asasfotografi 110717193415-phpapp02

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  • 1. FotografiFotografi

2. Sejarah perkembangan fotografi Bahagian asas dan fungsi kamera Jenis-jenis dan aksesori kamera Jenis-jenis filem Teknik penggambaran Komposisi Fotografi digital 3. Jenis-jenis kamera Point and shoot SLR and DSLR 4. Twin lens reflex Twin lens reflex camera Twin Lens cameras have two look-alike lenses, hence the name "twin lens." The scene before the camera is actually photographed through the bottom lens while viewed through the top lens. As the picture is focused through the top lens, the bottom lens is adjusted at the same time. 5. Single lens reflex The Single Lens Reflex (SLR) uses a series of mirrors so that one may view the scene to be photographed through the same lens that takes the picture. When the shutter release is depressed the lower mirror snaps up, the picture is taken, and the mirror returns to its original position. (Hence, a "reflex" action.) At the time the picture is taken, the viewfinder is blackened for a split second. 6. Instant camera cth: Polaroid 7. Disposable Camera 8. Media yang sensitif kpd cahaya (Light-sensitive medium) digital sensor filem Semakin banyak cahaya yang jatuh pada media ini, semakain cerah gambar tersebut 9. Kamera Lensa /kanta besarkan dan fokuskan imej pada media sensitif cahaya melalui satu pembukaan (aperture) Shutter Buka dan tutup bila shutter release dilepaskan, benarkan cahaya masuk Media yang sensitif kpd cahaya(light- sensitive device) (filem atau digital sensor) Viewfinder tempat kita lihat melalui kamera untuk pilih bahagian gambar yang diperlukan dan fokus 10. Lensa (kanta) Digunakan untuk membentuk imej yang jelas di atas fillem/digital sensor Diukur dalam unit mm yang menentukan focal length (jarak fokus) Focal length yang berlainan membentuk saiz imej yang berlainan 11. Jenis Lensa (kanta) sesuatu lensa diukur dalam bentuk mm yang dikenali sebagai focal length 3 jenis utama: Normal/ Standard/biasa Wide angle (bidang luas) Telephoto/ Foto Jauh 12. Jenis lensa Normal/ standard lens (paparkan secara tepat apa yang boleh dilihat oleh mata manusia) cth 50mm Telephoto Wide angle (paparkan kawasan yang lebih luas) kurang daripada standard focal length, cth 24 & 35mm 13. Jenis Lensa Lain Prime lens (mempunyai focal length yang tetap, cth 35mm, 100mm) Macro Fisheye (uses an angle of view up to 180 degrees. The angle distorts the photograph so the four sides appear to be farther away) Teleconverter (A teleconverter attaches between the camera and another lens. It increases the focal length of your lens) 14. Telephoto Lens membawa objek jauh ke jarak yang dekat 70-300mm 85-120mm 135-200mm 300-600mm 15. Zoom Lens Mempunyai gabungan beberapa jenis kanta pada satu unit 28mm-50mm (sudut luas ke normal) 50mm-100mm (normal ke sederhana) 70-200mm (normal ke jauh) 135-300mm (sederhana ke jauh) 16. Focal length dan komposisi gambar 17. Macro 18. Macro 19. Fish Eye 20. Fish Eye 21. Shutter speed (kelajuan pengatup) ISO (100, 200, 400 dua kali ganda) Aperture (saiz bukaan lensa) Kawalan cahaya 22. Exposure 'exposure' jumlah cahaya yang masuk pada media, filem atau digital sensor 23. UnderexposedUnderexposed 24. OverexposedOverexposed 25. If we get it just right, the image willIf we get it just right, the image will look similar to what our eyes seelook similar to what our eyes see 26. Shutter SpeedShutter Speed Tempoh pembukaan pengatup Unit ukuran = saat / pecahan/fraction (cth: 1/1000, 1/30). 27. Slow shutter speed - motion 28. Shutter speed 29. High shutter speed, freeze the action of this surfer 30. The shutter speeds are 1/30th of a second, 1/60th of a second, 1/125th of a second, 1/250th of a second, etc. Moving from one speed to the next one halves the amount of light that can enter the camera. On the other hand, moving the other way, to a slower shutter speed, doubles the amount of light that can get into the camera. The change from one speed to another (and halving or doubling the light that enters the camera) is called moving a stop. 31. Shutter speed tidak boleh kurang daripada focal length. Cth: jika guna lensa 200mm, shutter speed sekurang-kurangnya 1/200 sec Petua untuk penggunaan shutter speed 32. Depth of Field (kawasan jelas) Kawasan yang jelas dalam Ditentukan oleh aperture dan jarak fokus 33. Depth Of Field 34. The following depth of field test was taken with the same focus distance and a 200 mm lens (320 mm field of view on a 35 mm camera), but with various apertures: f/8.0 f/5.6 f/2.8 35. Aperture vs DOF Kawasan mana yang jelas? Jenis aperture apa yang boleh digunakan untuk menghasilkan gambar ini? 36. Aperture vs DOF Aperture? 37. ISO vs Noise/Grain 38. ISO vs Noise 39. White Balance Proses mengeluarkan warna yang tidak dikehendaki supaya objek yang berwarna putih akan ditunjukkan sebagai warna putih dalam gambar Berkaitan dengan color temperature satu cara untuk menyukat kualiti punca cahaya (It is based on the ratio of the amount of blue light to the amount of red light, ignoring green light) . 40. White balance Reddish/Yellowish image Correct white balance 41. White Balance Gambar mana mempunyai white balance yang betul? 42. Incorrect white balance Correct white balance 43. Optical zoom vs digital zoom Optical zoom gunakan lensa pada kamera untuk membawa sabjek jauh kepada jarak dekat Digital zoom crop bahagian gambar berkenaan dan membesarkan bahagian yang dicrop sahaja kualiti terjejas 44. Komposisi Gambar 45. Rule of ThirdRule of Third The rule of thirds simply says that, instead of placing the main focus of interest in the centre of the frame, which gets a little boring, that you look to position it on an intersection of the thirds. That is to say one third up and one third in or two thirds up and one third in etc Placing the boat near the top of the picture tells the viewer that what they are supposed to be looking at is the reflection 46. Rule of third 47. Repetition of Form 48. Leading Lines railroad tracks bring your eye from the railroad worker to the train wreck behind him: 49. Framing the child is framed between the lines of the abacus 50. Layering the child drawing on the ground is the foreground element, but the children behind him add an additional layer. It shows that he is participating in an activity with others and isnt just by himself. 51. Bright Spots the subject in very bright light wearing colorful clothes while the rest of the image is very dark. 52. Negative Space the sky acts as the negative space and balances the buildings in the frame. 53. Selective Focus selectively focusing on the girl to draw attention to her and separate her from the environment. 54. Camera Height or Angle Shot from high angle 55. Lensing 56. Symmetry 57. Memberi fokus kepada objek melalui pemilihan DOF yang sesuai 58. Panning 59. Tilt Up 60. Tilt down 61. Tilt Down 62. Kad Memori 63. Aksesori kamera 64. Camera Accesories 65. Extension tube 66. Perisian berkaitan dengan fotografi Adobe photoshop Microsoft Photo editor Microsoft Paint 67. Apakah peranan gambar foto dalam P-P?