

    magnitude, direction or both to specify them.

    Description of events Magnitude Direction

    1. The temperature in the room is 25 0C

    2. The location of Ayer Hitam is 60 km to the

    north-west of Johor Bahru

    3. The power of the electric bulb is 80 W

    4. A car is travelling at 80 km h-1 from Johor Bahruto Kuala Lumpur

    1.4 MEASUREMENTS

    Using Appropriate Instruments to Measure

    1 There are various types of.

    2 We must know how to choose the appropriate instrument to ..

    3 Examples of instrument and its measuring ability.

    Measuring instrument Range of measurement Smallest scale division

    Measuring tape

    Meter rule

    Vernier caliper

    Micrometer screw gauge

    Quantity which has only magnitude or size

    Mass, Length, Speed, volume

    Quantity which has magnitude or size and direction.

    Velocity, Force, Displacement, Acceleration

    measuring instrument with different measuring capabilities.

    measure a particular quantity.

    Up to a few meters 0.1 cm

    1 m 0.1 cm (0.01 m)

    10 cm 0.01 cm

    less than 2 cm (20 mm) 0.001 cm (0.01 mm)

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    Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

    6

    4 Sample of measuring instruments :

    4.1 Ammeter : ..

    4.2Measuring cylinder : ....................

    4.3Ruler :

    wrong right wrong

    10 11 12 13 14 15 Reading = cm

    4.4Vernier calliper

    A venier calliper is used to measure :

    a. b. .

    c. d. .

    A vernier calliper gives readings to an accuracy of .... cm.

    Length of vernier scale = cm

    Vernier scale is divided into 10 divisions

    Length of the divisions = . cm

    0 1

    0 5 10

    Main scale in cm

    Vernier scale

    pointer mirror pointer mirror

    Pointers image is behind the pointer

    incorret reading correct

    reading1 2 30 4

    1 2 30 4

    Pointers image can be seen

    Right position of eye (eye are in a line perpendicular to the plane

    of the scale)

    wrong position of eye

    wrong position of eye

    water

    cm 0 1 2 3 4

    inside jawsVernier scale

    outside jaws

    Main scale

    is use to determine the volume of liquid.

    is use to determine the length

    small object depth of a hole

    external diameter of a cylinder or pipe internal diameter of a pipe or tube

    0.01cm

    The differenct between the main scale and vernier

    scale is = . cm

    0.9

    0.09

    0.01 cm

    is use to measure electric current

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    Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

    7

    The diagram below shows a vernier calliper with reading.

    Vernier calliper reading = . cm

    4.5 Micrometer screw gauge.

    A micrometer screw gauge is used to measure :

    a.

    b. .

    c.

    Example :

    0 5 10

    0 1

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    0 1

    Main scale =.

    Vernier scale =..

    Final reading =..

    Find the division ofvernier scale which is

    coincides with any partof the main scale

    One complete turn of the thimble

    (50 division) moves the spindle by0.50 mm.

    Division of thimble= ..

    = ..A accuracy of micrometer

    screw gauge = ..

    Sleeve scale :

    Thimble scale : .

    Total reading : ..

    Sleeve scale :

    Thimble scale : .

    Total reading : ...

    0.15

    objects that are small in size

    diameter of a wire

    diameter of small spheres such as ball bearings

    0.5 50

    0.01 mm 4.5 mm

    0.01 mm 0.22 mm

    4.62 mm

    2.0 mm

    0.22 mm

    2.22 mm

    0.2 cm

    0.06 cm

    0.26 cm

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    Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

    8

    4.6 Some others measuring instruments :

    ..

    . ..

    Hands-on activity 1.1 on page 1 of the practical book to learn more about choosing

    appropriate instruments.

    Exercise: Vernier Callipers And Micrometer Screw Gauge

    1. Write down the readings shown by the following

    (a)

    (b)

    (c)

    (d)

    0 5 10

    0 1

    0 5 1

    6 7

    0 5 10

    7 8

    0 5 10

    4 5A B

    QP

    Answer: 7.79 cm..

    Answer: 4.27 cm..

    Answer: 6.28 cm..

    Answer: 0.02 cm..

    Analogue stopwatch digital stopwatch thermometer miliammeter

    Measuring tape measuring cylinder beaker

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    Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

    9

    2. (a) The following diagram shows the scale of a vernier calliper when the jaws are closed.

    Zero error = 0.02 cm

    (b). The following diagram shows the scale of the same vernier calliper when there are

    40 pieces of cardboard between the jaws.

    3. Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges.

    (a) (b)

    Answer: . Answer:..

    (c) (d)

    Answer: Answer:.

    4. (a) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

    Zero error = 0.02.. mm Zero error = 0.03.. mm

    0 5 10

    5 6

    0 5 10

    0 1

    Reading shown = 5.64.cm

    Corrected reading = 5.62..cm

    35

    400 5

    30

    0 5 1035

    0 0

    45

    5

    0

    0

    20

    250

    15

    200 5

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    Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

    10

    (b) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

    5. Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges.

    (a) (b)

    Answer: 6.88 mm Answer: ..12.32 mm(c) (d)

    Answer:4.71 mm Answer: 9.17 mm

    6. (a) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

    Zero error = -0.02 mm Zero error = 0.03.. mm

    (b) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

    5

    0

    0 5

    15

    20

    Zero error = 0.03mm Reading shown = 6.67..mm

    Corrected reading = 6.64..mm

    0 0

    45

    5

    0

    0

    5

    0

    0 5

    15

    20

    35

    400 5

    30

    0 5 1035

    20

    250

    15

    200 5

    Zero error = 0.03.mmReading shown = .6.67..mm

    Corrected reading = 6.64..mm

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    Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

    11

    Accuracy and consistency in measurements.

    1. Accuracy :

    2. Consistency :

    3. Sensitivity :

    ..

    .. ..

    Hands-on activity 1.2 on page 2 of the practical book to determine the sensitivity of

    some measuring instruments.

    Errors in measurements

    1. All measurements are values

    2. In other word, it is a matter of

    3. This is because

    4. Two main types of errors:

    4.1

    Occurs due to :

    a)

    b)

    c)

    Examples :

    a)

    b)

    c)

    target

    target

    The ability of an instrument to measure nearest to the actual value

    The ability of an instrument to measure consistently with little or no relativedeviation among readings.The ability of an instrument to detect a small change in the quantity measured.

    consistent but inaccurate consistent and accurate inaccurate and not consistent

    Accuratebut not consistent inaccurate but consistent inaccurate but not consistent

    of approximation only.

    how close the measurement is to the actual value.

    error exist in all measurements.

    Systematic errors

    a weakness of the instrument

    the difference between reaction time of the brain and the action.

    zero error is when the pointer is not at zero when not in use.

    Range of the measuring instrument absolute error .

    Reaction time of the brain.

    Initial reading is not at the zero scale zero error

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    Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

    12

    Absolute error :

    .

    .

    Example :

    Parallax error :

    Zero error : ...

    Correct reading = observed reading zero error

    Positive zero error negative zero error

    Positive zero error

    Zero error =

    0 1 cm

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    Zero error =

    0 1 cm

    Zero error of screw meter gauge

    Horizontal

    reference

    Horizontal

    reference3 divisions above

    horizontal reference2 divisions belowhorizontal reference

    Zero error = +0.02 mm Zero error =0.03 mm

    Refer to the smallest reading that can be measured by an instrument.

    If, the smallest reading = 0.1 cmThen, Absolute error = 0.1 / 2 = 0.05 cm

    It occurs because the position of the eye is not perpendicular to the scale ofthe instrument.

    wrongright position of the eye (no error)

    wrong

    +0.03 cm 0.04 cm

    where the pointer is not at zero when not in use

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    Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

    13

    4.2 ..

    Occurs due to

    a)

    b)

    c)

    Example :

    a) ..

    b) ..

    .....................................................................................................................

    1.5 SCIENCETIFIC INVESTIGATION

    Steps Explanation

    1Making

    observation

    Gather all available information about the object orphenomenon to be studied.Using the five senses, sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell.

    2Drawing

    inferencesA conclusion from an observation or phenomena using informationthat already exist.

    3

    Identifying

    and controllingvariables

    Variables are factors or physical quantities which change inthe course of a scientific investigation.

    There are three variables :i. Manipulated variables physical quantity which changes

    according to the aim of the experiment.ii. Responding variables physicals quantity which is the

    result of the changed by manipulated variable.iii. Fixed variables physicals quantities which are kept

    constant during the experiment.

    4 Formulating ahypothesis

    5Conducting

    experiments

    Random error

    carelessness in making the measurement.

    parallex error , incorrect positioning of the eye when taking the readings.

    sudden change of ambient factors such as temperature or air circulation.

    Readings are close to the actual value but they are not consistent.

    Can be minimized by consistently repeating the measurement at different places in

    an identical manner.

    Statement of relationship between the manipulated variable andthe responding variable those we would expect.

    Hypothesis can either be true or false.

    i. Conduct an experiment includes the compilation andinterpretation of data.

    ii. Making a conclusion regarding the validity of the hypothesis.

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    Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

    14

    Plan and report an experiment

    Situation : A few children are playing on a different length of swing in aplayground. It is found that the time of oscillation for each swing is different.

    Steps Example : refer to the situation above

    1 Inference

    2 Hypothesis

    3 Aim

    4 Variables

    5 List of

    apparatus and

    materials

    Retort stand, metal bob, thread, stopwatch, protractor, metre

    rule,

    6 Arrangement of

    the apparatus

    7 Procedures

    The period of the oscillation depends on the length of the

    pendulum.When the length of the pendulum increases, the period of theoscillation increases.

    Investigate the relationship between length and period of asimple pendulum.

    Manipulated variable : the length of the pendulum.Responding variable : PeriodFixed variable : the mass of the pendulum and thedisplacement.

    l

    1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure above.2. Measure the length of the pendulum,l = 60.0 cm by using a meter

    rule.3. Give the pendulum bob a small displacement 300.Time of

    10 oscillations is measured by using a stop watch.4. Repeat the timing for another 10 oscillations. Calculate the

    average time.

    Period = t10 oscillations10

    5. Repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 using l = 50.0 cm, 40.0 cm, 30.0 cmand 20.0 cm

    Retort standrotractor

    l

    bob

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    Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

    15

    8 Tabulate the

    data

    9

    10

    11

    12

    Analyse the

    data

    Discussion

    Conclusion

    Precautionsstep

    T / s

    1.4

    1.2

    1.0

    0.8

    0.6

    0.4

    0.2

    Graf of period, T vs

    pendulums length, l

    11..558811..550011..331111..119900..9999

    1155..881155..001133..111111..9999..99

    1155..771155..001133..111111..9999..99

    1155..881155..001133..111111..9999..99

    6600..005500..004400..003300..002200..00

    PPeerriioodd// ss((TT ==tt1100//1100))AAvveerraaggee2211

    LLeennggtthh,,ll//

    ccmm

    Time for 10 oscillations / s

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60 l / cm

    Precautions :1. Oscillation time is measured when the pendulum attained a

    steady state.2. Time for 10 oscillations is repeated twice to increase accuracy.3. Discussion (refer to given questions)

    The period increases when the length of the pendulum increases.Hypothesis accepted.

    1. avoid from strong wing blowing2. use small amplitude3. time taken at the equilibrium position

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    Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

    16

    Reinforcement Chapter 1

    Part A :Objective Question

    1. Which of the following is a base SI

    quantity?

    A Weight B Energy

    C Velocity D Mass

    2. Which of the following is a derived

    quantity?A Length B Mass

    C Temperature D Voltage

    3. Which of the following is not a basicunit?

    A Newton B kilogram

    C ampere D second

    4. Which of the following quantitiescannot be derived?

    A Electric current B PowerC Momentum D Force

    5. Which of the following quantities is

    not derived from the basic physical

    quantity of length?

    A Electric charge B Density

    C Velocity D Volume

    6. Initial velocity u, final velocity v,time tand another physical quantity kis related by the equation v - u = kt.The unit forkisA m s

    -1B m

    -1s

    C m s-2

    D m2 s-2

    7. Which of the following has thesmallest magnitude?

    A megametre B centimetreC kilometre D mikrometre

    8. 4 328 000 000 mm in standard form is

    A 4.328 x 10-9 m B 4.328 x 10-6 mC 4.328 x 106m D 4.328 x 10

    9m

    9. Which of the following measurements

    is the longest?

    A 1.2 x 10-5

    cm B 120 x 10-4

    dm

    C 0.12 mm D 1.2 x 10-11 km

    10. The diameter of a particle is 250 m.What is its diameter in cm?

    A 2.5 x 10-2

    B 2.5 x 10-4

    C 2.5 x 10-6 D 2.5 x 10-8

    11. Which of the following prefixes is

    arranged in ascending order?A mili, senti, mikro, desi

    B mikro, mili, senti, desiC mili, mikro, desi, senti

    D desi, mikro, mili, senti

    12. Velocity, density, force and energy are

    A basic quantities

    B scalar quantities

    C derived quantities

    D vector quantities

    13. Which of the following shows thecorrect conversion of units?

    A 24 mm3

    =2.4 x 10-6

    m3

    B 300 mm3=3.0 x 10-7m3

    C 800 mm3=8.0 x 10

    -2m

    3

    D 1 000 mm3=1.0 x 10

    -4m

    3

    14. Which of the following measurements

    is the shortest ?A 3.45 x 10

    3m

    B 3.45 x 104 cmC 3.45 x 10

    7mm

    D 3.45 x 1012

    m

    15. The Hitz FM channel broadcasts radio

    waves at a frequency of 92.8 MHz inthe north region. What is the frequency

    of the radio wave in Hz?A 9.28 x 10

    4B 9.28 x 10

    5

    C 9.28 x 107 D 9.28 x 10

    10

    16. An object moves along a straight line

    for time, t. The length of the line, s is

    given by the equation 2

    2

    1gts . The

    SI unit of g is

    A m2 s2 B m s-2

    C s-1

    D s-2

    m

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    Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

    17

    Part B : Structure Question

    1. A car moves with an average speed of 75 km h-1

    from town P to town Q in 2 hours as

    shown in Figure 1. By using this information, you may calculate the distance between the

    two towns.

    P Q

    Figure 1

    (a) (i) Based on the statements given, state two basic quantities and their respective

    SI units.

    (ii) State a derived quantity and its SI unit.

    (b) Convert the value 1 . m to standard form.

    5 x 10-3

    (c) Complete Table 1 by writing the value of each given prefix.

    Table 1

    (d)Power is defined as the rate of change of work done. Derive the unit for power interms of its basic units.

    (e)Calculate the volume of a wooden block with dimension of 7 cm, 5 cm breadth and 12cm height in m

    3and convert its value in standard form.

    Distance : m and time : s

    Speed m s-1

    = 0.2 x 10 m= 2.0 x 10

    2m

    10-9

    10-6

    106

    109

    Power =time

    work=

    time

    ntdisplacemeForceUnit =

    s

    mkgms 2= kg m

    2s

    -3

    Volume = (7 x 10-2

    ) (5 x 10-2

    ) (12 x 10-2

    )= 420 x 10

    -6

    = 4.20 x 10-4

    m3

  • 8/22/2019 Assalamualaikum dan salam sejahtera kepada anda semua, selamat pagi dan selamat petang. Akhirsekali selam

    18/18

    Physics Module Form 4Teachers Guide Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________

    18

    2. Figure 2 shows an ammeter of 03 A range.

    Figure 2

    (a)(i) Name component X. ...

    (ii) What is the function of X? .

    (b)Table 2 shows three current readings obtained by three students.

    Table 2

    (i) Did all the students use the ammeter in Figure2? ...(ii) Explain your answer in (b)(i).

    3. Figure 3 shows the meniscus of water in a measuring cylinder K, L, and M are three eye

    positions while measuring the volume of the water.

    (a) (i) Which of the eye positions is correct while

    taking the reading of the volume of water?

    .

    Figure 3

    (b) The water in the measuring cylinder is

    replaced with 30 cm3of mercury.

    (i) In Figure 4, draw the meniscus of the

    mercury in the measuring cylinder. Figure 4

    (ii) Explain why the shape of the meniscus of mercury is as drawn in (b)(i).

    No

    3rdreadings obtained by student 2 and 3 are out of the meter range.

    L

    The cohesive force is larger than the adhesive force

    Mirror

    To avoid parallax error